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10<head>
11<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
12<title>dnssec-keygen</title>
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60e5e10f 14</head>
fd2597f7 15<body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="refentry">
5a4557e8 16<a name="man.dnssec-keygen"></a><div class="titlepage"></div>
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17
18
19
20
21
22 <div class="refnamediv">
60e5e10f 23<h2>Name</h2>
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24<p>
25 <span class="application">dnssec-keygen</span>
26 &#8212; DNSSEC key generation tool
27 </p>
60e5e10f 28</div>
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29
30
31
32 <div class="refsynopsisdiv">
60e5e10f 33<h2>Synopsis</h2>
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34 <div class="cmdsynopsis"><p>
35 <code class="command">dnssec-keygen</code>
36 [<code class="option">-a <em class="replaceable"><code>algorithm</code></em></code>]
37 [<code class="option">-b <em class="replaceable"><code>keysize</code></em></code>]
38 [<code class="option">-n <em class="replaceable"><code>nametype</code></em></code>]
39 [<code class="option">-3</code>]
40 [<code class="option">-A <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></code>]
41 [<code class="option">-C</code>]
42 [<code class="option">-c <em class="replaceable"><code>class</code></em></code>]
43 [<code class="option">-D <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></code>]
44 [<code class="option">-D sync <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></code>]
45 [<code class="option">-E <em class="replaceable"><code>engine</code></em></code>]
46 [<code class="option">-f <em class="replaceable"><code>flag</code></em></code>]
47 [<code class="option">-G</code>]
48 [<code class="option">-g <em class="replaceable"><code>generator</code></em></code>]
49 [<code class="option">-h</code>]
50 [<code class="option">-I <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></code>]
51 [<code class="option">-i <em class="replaceable"><code>interval</code></em></code>]
52 [<code class="option">-K <em class="replaceable"><code>directory</code></em></code>]
53 [<code class="option">-k</code>]
54 [<code class="option">-L <em class="replaceable"><code>ttl</code></em></code>]
55 [<code class="option">-P <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></code>]
56 [<code class="option">-P sync <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></code>]
57 [<code class="option">-p <em class="replaceable"><code>protocol</code></em></code>]
58 [<code class="option">-q</code>]
59 [<code class="option">-R <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></code>]
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60 [<code class="option">-S <em class="replaceable"><code>key</code></em></code>]
61 [<code class="option">-s <em class="replaceable"><code>strength</code></em></code>]
62 [<code class="option">-t <em class="replaceable"><code>type</code></em></code>]
63 [<code class="option">-V</code>]
64 [<code class="option">-v <em class="replaceable"><code>level</code></em></code>]
65 [<code class="option">-z</code>]
66 {name}
67 </p></div>
68 </div>
69
70 <div class="refsection">
fd2597f7 71<a name="id-1.7"></a><h2>DESCRIPTION</h2>
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72
73 <p><span class="command"><strong>dnssec-keygen</strong></span>
60e5e10f 74 generates keys for DNSSEC (Secure DNS), as defined in RFC 2535
d71e2e0c 75 and RFC 4034. It can also generate keys for use with
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76 TSIG (Transaction Signatures) as defined in RFC 2845, or TKEY
77 (Transaction Key) as defined in RFC 2930.
60e5e10f 78 </p>
16fde7f0 79 <p>
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80 The <code class="option">name</code> of the key is specified on the command
81 line. For DNSSEC keys, this must match the name of the zone for
82 which the key is being generated.
83 </p>
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84 <p>
85 The <span class="command"><strong>dnssec-keymgr</strong></span> command acts as a wrapper
86 around <span class="command"><strong>dnssec-keygen</strong></span>, generating and updating keys
87 as needed to enforce defined security policies such as key rollover
88 scheduling. Using <span class="command"><strong>dnssec-keymgr</strong></span> may be preferable
89 to direct use of <span class="command"><strong>dnssec-keygen</strong></span>.
90 </p>
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91 </div>
92
93 <div class="refsection">
fd2597f7 94<a name="id-1.8"></a><h2>OPTIONS</h2>
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95
96
97 <div class="variablelist"><dl class="variablelist">
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98<dt><span class="term">-a <em class="replaceable"><code>algorithm</code></em></span></dt>
99<dd>
16fde7f0 100 <p>
e62b9c9c 101 Selects the cryptographic algorithm. For DNSSEC keys, the value
b4d3f782 102 of <code class="option">algorithm</code> must be one of RSASHA1,
db1cd0d9 103 NSEC3RSASHA1, RSASHA256, RSASHA512,
e640ea93 104 ECDSAP256SHA256, ECDSAP384SHA384, ED25519 or ED448. For
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105 TKEY, the value must be DH (Diffie Hellman); specifying
106 his value will automatically set the <code class="option">-T KEY</code>
107 option as well.
a53e0320 108 </p>
16fde7f0 109 <p>
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110 These values are case insensitive. In some cases, abbreviations
111 are supported, such as ECDSA256 for ECDSAP256SHA256 and
db1cd0d9 112 ECDSA384 for ECDSAP384SHA384. If RSASHA1 is specified
e640ea93 113 along with the <code class="option">-3</code> option, then NSEC3RSASHA1
db1cd0d9 114 will be used instead.
e62b9c9c 115 </p>
16fde7f0 116 <p>
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117 This parameter <span class="emphasis"><em>must</em></span> be specified except
118 when using the <code class="option">-S</code> option, which copies the
119 algorithm from the predecessor key.
120 </p>
121 <p>
122 In prior releases, HMAC algorithms could be generated for
123 use as TSIG keys, but that feature has been removed as of
124 BIND 9.13.0. Use <span class="command"><strong>tsig-keygen</strong></span> to generate
125 TSIG keys.
e62b9c9c 126 </p>
16fde7f0 127 </dd>
60e5e10f 128<dt><span class="term">-b <em class="replaceable"><code>keysize</code></em></span></dt>
b272d38c 129<dd>
16fde7f0 130 <p>
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131 Specifies the number of bits in the key. The choice of key
132 size depends on the algorithm used. RSA keys must be
f5fa6553 133 between 1024 and 2048 bits. Diffie Hellman keys must be between
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134 128 and 4096 bits. DSA keys must be between 512 and 1024
135 bits and an exact multiple of 64. HMAC keys must be
136 between 1 and 512 bits. Elliptic curve algorithms don't need
137 this parameter.
138 </p>
16fde7f0 139 <p>
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140 If the key size is not specified, some algorithms have
141 pre-defined defaults. For example, RSA keys for use as
142 DNSSEC zone signing keys have a default size of 1024 bits;
143 RSA keys for use as key signing keys (KSKs, generated with
144 <code class="option">-f KSK</code>) default to 2048 bits.
e62b9c9c 145 </p>
16fde7f0 146 </dd>
60e5e10f 147<dt><span class="term">-n <em class="replaceable"><code>nametype</code></em></span></dt>
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148<dd>
149 <p>
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150 Specifies the owner type of the key. The value of
151 <code class="option">nametype</code> must either be ZONE (for a DNSSEC
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152 zone key (KEY/DNSKEY)), HOST or ENTITY (for a key associated
153 with a host (KEY)), USER (for a key associated with a
154 user(KEY)) or OTHER (DNSKEY). These values are case
155 insensitive. Defaults to ZONE for DNSKEY generation.
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156 </p>
157 </dd>
0a7ed886 158<dt><span class="term">-3</span></dt>
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159<dd>
160 <p>
0a7ed886 161 Use an NSEC3-capable algorithm to generate a DNSSEC key.
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162 If this option is used with an algorithm that has both
163 NSEC and NSEC3 versions, then the NSEC3 version will be
164 used; for example, <span class="command"><strong>dnssec-keygen -3a RSASHA1</strong></span>
165 specifies the NSEC3RSASHA1 algorithm.
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166 </p>
167 </dd>
0a7ed886 168<dt><span class="term">-C</span></dt>
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169<dd>
170 <p>
0a7ed886 171 Compatibility mode: generates an old-style key, without
2eeb74d1 172 any metadata. By default, <span class="command"><strong>dnssec-keygen</strong></span>
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173 will include the key's creation date in the metadata stored
174 with the private key, and other dates may be set there as well
175 (publication date, activation date, etc). Keys that include
176 this data may be incompatible with older versions of BIND; the
177 <code class="option">-C</code> option suppresses them.
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178 </p>
179 </dd>
60e5e10f 180<dt><span class="term">-c <em class="replaceable"><code>class</code></em></span></dt>
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181<dd>
182 <p>
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183 Indicates that the DNS record containing the key should have
184 the specified class. If not specified, class IN is used.
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185 </p>
186 </dd>
8ec3c085 187<dt><span class="term">-E <em class="replaceable"><code>engine</code></em></span></dt>
6ea23853 188<dd>
16fde7f0 189 <p>
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190 Specifies the cryptographic hardware to use, when applicable.
191 </p>
16fde7f0 192 <p>
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193 When BIND is built with OpenSSL PKCS#11 support, this defaults
194 to the string "pkcs11", which identifies an OpenSSL engine
195 that can drive a cryptographic accelerator or hardware service
196 module. When BIND is built with native PKCS#11 cryptography
197 (--enable-native-pkcs11), it defaults to the path of the PKCS#11
198 provider library specified via "--with-pkcs11".
199 </p>
16fde7f0 200 </dd>
60e5e10f 201<dt><span class="term">-f <em class="replaceable"><code>flag</code></em></span></dt>
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202<dd>
203 <p>
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204 Set the specified flag in the flag field of the KEY/DNSKEY record.
205 The only recognized flags are KSK (Key Signing Key) and REVOKE.
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206 </p>
207 </dd>
f8e3e03c 208<dt><span class="term">-G</span></dt>
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209<dd>
210 <p>
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211 Generate a key, but do not publish it or sign with it. This
212 option is incompatible with -P and -A.
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213 </p>
214 </dd>
60e5e10f 215<dt><span class="term">-g <em class="replaceable"><code>generator</code></em></span></dt>
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216<dd>
217 <p>
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218 If generating a Diffie Hellman key, use this generator.
219 Allowed values are 2 and 5. If no generator
220 is specified, a known prime from RFC 2539 will be used
221 if possible; otherwise the default is 2.
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222 </p>
223 </dd>
60e5e10f 224<dt><span class="term">-h</span></dt>
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225<dd>
226 <p>
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227 Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
228 <span class="command"><strong>dnssec-keygen</strong></span>.
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229 </p>
230 </dd>
0a7ed886 231<dt><span class="term">-K <em class="replaceable"><code>directory</code></em></span></dt>
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232<dd>
233 <p>
e62b9c9c 234 Sets the directory in which the key files are to be written.
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235 </p>
236 </dd>
60e5e10f 237<dt><span class="term">-k</span></dt>
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238<dd>
239 <p>
e62b9c9c 240 Deprecated in favor of -T KEY.
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241 </p>
242 </dd>
a3f8c8e2 243<dt><span class="term">-L <em class="replaceable"><code>ttl</code></em></span></dt>
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244<dd>
245 <p>
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246 Sets the default TTL to use for this key when it is converted
247 into a DNSKEY RR. If the key is imported into a zone,
248 this is the TTL that will be used for it, unless there was
249 already a DNSKEY RRset in place, in which case the existing TTL
250 would take precedence. If this value is not set and there
251 is no existing DNSKEY RRset, the TTL will default to the
252 SOA TTL. Setting the default TTL to <code class="literal">0</code>
253 or <code class="literal">none</code> is the same as leaving it unset.
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254 </p>
255 </dd>
60e5e10f 256<dt><span class="term">-p <em class="replaceable"><code>protocol</code></em></span></dt>
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257<dd>
258 <p>
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259 Sets the protocol value for the generated key. The protocol
260 is a number between 0 and 255. The default is 3 (DNSSEC).
261 Other possible values for this argument are listed in
262 RFC 2535 and its successors.
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263 </p>
264 </dd>
575e15fe 265<dt><span class="term">-q</span></dt>
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266<dd>
267 <p>
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268 Quiet mode: Suppresses unnecessary output, including
269 progress indication. Without this option, when
270 <span class="command"><strong>dnssec-keygen</strong></span> is run interactively
271 to generate an RSA or DSA key pair, it will print a string
272 of symbols to <code class="filename">stderr</code> indicating the
273 progress of the key generation. A '.' indicates that a
274 random number has been found which passed an initial
275 sieve test; '+' means a number has passed a single
276 round of the Miller-Rabin primality test; a space
277 means that the number has passed all the tests and is
278 a satisfactory key.
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279 </p>
280 </dd>
3acf5eb9 281<dt><span class="term">-S <em class="replaceable"><code>key</code></em></span></dt>
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282<dd>
283 <p>
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284 Create a new key which is an explicit successor to an
285 existing key. The name, algorithm, size, and type of the
286 key will be set to match the existing key. The activation
287 date of the new key will be set to the inactivation date of
288 the existing one. The publication date will be set to the
289 activation date minus the prepublication interval, which
290 defaults to 30 days.
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291 </p>
292 </dd>
60e5e10f 293<dt><span class="term">-s <em class="replaceable"><code>strength</code></em></span></dt>
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294<dd>
295 <p>
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296 Specifies the strength value of the key. The strength is
297 a number between 0 and 15, and currently has no defined
298 purpose in DNSSEC.
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299 </p>
300 </dd>
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301<dt><span class="term">-T <em class="replaceable"><code>rrtype</code></em></span></dt>
302<dd>
16fde7f0 303 <p>
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304 Specifies the resource record type to use for the key.
305 <code class="option">rrtype</code> must be either DNSKEY or KEY. The
306 default is DNSKEY when using a DNSSEC algorithm, but it can be
307 overridden to KEY for use with SIG(0).
308 </p>
0a7ed886 309<p>
e62b9c9c 310 </p>
0a7ed886 311<p>
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312 Specifying any TSIG algorithm (HMAC-* or DH) with
313 <code class="option">-a</code> forces this option to KEY.
e62b9c9c 314 </p>
16fde7f0 315 </dd>
60e5e10f 316<dt><span class="term">-t <em class="replaceable"><code>type</code></em></span></dt>
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317<dd>
318 <p>
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319 Indicates the use of the key. <code class="option">type</code> must be
320 one of AUTHCONF, NOAUTHCONF, NOAUTH, or NOCONF. The default
321 is AUTHCONF. AUTH refers to the ability to authenticate
322 data, and CONF the ability to encrypt data.
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323 </p>
324 </dd>
60e5e10f 325<dt><span class="term">-v <em class="replaceable"><code>level</code></em></span></dt>
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326<dd>
327 <p>
e62b9c9c 328 Sets the debugging level.
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329 </p>
330 </dd>
6f120589 331<dt><span class="term">-V</span></dt>
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332<dd>
333 <p>
6f120589 334 Prints version information.
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335 </p>
336 </dd>
60e5e10f 337</dl></div>
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338 </div>
339
340 <div class="refsection">
fd2597f7 341<a name="id-1.9"></a><h2>TIMING OPTIONS</h2>
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342
343
344 <p>
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345 Dates can be expressed in the format YYYYMMDD or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.
346 If the argument begins with a '+' or '-', it is interpreted as
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347 an offset from the present time. For convenience, if such an offset
348 is followed by one of the suffixes 'y', 'mo', 'w', 'd', 'h', or 'mi',
349 then the offset is computed in years (defined as 365 24-hour days,
350 ignoring leap years), months (defined as 30 24-hour days), weeks,
351 days, hours, or minutes, respectively. Without a suffix, the offset
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352 is computed in seconds. To explicitly prevent a date from being
353 set, use 'none' or 'never'.
0a7ed886 354 </p>
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355
356 <div class="variablelist"><dl class="variablelist">
0a7ed886 357<dt><span class="term">-P <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></span></dt>
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358<dd>
359 <p>
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360 Sets the date on which a key is to be published to the zone.
361 After that date, the key will be included in the zone but will
362 not be used to sign it. If not set, and if the -G option has
363 not been used, the default is "now".
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364 </p>
365 </dd>
e62b9c9c 366<dt><span class="term">-P sync <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></span></dt>
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367<dd>
368 <p>
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369 Sets the date on which CDS and CDNSKEY records that match this
370 key are to be published to the zone.
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371 </p>
372 </dd>
0a7ed886 373<dt><span class="term">-A <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></span></dt>
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374<dd>
375 <p>
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376 Sets the date on which the key is to be activated. After that
377 date, the key will be included in the zone and used to sign
378 it. If not set, and if the -G option has not been used, the
379 default is "now". If set, if and -P is not set, then
380 the publication date will be set to the activation date
381 minus the prepublication interval.
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382 </p>
383 </dd>
0a7ed886 384<dt><span class="term">-R <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></span></dt>
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385<dd>
386 <p>
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387 Sets the date on which the key is to be revoked. After that
388 date, the key will be flagged as revoked. It will be included
389 in the zone and will be used to sign it.
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390 </p>
391 </dd>
f8e3e03c 392<dt><span class="term">-I <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></span></dt>
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393<dd>
394 <p>
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395 Sets the date on which the key is to be retired. After that
396 date, the key will still be included in the zone, but it
397 will not be used to sign it.
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398 </p>
399 </dd>
0a7ed886 400<dt><span class="term">-D <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></span></dt>
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401<dd>
402 <p>
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403 Sets the date on which the key is to be deleted. After that
404 date, the key will no longer be included in the zone. (It
405 may remain in the key repository, however.)
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406 </p>
407 </dd>
e62b9c9c 408<dt><span class="term">-D sync <em class="replaceable"><code>date/offset</code></em></span></dt>
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409<dd>
410 <p>
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411 Sets the date on which the CDS and CDNSKEY records that match this
412 key are to be deleted.
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413 </p>
414 </dd>
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415<dt><span class="term">-i <em class="replaceable"><code>interval</code></em></span></dt>
416<dd>
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417 <p>
418 Sets the prepublication interval for a key. If set, then
419 the publication and activation dates must be separated by at least
420 this much time. If the activation date is specified but the
421 publication date isn't, then the publication date will default
422 to this much time before the activation date; conversely, if
423 the publication date is specified but activation date isn't,
424 then activation will be set to this much time after publication.
425 </p>
426 <p>
427 If the key is being created as an explicit successor to another
428 key, then the default prepublication interval is 30 days;
429 otherwise it is zero.
430 </p>
431 <p>
432 As with date offsets, if the argument is followed by one of
433 the suffixes 'y', 'mo', 'w', 'd', 'h', or 'mi', then the
434 interval is measured in years, months, weeks, days, hours,
435 or minutes, respectively. Without a suffix, the interval is
436 measured in seconds.
437 </p>
438 </dd>
0a7ed886 439</dl></div>
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440 </div>
441
442
443 <div class="refsection">
fd2597f7 444<a name="id-1.10"></a><h2>GENERATED KEYS</h2>
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445
446 <p>
2eeb74d1 447 When <span class="command"><strong>dnssec-keygen</strong></span> completes
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448 successfully,
449 it prints a string of the form <code class="filename">Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii</code>
450 to the standard output. This is an identification string for
90153b65 451 the key it has generated.
60e5e10f 452 </p>
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453 <div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" style="list-style-type: disc; ">
454<li class="listitem">
455 <p><code class="filename">nnnn</code> is the key name.
456 </p>
457 </li>
458<li class="listitem">
459 <p><code class="filename">aaa</code> is the numeric representation
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460 of the
461 algorithm.
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462 </p>
463 </li>
464<li class="listitem">
465 <p><code class="filename">iiiii</code> is the key identifier (or
e62b9c9c 466 footprint).
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467 </p>
468 </li>
60e5e10f 469</ul></div>
16fde7f0 470 <p><span class="command"><strong>dnssec-keygen</strong></span>
d71e2e0c 471 creates two files, with names based
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472 on the printed string. <code class="filename">Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.key</code>
473 contains the public key, and
474 <code class="filename">Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.private</code> contains the
475 private
476 key.
477 </p>
16fde7f0 478 <p>
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479 The <code class="filename">.key</code> file contains a DNS KEY record
480 that
481 can be inserted into a zone file (directly or with a $INCLUDE
482 statement).
483 </p>
16fde7f0 484 <p>
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485 The <code class="filename">.private</code> file contains
486 algorithm-specific
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487 fields. For obvious security reasons, this file does not have
488 general read permission.
489 </p>
16fde7f0 490 <p>
60e5e10f 491 Both <code class="filename">.key</code> and <code class="filename">.private</code>
e76f1137 492 files are generated for symmetric cryptography algorithms such as
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493 HMAC-MD5, even though the public and private key are equivalent.
494 </p>
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495 </div>
496
497 <div class="refsection">
fd2597f7 498<a name="id-1.11"></a><h2>EXAMPLE</h2>
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499
500 <p>
5bd85525 501 To generate an ECDSAP256SHA256 key for the domain
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502 <strong class="userinput"><code>example.com</code></strong>, the following command would be
503 issued:
504 </p>
5bd85525 505 <p><strong class="userinput"><code>dnssec-keygen -a ECDSAP256SHA256 -n ZONE example.com</code></strong>
60e5e10f 506 </p>
16fde7f0 507 <p>
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508 The command would print a string of the form:
509 </p>
5bd85525 510 <p><strong class="userinput"><code>Kexample.com.+013+26160</code></strong>
60e5e10f 511 </p>
16fde7f0 512 <p>
2eeb74d1 513 In this example, <span class="command"><strong>dnssec-keygen</strong></span> creates
5bd85525 514 the files <code class="filename">Kexample.com.+013+26160.key</code>
60e5e10f 515 and
5bd85525 516 <code class="filename">Kexample.com.+013+26160.private</code>.
60e5e10f 517 </p>
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518 </div>
519
520 <div class="refsection">
fd2597f7 521<a name="id-1.12"></a><h2>SEE ALSO</h2>
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522
523 <p><span class="citerefentry">
524 <span class="refentrytitle">dnssec-signzone</span>(8)
525 </span>,
60e5e10f 526 <em class="citetitle">BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual</em>,
c6c78f69 527 <em class="citetitle">RFC 2539</em>,
60e5e10f 528 <em class="citetitle">RFC 2845</em>,
8e821eea 529 <em class="citetitle">RFC 4034</em>.
60e5e10f 530 </p>
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531 </div>
532
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533</div></body>
534</html>