Sync with 2.3.7
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.3.7/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.7]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
50 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
51 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
52 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
53 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
54 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
55 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
56 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
57
58 * link:v2.2.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.2]
59
60 * release notes for
61 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
62 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
63 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
64
65 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
66
67 * release notes for
68 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
69 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
70 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
71 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
72 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
73
74 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
75
76 * release notes for
77 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
78 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
79 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
80 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
81 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
82 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
83
84 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
85
86 * release notes for
87 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
88 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
89 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
90 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
91 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
92 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
93
94 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
95
96 * release notes for
97 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
98 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
99 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
100 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
101 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
102 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
103 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
104
105 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
106
107 * release notes for
108 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
109 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
110 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
111 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
112 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
113 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
114
115 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
116
117 * release notes for
118 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
119 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
120 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
121 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
122 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
123
124 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
125
126 * release notes for
127 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
128 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
129 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
130 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
131
132 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
133
134 * release notes for
135 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
136 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
137 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
138 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
139 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
140 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
141 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
142
143 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
144
145 * release notes for
146 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
147 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
148 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
149 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
150
151 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
152
153 * release notes for
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
156 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
157 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
158 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
159
160 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
161
162 * release notes for
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
165 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
166 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
167 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
168 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
169 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
170 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
171
172 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
173
174 * release notes for
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
177 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
178 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
179 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
180 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
181
182 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
183
184 * release notes for
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
188 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
189 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
193
194 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
195
196 * release notes for
197 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
198 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
199 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
200 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
201 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
202 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
203 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
204
205 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
206
207 * release notes for
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
209 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
210 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
211 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
212 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
213 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
214 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
216
217 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
218
219 * release notes for
220 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
221 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
222 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
223 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
224 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
225 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
226 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
227
228 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
229
230 * release notes for
231 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
232 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
233 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
234 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
235 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
236
237 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
238
239 * release notes for
240 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
241 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
242 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
243 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
244 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
245 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
246
247 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
248
249 * release notes for
250 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
251 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
252 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
253 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
254 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
255 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
256
257 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
258
259 * release notes for
260 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
261 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
262 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
263 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
264 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
265 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
266
267 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
268
269 * release notes for
270 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
271 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
272 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
273 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
274 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
275
276 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
277
278 * release notes for
279 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
280 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
281 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
282 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
283 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
284 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
285 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
286 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
287 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
288 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
289
290 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
291
292 * release notes for
293 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
294 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
295 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
296 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
297
298 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
299
300 * release notes for
301 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
302 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
303 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
304 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
305 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
306 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
307 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
308 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
309 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
310 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
311
312 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
313
314 * release notes for
315 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
316 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
317 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
318 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
319 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
320 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
321
322 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
323
324 * release notes for
325 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
326 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
327 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
328 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
329 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
330
331 * release notes for
332 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
333 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
334 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
335 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
336 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
337 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
338
339 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
340
341 * release notes for
342 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
343 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
344 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
345 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
346
347 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
348
349 * release notes for
350 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
351 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
352 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
353 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
354 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
355 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
356 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
357
358 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
359
360 * release notes for
361 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
362 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
363 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
364 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
365 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
366 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
367 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
368
369 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
370
371 * release notes for
372 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
373 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
374 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
375 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
376 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
377 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
378 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
379
380 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
381
382 * release notes for
383 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
386 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
387 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
388 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
389 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
390 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
391
392 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
393
394 * release notes for
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
396 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
397 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
398 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
399 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
400 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
401 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
402 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
403 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
404
405 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
406
407 * release notes for
408 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
409 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
410 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
411 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
412 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
413 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
414
415 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
416
417 * release notes for
418 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
420 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
421 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
422 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
423 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
424 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
425
426 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
427
428 * release notes for
429 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
430 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
431 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
432 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
433 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
434 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
435 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
436
437 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
438 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
439 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
440 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
441
442 ============
443
444 endif::stalenotes[]
445
446 OPTIONS
447 -------
448 --version::
449 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
450
451 --help::
452 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
453 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
454 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
455 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
456 +
457 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
458 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
459 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
460 help ...`.
461
462 -C <path>::
463 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
464 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
465 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
466 <path>`.
467 +
468 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
469 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
470 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
471 example the following invocations are equivalent:
472
473 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
474 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
475
476 -c <name>=<value>::
477 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
478 given will override values from configuration files.
479 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
480 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
481 +
482 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
483 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
484 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
485 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
486
487 --exec-path[=<path>]::
488 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
489 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
490 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
491 the current setting and then exit.
492
493 --html-path::
494 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
495 documentation is installed and exit.
496
497 --man-path::
498 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
499 this version of Git and exit.
500
501 --info-path::
502 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
503 version of Git are installed and exit.
504
505 -p::
506 --paginate::
507 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
508 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
509 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
510 below).
511
512 --no-pager::
513 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
514
515 --git-dir=<path>::
516 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
517 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
518 path or relative path to current working directory.
519
520 --work-tree=<path>::
521 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
522 or a path relative to the current working directory.
523 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
524 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
525 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
526 more detailed discussion).
527
528 --namespace=<path>::
529 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
530 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
531 variable.
532
533 --bare::
534 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
535 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
536 directory.
537
538 --no-replace-objects::
539 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
540 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
541
542 --literal-pathspecs::
543 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
544 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
545 variable to `1`.
546
547 --glob-pathspecs::
548 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
549 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
550 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
551 magic ":(literal)"
552
553 --noglob-pathspecs::
554 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
555 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
556 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
557 magic ":(glob)"
558
559 --icase-pathspecs::
560 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
561 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
562
563 GIT COMMANDS
564 ------------
565
566 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
567 ("plumbing") commands.
568
569 High-level commands (porcelain)
570 -------------------------------
571
572 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
573 ancillary user utilities.
574
575 Main porcelain commands
576 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
577
578 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
579
580 Ancillary Commands
581 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
582 Manipulators:
583
584 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
585
586 Interrogators:
587
588 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
589
590
591 Interacting with Others
592 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
593
594 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
595 people via patch over e-mail.
596
597 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
598
599
600 Low-level commands (plumbing)
601 -----------------------------
602
603 Although Git includes its
604 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
605 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
606 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
607 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
608
609 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
610 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
611 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
612 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
613 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
614 end user experience.
615
616 The following description divides
617 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
618 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
619 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
620 repositories.
621
622
623 Manipulation commands
624 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
625
626 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
627
628
629 Interrogation commands
630 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
631
632 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
633
634 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
635 the working tree.
636
637
638 Synching repositories
639 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
640
641 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
642
643 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
644 typically do not use them directly.
645
646 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
647
648
649 Internal helper commands
650 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
651
652 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
653 users typically do not use them directly.
654
655 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
656
657
658 Configuration Mechanism
659 -----------------------
660
661 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
662 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
663 like this:
664
665 ------------
666 #
667 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
668 #
669
670 ; core variables
671 [core]
672 ; Don't trust file modes
673 filemode = false
674
675 ; user identity
676 [user]
677 name = "Junio C Hamano"
678 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
679
680 ------------
681
682 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
683 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
684 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
685
686
687 Identifier Terminology
688 ----------------------
689 <object>::
690 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
691
692 <blob>::
693 Indicates a blob object name.
694
695 <tree>::
696 Indicates a tree object name.
697
698 <commit>::
699 Indicates a commit object name.
700
701 <tree-ish>::
702 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
703 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
704 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
705 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
706
707 <commit-ish>::
708 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
709 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
710 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
711 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
712
713 <type>::
714 Indicates that an object type is required.
715 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
716
717 <file>::
718 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
719 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
720
721 Symbolic Identifiers
722 --------------------
723 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
724 symbolic notation:
725
726 HEAD::
727 indicates the head of the current branch.
728
729 <tag>::
730 a valid tag 'name'
731 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
732
733 <head>::
734 a valid head 'name'
735 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
736
737 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
738 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
739
740
741 File/Directory Structure
742 ------------------------
743
744 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
745
746 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
747
748 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
749 `$GIT_DIR`.
750
751
752 Terminology
753 -----------
754 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
755
756
757 Environment Variables
758 ---------------------
759 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
760
761 The Git Repository
762 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
763 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
764 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
765 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
766
767 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
768 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
769 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
770 is used.
771
772 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
773 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
774 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
775 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
776 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
777
778 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
779 If the object storage directory is specified via this
780 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
781 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
782 directory is used.
783
784 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
785 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
786 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
787 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
788 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
789 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
790
791 'GIT_DIR'::
792 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
793 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
794 for the base of the repository.
795 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
796
797 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
798 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
799 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
800 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
801
802 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
803 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
804 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
805
806 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
807 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
808 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
809 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
810 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
811 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
812 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
813 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
814 might be present in order to compare them with the current
815 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
816 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
817 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
818 e.g.,
819 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
820
821 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
822 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
823 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
824 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
825 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
826 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
827 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
828 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
829 command line.
830
831 Git Commits
832 ~~~~~~~~~~~
833 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
834 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
835 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
836 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
837 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
838 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
839 'EMAIL'::
840 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
841
842 Git Diffs
843 ~~~~~~~~~
844 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
845 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
846 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
847 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
848 value passed on the Git diff command line.
849
850 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
851 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
852 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
853 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
854 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
855
856 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
857 +
858 where:
859
860 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
861 contents of <old|new>,
862 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
863 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
864 +
865 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
866 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
867 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
868 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
869 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
870 +
871 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
872 parameter, <path>.
873 +
874 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
875 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
876
877 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
878 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
879
880 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
881 The total number of paths.
882
883 other
884 ~~~~~
885 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
886 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
887 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
888 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
889
890 'GIT_PAGER'::
891 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
892 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
893 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
894 linkgit:git-config[1].
895
896 'GIT_EDITOR'::
897 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
898 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
899 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
900 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
901
902 'GIT_SSH'::
903 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
904 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
905 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
906 when they need to connect to a remote system.
907 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
908 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
909 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
910 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
911 something other than the default SSH port.
912 +
913 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
914 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
915 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
916 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
917 needed).
918 +
919 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
920 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
921 for further details.
922
923 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
924 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
925 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
926 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
927 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
928 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
929
930 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
931 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
932 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
933
934 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
935 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
936 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
937 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
938 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
939 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
940 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
941
942 'GIT_FLUSH'::
943 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
944 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
945 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
946 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
947 flushed. If this
948 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
949 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
950 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
951 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
952
953 'GIT_TRACE'::
954 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
955 command execution and external command execution.
956 +
957 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
958 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
959 stderr.
960 +
961 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
962 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
963 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
964 trace messages into this file descriptor.
965 +
966 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
967 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
968 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
969 into it.
970 +
971 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
972 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
973
974 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
975 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
976 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
977 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
978 pack-related performance problems.
979 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
980
981 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
982 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
983 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
984 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
985 starting with "PACK".
986 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
987
988 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
989 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
990 time of each Git command.
991 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
992
993 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
994 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
995 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
996 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
997
998 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
999 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1000 cloning of shallow repositories.
1001 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1002
1003 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
1004 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1005 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1006 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1007 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1008 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1009 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1010 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1011
1012 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1013 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1014 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1015
1016 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1017 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1018 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1019
1020 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1021 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1022 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1023
1024 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1025 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1026 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1027 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1028 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1029 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1030 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1031 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1032 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1033
1034 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1035 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1036 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1037 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1038 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1039 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1040 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1041 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1042 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1043 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1044
1045
1046 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1047 ------------------------
1048
1049 More detail on the following is available from the
1050 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1051 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1052
1053 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1054 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1055 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1056 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1057 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1058 as tags and branch heads.
1059
1060 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1061 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1062 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1063 and some number of parent commits.
1064
1065 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1066 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1067 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1068 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1069
1070 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1071 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1072 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1073 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1074 purpose.
1075
1076 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1077 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1078
1079 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1080 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1081 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1082 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1083 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1084 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1085
1086 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1087 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1088 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1089 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1090 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1091 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1092 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1093 content stored in the index.
1094
1095 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1096 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1097 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1098
1099 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1100 ---------------------
1101
1102 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1103 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1104 for a first-time user.
1105
1106 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1107 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1108 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1109
1110 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1111
1112 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1113 examples.
1114
1115 The internals are documented in the
1116 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1117
1118 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1119 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1120
1121
1122 Authors
1123 -------
1124 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1125 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1126 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1127 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1128
1129 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1130 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1131 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1132
1133 Reporting Bugs
1134 --------------
1135
1136 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1137 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1138 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1139
1140 SEE ALSO
1141 --------
1142 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1143 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1144 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1145 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1146 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1147
1148 GIT
1149 ---
1150 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite