Update repub branch u/fanf2/patch to rebasing branch u/fanf2/rebasing revision v9_15_...
[ipreg/bind9.git] / bin / dnssec / dnssec-keygen.8
CommitLineData
b4d3f782 1.\" Copyright (C) 2000-2005, 2007-2012, 2014-2019 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
60e5e10f 2.\"
6807a2dc
TU
3.\" This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public
4.\" License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this
5.\" file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/.
83217b5f 6.\"
60e5e10f
RA
7.hy 0
8.ad l
2eeb74d1
TU
9'\" t
10.\" Title: dnssec-keygen
ca67ebfe 11.\" Author:
fd2597f7 12.\" Generator: DocBook XSL Stylesheets v1.78.1 <http://docbook.sf.net/>
e62b9c9c 13.\" Date: August 21, 2015
ca67ebfe 14.\" Manual: BIND9
2eeb74d1
TU
15.\" Source: ISC
16.\" Language: English
ca67ebfe 17.\"
e62b9c9c 18.TH "DNSSEC\-KEYGEN" "8" "August 21, 2015" "ISC" "BIND9"
2eeb74d1
TU
19.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
20.\" * Define some portability stuff
21.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
22.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
23.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
24.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
25.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
26.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
27.el .ds Aq '
28.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
29.\" * set default formatting
30.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
ca67ebfe
AU
31.\" disable hyphenation
32.nh
33.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
34.ad l
2eeb74d1
TU
35.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
36.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
37.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
ca67ebfe 38.SH "NAME"
2eeb74d1 39dnssec-keygen \- DNSSEC key generation tool
60e5e10f 40.SH "SYNOPSIS"
fd2597f7 41.HP \w'\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR\ 'u
25e416fb 42\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR [\fB\-3\fR] [\fB\-A\ \fR\fB\fIdate/offset\fR\fR] [\fB\-a\ \fR\fB\fIalgorithm\fR\fR] [\fB\-b\ \fR\fB\fIkeysize\fR\fR] [\fB\-C\fR] [\fB\-c\ \fR\fB\fIclass\fR\fR] [\fB\-D\ \fR\fB\fIdate/offset\fR\fR] [\fB\-D\ sync\ \fR\fB\fIdate/offset\fR\fR] [\fB\-E\ \fR\fB\fIengine\fR\fR] [\fB\-f\ \fR\fB\fIflag\fR\fR] [\fB\-G\fR] [\fB\-g\ \fR\fB\fIgenerator\fR\fR] [\fB\-h\fR] [\fB\-I\ \fR\fB\fIdate/offset\fR\fR] [\fB\-i\ \fR\fB\fIinterval\fR\fR] [\fB\-K\ \fR\fB\fIdirectory\fR\fR] [\fB\-k\fR] [\fB\-L\ \fR\fB\fIttl\fR\fR] [\fB\-n\ \fR\fB\fInametype\fR\fR] [\fB\-P\ \fR\fB\fIdate/offset\fR\fR] [\fB\-P\ sync\ \fR\fB\fIdate/offset\fR\fR] [\fB\-p\ \fR\fB\fIprotocol\fR\fR] [\fB\-q\fR] [\fB\-R\ \fR\fB\fIdate/offset\fR\fR] [\fB\-S\ \fR\fB\fIkey\fR\fR] [\fB\-s\ \fR\fB\fIstrength\fR\fR] [\fB\-t\ \fR\fB\fItype\fR\fR] [\fB\-V\fR] [\fB\-v\ \fR\fB\fIlevel\fR\fR] {name}
0b062f49
BW
43.SH "DESCRIPTION"
44.PP
ca67ebfe 45\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR
2eeb74d1 46generates keys for DNSSEC (Secure DNS), as defined in RFC 2535 and RFC 4034\&. It can also generate keys for use with TSIG (Transaction Signatures) as defined in RFC 2845, or TKEY (Transaction Key) as defined in RFC 2930\&.
ad671240
AU
47.PP
48The
49\fBname\fR
2eeb74d1 50of the key is specified on the command line\&. For DNSSEC keys, this must match the name of the zone for which the key is being generated\&.
e640ea93
TU
51.PP
52The
53\fBdnssec\-keymgr\fR
54command acts as a wrapper around
55\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR, generating and updating keys as needed to enforce defined security policies such as key rollover scheduling\&. Using
56\fBdnssec\-keymgr\fR
57may be preferable to direct use of
58\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR\&.
0b062f49 59.SH "OPTIONS"
ca67ebfe 60.PP
25e416fb
TU
61\-3
62.RS 4
63Use an NSEC3\-capable algorithm to generate a DNSSEC key\&. If this option is used with an algorithm that has both NSEC and NSEC3 versions, then the NSEC3 version will be used; for example,
64\fBdnssec\-keygen \-3a RSASHA1\fR
65specifies the NSEC3RSASHA1 algorithm\&.
66.RE
67.PP
60e5e10f 68\-a \fIalgorithm\fR
ca67ebfe 69.RS 4
2eeb74d1 70Selects the cryptographic algorithm\&. For DNSSEC keys, the value of
ca67ebfe 71\fBalgorithm\fR
b4d3f782 72must be one of RSASHA1, NSEC3RSASHA1, RSASHA256, RSASHA512, ECDSAP256SHA256, ECDSAP384SHA384, ED25519 or ED448\&. For TKEY, the value must be DH (Diffie Hellman); specifying his value will automatically set the
e640ea93 73\fB\-T KEY\fR
a53e0320
TU
74option as well\&.
75.sp
db1cd0d9 76These values are case insensitive\&. In some cases, abbreviations are supported, such as ECDSA256 for ECDSAP256SHA256 and ECDSA384 for ECDSAP384SHA384\&. If RSASHA1 is specified along with the
0a7ed886 77\fB\-3\fR
db1cd0d9 78option, then NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used instead\&.
ca67ebfe 79.sp
630d1a9b
TU
80This parameter
81\fImust\fR
82be specified except when using the
e640ea93 83\fB\-S\fR
630d1a9b
TU
84option, which copies the algorithm from the predecessor key\&.
85.sp
86In prior releases, HMAC algorithms could be generated for use as TSIG keys, but that feature has been removed as of BIND 9\&.13\&.0\&. Use
87\fBtsig\-keygen\fR
88to generate TSIG keys\&.
ca67ebfe
AU
89.RE
90.PP
60e5e10f 91\-b \fIkeysize\fR
ca67ebfe 92.RS 4
25e416fb 93Specifies the number of bits in the key\&. The choice of key size depends on the algorithm used\&. RSA keys must be between 1024 and 4096 bits\&. Diffie Hellman keys must be between 128 and 4096 bits\&. Elliptic curve algorithms don\*(Aqt need this parameter\&.
ca67ebfe 94.sp
e640ea93
TU
95If the key size is not specified, some algorithms have pre\-defined defaults\&. For example, RSA keys for use as DNSSEC zone signing keys have a default size of 1024 bits; RSA keys for use as key signing keys (KSKs, generated with
96\fB\-f KSK\fR) default to 2048 bits\&.
ca67ebfe
AU
97.RE
98.PP
0a7ed886
AU
99\-C
100.RS 4
25e416fb 101Compatibility mode: generates an old\-style key, without any timing metadata\&. By default,
0a7ed886 102\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR
2eeb74d1 103will include the key\*(Aqs creation date in the metadata stored with the private key, and other dates may be set there as well (publication date, activation date, etc)\&. Keys that include this data may be incompatible with older versions of BIND; the
0a7ed886 104\fB\-C\fR
2eeb74d1 105option suppresses them\&.
0a7ed886
AU
106.RE
107.PP
60e5e10f 108\-c \fIclass\fR
ca67ebfe 109.RS 4
2eeb74d1 110Indicates that the DNS record containing the key should have the specified class\&. If not specified, class IN is used\&.
ca67ebfe
AU
111.RE
112.PP
8ec3c085
AU
113\-E \fIengine\fR
114.RS 4
2eeb74d1 115Specifies the cryptographic hardware to use, when applicable\&.
6ea23853 116.sp
2eeb74d1 117When BIND is built with OpenSSL PKCS#11 support, this defaults to the string "pkcs11", which identifies an OpenSSL engine that can drive a cryptographic accelerator or hardware service module\&. When BIND is built with native PKCS#11 cryptography (\-\-enable\-native\-pkcs11), it defaults to the path of the PKCS#11 provider library specified via "\-\-with\-pkcs11"\&.
8ec3c085
AU
118.RE
119.PP
60e5e10f 120\-f \fIflag\fR
ca67ebfe 121.RS 4
2eeb74d1 122Set the specified flag in the flag field of the KEY/DNSKEY record\&. The only recognized flags are KSK (Key Signing Key) and REVOKE\&.
ca67ebfe
AU
123.RE
124.PP
f8e3e03c
AU
125\-G
126.RS 4
2eeb74d1 127Generate a key, but do not publish it or sign with it\&. This option is incompatible with \-P and \-A\&.
f8e3e03c
AU
128.RE
129.PP
60e5e10f 130\-g \fIgenerator\fR
ca67ebfe 131.RS 4
2eeb74d1 132If generating a Diffie Hellman key, use this generator\&. Allowed values are 2 and 5\&. If no generator is specified, a known prime from RFC 2539 will be used if possible; otherwise the default is 2\&.
ca67ebfe
AU
133.RE
134.PP
60e5e10f 135\-h
ca67ebfe
AU
136.RS 4
137Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
2eeb74d1 138\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR\&.
ca67ebfe
AU
139.RE
140.PP
0a7ed886
AU
141\-K \fIdirectory\fR
142.RS 4
2eeb74d1 143Sets the directory in which the key files are to be written\&.
0a7ed886
AU
144.RE
145.PP
a3f8c8e2
AU
146\-L \fIttl\fR
147.RS 4
2eeb74d1 148Sets the default TTL to use for this key when it is converted into a DNSKEY RR\&. If the key is imported into a zone, this is the TTL that will be used for it, unless there was already a DNSKEY RRset in place, in which case the existing TTL would take precedence\&. If this value is not set and there is no existing DNSKEY RRset, the TTL will default to the SOA TTL\&. Setting the default TTL to
a3f8c8e2
AU
1490
150or
151none
2eeb74d1 152is the same as leaving it unset\&.
a3f8c8e2
AU
153.RE
154.PP
25e416fb
TU
155\-n \fInametype\fR
156.RS 4
157Specifies the owner type of the key\&. The value of
158\fBnametype\fR
159must either be ZONE (for a DNSSEC zone key (KEY/DNSKEY)), HOST or ENTITY (for a key associated with a host (KEY)), USER (for a key associated with a user(KEY)) or OTHER (DNSKEY)\&. These values are case insensitive\&. Defaults to ZONE for DNSKEY generation\&.
160.RE
161.PP
60e5e10f 162\-p \fIprotocol\fR
ca67ebfe 163.RS 4
25e416fb
TU
164Sets the protocol value for the generated key, for use with
165\fB\-T KEY\fR\&. The protocol is a number between 0 and 255\&. The default is 3 (DNSSEC)\&. Other possible values for this argument are listed in RFC 2535 and its successors\&.
ca67ebfe
AU
166.RE
167.PP
575e15fe
AU
168\-q
169.RS 4
2eeb74d1 170Quiet mode: Suppresses unnecessary output, including progress indication\&. Without this option, when
575e15fe
AU
171\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR
172is run interactively to generate an RSA or DSA key pair, it will print a string of symbols to
2eeb74d1
TU
173stderr
174indicating the progress of the key generation\&. A \*(Aq\&.\*(Aq indicates that a random number has been found which passed an initial sieve test; \*(Aq+\*(Aq means a number has passed a single round of the Miller\-Rabin primality test; a space means that the number has passed all the tests and is a satisfactory key\&.
575e15fe
AU
175.RE
176.PP
3acf5eb9
AU
177\-S \fIkey\fR
178.RS 4
2eeb74d1 179Create a new key which is an explicit successor to an existing key\&. The name, algorithm, size, and type of the key will be set to match the existing key\&. The activation date of the new key will be set to the inactivation date of the existing one\&. The publication date will be set to the activation date minus the prepublication interval, which defaults to 30 days\&.
3acf5eb9
AU
180.RE
181.PP
60e5e10f 182\-s \fIstrength\fR
ca67ebfe 183.RS 4
2eeb74d1 184Specifies the strength value of the key\&. The strength is a number between 0 and 15, and currently has no defined purpose in DNSSEC\&.
ca67ebfe
AU
185.RE
186.PP
0a7ed886
AU
187\-T \fIrrtype\fR
188.RS 4
2eeb74d1 189Specifies the resource record type to use for the key\&.
0a7ed886 190\fBrrtype\fR
2eeb74d1 191must be either DNSKEY or KEY\&. The default is DNSKEY when using a DNSSEC algorithm, but it can be overridden to KEY for use with SIG(0)\&.
0a7ed886
AU
192.RE
193.PP
60e5e10f 194\-t \fItype\fR
ca67ebfe 195.RS 4
25e416fb
TU
196Indicates the use of the key, for use with
197\fB\-T KEY\fR\&.
ca67ebfe 198\fBtype\fR
2eeb74d1 199must be one of AUTHCONF, NOAUTHCONF, NOAUTH, or NOCONF\&. The default is AUTHCONF\&. AUTH refers to the ability to authenticate data, and CONF the ability to encrypt data\&.
ca67ebfe
AU
200.RE
201.PP
25e416fb 202\-V
ca67ebfe 203.RS 4
25e416fb 204Prints version information\&.
ca67ebfe 205.RE
6f120589 206.PP
25e416fb 207\-v \fIlevel\fR
6f120589 208.RS 4
25e416fb 209Sets the debugging level\&.
6f120589 210.RE
0a7ed886
AU
211.SH "TIMING OPTIONS"
212.PP
2eeb74d1 213Dates can be expressed in the format YYYYMMDD or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS\&. If the argument begins with a \*(Aq+\*(Aq or \*(Aq\-\*(Aq, it is interpreted as an offset from the present time\&. For convenience, if such an offset is followed by one of the suffixes \*(Aqy\*(Aq, \*(Aqmo\*(Aq, \*(Aqw\*(Aq, \*(Aqd\*(Aq, \*(Aqh\*(Aq, or \*(Aqmi\*(Aq, then the offset is computed in years (defined as 365 24\-hour days, ignoring leap years), months (defined as 30 24\-hour days), weeks, days, hours, or minutes, respectively\&. Without a suffix, the offset is computed in seconds\&. To explicitly prevent a date from being set, use \*(Aqnone\*(Aq or \*(Aqnever\*(Aq\&.
0a7ed886
AU
214.PP
215\-P \fIdate/offset\fR
216.RS 4
2eeb74d1 217Sets the date on which a key is to be published to the zone\&. After that date, the key will be included in the zone but will not be used to sign it\&. If not set, and if the \-G option has not been used, the default is "now"\&.
0a7ed886
AU
218.RE
219.PP
e62b9c9c
TU
220\-P sync \fIdate/offset\fR
221.RS 4
222Sets the date on which CDS and CDNSKEY records that match this key are to be published to the zone\&.
223.RE
224.PP
0a7ed886
AU
225\-A \fIdate/offset\fR
226.RS 4
2eeb74d1 227Sets the date on which the key is to be activated\&. After that date, the key will be included in the zone and used to sign it\&. If not set, and if the \-G option has not been used, the default is "now"\&. If set, if and \-P is not set, then the publication date will be set to the activation date minus the prepublication interval\&.
0a7ed886
AU
228.RE
229.PP
230\-R \fIdate/offset\fR
231.RS 4
2eeb74d1 232Sets the date on which the key is to be revoked\&. After that date, the key will be flagged as revoked\&. It will be included in the zone and will be used to sign it\&.
0a7ed886
AU
233.RE
234.PP
f8e3e03c 235\-I \fIdate/offset\fR
0a7ed886 236.RS 4
2eeb74d1 237Sets the date on which the key is to be retired\&. After that date, the key will still be included in the zone, but it will not be used to sign it\&.
0a7ed886
AU
238.RE
239.PP
240\-D \fIdate/offset\fR
241.RS 4
2eeb74d1 242Sets the date on which the key is to be deleted\&. After that date, the key will no longer be included in the zone\&. (It may remain in the key repository, however\&.)
0a7ed886 243.RE
3acf5eb9 244.PP
e62b9c9c
TU
245\-D sync \fIdate/offset\fR
246.RS 4
247Sets the date on which the CDS and CDNSKEY records that match this key are to be deleted\&.
248.RE
249.PP
3acf5eb9
AU
250\-i \fIinterval\fR
251.RS 4
2eeb74d1 252Sets the prepublication interval for a key\&. If set, then the publication and activation dates must be separated by at least this much time\&. If the activation date is specified but the publication date isn\*(Aqt, then the publication date will default to this much time before the activation date; conversely, if the publication date is specified but activation date isn\*(Aqt, then activation will be set to this much time after publication\&.
3acf5eb9 253.sp
2eeb74d1 254If the key is being created as an explicit successor to another key, then the default prepublication interval is 30 days; otherwise it is zero\&.
3acf5eb9 255.sp
2eeb74d1 256As with date offsets, if the argument is followed by one of the suffixes \*(Aqy\*(Aq, \*(Aqmo\*(Aq, \*(Aqw\*(Aq, \*(Aqd\*(Aq, \*(Aqh\*(Aq, or \*(Aqmi\*(Aq, then the interval is measured in years, months, weeks, days, hours, or minutes, respectively\&. Without a suffix, the interval is measured in seconds\&.
3acf5eb9 257.RE
0b062f49
BW
258.SH "GENERATED KEYS"
259.PP
ca67ebfe
AU
260When
261\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR
262completes successfully, it prints a string of the form
2eeb74d1
TU
263Knnnn\&.+aaa+iiiii
264to the standard output\&. This is an identification string for the key it has generated\&.
265.sp
266.RS 4
267.ie n \{\
268\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
269.\}
270.el \{\
271.sp -1
272.IP \(bu 2.3
273.\}
274nnnn
275is the key name\&.
276.RE
277.sp
278.RS 4
279.ie n \{\
280\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
281.\}
282.el \{\
283.sp -1
284.IP \(bu 2.3
285.\}
286aaa
287is the numeric representation of the algorithm\&.
288.RE
289.sp
290.RS 4
291.ie n \{\
292\h'-04'\(bu\h'+03'\c
293.\}
294.el \{\
295.sp -1
296.IP \(bu 2.3
297.\}
298iiiii
299is the key identifier (or footprint)\&.
300.RE
8ffa8320 301.PP
ca67ebfe 302\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR
2eeb74d1
TU
303creates two files, with names based on the printed string\&.
304Knnnn\&.+aaa+iiiii\&.key
ca67ebfe 305contains the public key, and
2eeb74d1
TU
306Knnnn\&.+aaa+iiiii\&.private
307contains the private key\&.
0b062f49 308.PP
ca67ebfe 309The
2eeb74d1 310\&.key
25e416fb
TU
311file contains a DNSKEY or KEY record\&. When a zone is being signed by
312\fBnamed\fR
313or
314\fBdnssec\-signzone\fR\fB\-S\fR, DNSKEY records are included automatically\&. In other cases, the
315\&.key
316file can be inserted into a zone file manually or with a
317\fB$INCLUDE\fR
318statement\&.
8ffa8320 319.PP
ca67ebfe 320The
2eeb74d1
TU
321\&.private
322file contains algorithm\-specific fields\&. For obvious security reasons, this file does not have general read permission\&.
0b062f49
BW
323.SH "EXAMPLE"
324.PP
25e416fb
TU
325To generate an ECDSAP256SHA256 zone\-signing key for the zone
326\fBexample\&.com\fR, issue the command:
0b062f49 327.PP
25e416fb 328\fBdnssec\-keygen \-a ECDSAP256SHA256 example\&.com\fR
0b062f49
BW
329.PP
330The command would print a string of the form:
331.PP
5bd85525 332\fBKexample\&.com\&.+013+26160\fR
0b062f49 333.PP
ca67ebfe
AU
334In this example,
335\fBdnssec\-keygen\fR
336creates the files
5bd85525 337Kexample\&.com\&.+013+26160\&.key
ca67ebfe 338and
5bd85525 339Kexample\&.com\&.+013+26160\&.private\&.
25e416fb
TU
340.PP
341To generate a matching key\-signing key, issue the command:
342.PP
343\fBdnssec\-keygen \-a ECDSAP256SHA256 \-f KSK example\&.com\fR
0b062f49
BW
344.SH "SEE ALSO"
345.PP
2eeb74d1 346\fBdnssec-signzone\fR(8),
ca67ebfe
AU
347BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual,
348RFC 2539,
349RFC 2845,
2eeb74d1 350RFC 4034\&.
0b062f49
BW
351.SH "AUTHOR"
352.PP
2eeb74d1 353\fBInternet Systems Consortium, Inc\&.\fR
ca67ebfe 354.SH "COPYRIGHT"
ca67ebfe 355.br
b4d3f782 356Copyright \(co 2000-2005, 2007-2012, 2014-2019 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
ca67ebfe 357.br