tests: fix cleanup after tests in t1509-root-worktree
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.5.0/git.html[documentation for release 2.5]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.5.0.txt[2.5],
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51 * link:v2.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.7]
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53 * release notes for
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60 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
61 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
62
63 * link:v2.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.8]
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65 * release notes for
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73 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
74 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
75
76 * link:v2.2.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.2]
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78 * release notes for
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80 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
81 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
82
83 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
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85 * release notes for
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88 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
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90 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
91
92 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
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94 * release notes for
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100 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
101
102 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
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104 * release notes for
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149
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178 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
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440 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
443
444 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
445
446 * release notes for
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
452 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
453 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
454
455 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
456 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
457 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
458 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
459
460 ============
461
462 endif::stalenotes[]
463
464 OPTIONS
465 -------
466 --version::
467 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
468
469 --help::
470 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
471 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
472 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
473 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
474 +
475 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
476 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
477 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
478 help ...`.
479
480 -C <path>::
481 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
482 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
483 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
484 <path>`.
485 +
486 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
487 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
488 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
489 example the following invocations are equivalent:
490
491 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
492 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
493
494 -c <name>=<value>::
495 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
496 given will override values from configuration files.
497 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
498 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
499 +
500 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
501 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
502 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
503 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
504
505 --exec-path[=<path>]::
506 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
507 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
508 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
509 the current setting and then exit.
510
511 --html-path::
512 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
513 documentation is installed and exit.
514
515 --man-path::
516 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
517 this version of Git and exit.
518
519 --info-path::
520 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
521 version of Git are installed and exit.
522
523 -p::
524 --paginate::
525 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
526 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
527 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
528 below).
529
530 --no-pager::
531 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
532
533 --git-dir=<path>::
534 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
535 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
536 path or relative path to current working directory.
537
538 --work-tree=<path>::
539 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
540 or a path relative to the current working directory.
541 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
542 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
543 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
544 more detailed discussion).
545
546 --namespace=<path>::
547 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
548 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
549 variable.
550
551 --bare::
552 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
553 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
554 directory.
555
556 --no-replace-objects::
557 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
558 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
559
560 --literal-pathspecs::
561 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
562 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
563 variable to `1`.
564
565 --glob-pathspecs::
566 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
567 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
568 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
569 magic ":(literal)"
570
571 --noglob-pathspecs::
572 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
573 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
574 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
575 magic ":(glob)"
576
577 --icase-pathspecs::
578 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
579 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
580
581 GIT COMMANDS
582 ------------
583
584 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
585 ("plumbing") commands.
586
587 High-level commands (porcelain)
588 -------------------------------
589
590 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
591 ancillary user utilities.
592
593 Main porcelain commands
594 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
595
596 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
597
598 Ancillary Commands
599 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
600 Manipulators:
601
602 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
603
604 Interrogators:
605
606 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
607
608
609 Interacting with Others
610 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
611
612 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
613 people via patch over e-mail.
614
615 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
616
617
618 Low-level commands (plumbing)
619 -----------------------------
620
621 Although Git includes its
622 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
623 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
624 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
625 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
626
627 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
628 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
629 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
630 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
631 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
632 end user experience.
633
634 The following description divides
635 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
636 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
637 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
638 repositories.
639
640
641 Manipulation commands
642 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
643
644 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
645
646
647 Interrogation commands
648 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
649
650 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
651
652 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
653 the working tree.
654
655
656 Synching repositories
657 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
658
659 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
660
661 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
662 typically do not use them directly.
663
664 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
665
666
667 Internal helper commands
668 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
669
670 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
671 users typically do not use them directly.
672
673 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
674
675
676 Configuration Mechanism
677 -----------------------
678
679 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
680 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
681 like this:
682
683 ------------
684 #
685 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
686 #
687
688 ; core variables
689 [core]
690 ; Don't trust file modes
691 filemode = false
692
693 ; user identity
694 [user]
695 name = "Junio C Hamano"
696 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
697
698 ------------
699
700 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
701 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
702 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
703
704
705 Identifier Terminology
706 ----------------------
707 <object>::
708 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
709
710 <blob>::
711 Indicates a blob object name.
712
713 <tree>::
714 Indicates a tree object name.
715
716 <commit>::
717 Indicates a commit object name.
718
719 <tree-ish>::
720 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
721 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
722 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
723 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
724
725 <commit-ish>::
726 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
727 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
728 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
729 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
730
731 <type>::
732 Indicates that an object type is required.
733 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
734
735 <file>::
736 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
737 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
738
739 Symbolic Identifiers
740 --------------------
741 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
742 symbolic notation:
743
744 HEAD::
745 indicates the head of the current branch.
746
747 <tag>::
748 a valid tag 'name'
749 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
750
751 <head>::
752 a valid head 'name'
753 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
754
755 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
756 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
757
758
759 File/Directory Structure
760 ------------------------
761
762 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
763
764 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
765
766 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
767 `$GIT_DIR`.
768
769
770 Terminology
771 -----------
772 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
773
774
775 Environment Variables
776 ---------------------
777 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
778
779 The Git Repository
780 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
781 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
782 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
783 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
784
785 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
786 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
787 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
788 is used.
789
790 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
791 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
792 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
793 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
794 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
795
796 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
797 If the object storage directory is specified via this
798 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
799 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
800 directory is used.
801
802 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
803 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
804 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
805 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
806 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
807 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
808
809 'GIT_DIR'::
810 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
811 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
812 for the base of the repository.
813 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
814
815 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
816 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
817 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
818 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
819
820 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
821 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
822 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
823
824 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
825 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
826 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
827 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
828 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
829 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
830 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
831 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
832 might be present in order to compare them with the current
833 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
834 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
835 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
836 e.g.,
837 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
838
839 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
840 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
841 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
842 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
843 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
844 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
845 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
846 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
847 command line.
848
849 'GIT_COMMON_DIR'::
850 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
851 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
852 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
853 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
854 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
855 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
856 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
857
858 Git Commits
859 ~~~~~~~~~~~
860 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
861 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
862 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
863 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
864 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
865 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
866 'EMAIL'::
867 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
868
869 Git Diffs
870 ~~~~~~~~~
871 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
872 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
873 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
874 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
875 value passed on the Git diff command line.
876
877 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
878 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
879 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
880 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
881 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
882
883 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
884 +
885 where:
886
887 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
888 contents of <old|new>,
889 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
890 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
891 +
892 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
893 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
894 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
895 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
896 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
897 +
898 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
899 parameter, <path>.
900 +
901 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
902 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
903
904 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
905 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
906
907 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
908 The total number of paths.
909
910 other
911 ~~~~~
912 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
913 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
914 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
915 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
916
917 'GIT_PAGER'::
918 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
919 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
920 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
921 linkgit:git-config[1].
922
923 'GIT_EDITOR'::
924 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
925 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
926 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
927 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
928
929 'GIT_SSH'::
930 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
931 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
932 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
933 when they need to connect to a remote system.
934 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
935 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
936 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
937 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
938 something other than the default SSH port.
939 +
940 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
941 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
942 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
943 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
944 needed).
945 +
946 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
947 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
948 for further details.
949
950 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
951 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
952 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
953 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
954 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
955 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
956
957 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
958 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
959 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
960
961 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
962 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
963 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
964 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
965 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
966 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
967 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
968
969 'GIT_FLUSH'::
970 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
971 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
972 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
973 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
974 flushed. If this
975 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
976 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
977 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
978 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
979
980 'GIT_TRACE'::
981 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
982 command execution and external command execution.
983 +
984 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
985 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
986 stderr.
987 +
988 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
989 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
990 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
991 trace messages into this file descriptor.
992 +
993 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
994 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
995 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
996 into it.
997 +
998 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
999 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
1000
1001 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
1002 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
1003 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1004 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1005 pack-related performance problems.
1006 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1007
1008 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
1009 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1010 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1011 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1012 starting with "PACK".
1013 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1014
1015 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1016 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1017 time of each Git command.
1018 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1019
1020 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1021 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1022 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1023 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1024
1025 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1026 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1027 cloning of shallow repositories.
1028 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1029
1030 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
1031 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1032 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1033 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1034 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1035 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1036 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1037 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1038
1039 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1040 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1041 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1042
1043 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1044 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1045 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1046
1047 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1048 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1049 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1050
1051 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1052 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1053 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1054 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1055 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1056 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1057 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1058 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1059 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1060
1061 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1062 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1063 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1064 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1065 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1066 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1067 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1068 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1069 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1070 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1071
1072
1073 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1074 ------------------------
1075
1076 More detail on the following is available from the
1077 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1078 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1079
1080 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1081 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1082 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1083 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1084 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1085 as tags and branch heads.
1086
1087 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1088 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1089 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1090 and some number of parent commits.
1091
1092 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1093 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1094 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1095 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1096
1097 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1098 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1099 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1100 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1101 purpose.
1102
1103 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1104 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1105
1106 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1107 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1108 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1109 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1110 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1111 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1112
1113 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1114 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1115 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1116 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1117 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1118 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1119 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1120 content stored in the index.
1121
1122 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1123 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1124 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1125
1126 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1127 ---------------------
1128
1129 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1130 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1131 for a first-time user.
1132
1133 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1134 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1135 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1136
1137 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1138
1139 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1140 examples.
1141
1142 The internals are documented in the
1143 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1144
1145 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1146 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1147
1148
1149 Authors
1150 -------
1151 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1152 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1153 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1154 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1155
1156 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1157 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1158 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1159
1160 Reporting Bugs
1161 --------------
1162
1163 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1164 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1165 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1166
1167 SEE ALSO
1168 --------
1169 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1170 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1171 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1172 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1173 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1174
1175 GIT
1176 ---
1177 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite