tests: fix cleanup after tests in t1509-root-worktree
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-rebase.txt
1 git-rebase(1)
2 =============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-rebase - Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream head
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
12 [<upstream> [<branch>]]
13 'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
14 --root [<branch>]
15 'git rebase' --continue | --skip | --abort | --edit-todo
16
17 DESCRIPTION
18 -----------
19 If <branch> is specified, 'git rebase' will perform an automatic
20 `git checkout <branch>` before doing anything else. Otherwise
21 it remains on the current branch.
22
23 If <upstream> is not specified, the upstream configured in
24 branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge options will be used (see
25 linkgit:git-config[1] for details) and the `--fork-point` option is
26 assumed. If you are currently not on any branch or if the current
27 branch does not have a configured upstream, the rebase will abort.
28
29 All changes made by commits in the current branch but that are not
30 in <upstream> are saved to a temporary area. This is the same set
31 of commits that would be shown by `git log <upstream>..HEAD`; or by
32 `git log 'fork_point'..HEAD`, if `--fork-point` is active (see the
33 description on `--fork-point` below); or by `git log HEAD`, if the
34 `--root` option is specified.
35
36 The current branch is reset to <upstream>, or <newbase> if the
37 --onto option was supplied. This has the exact same effect as
38 `git reset --hard <upstream>` (or <newbase>). ORIG_HEAD is set
39 to point at the tip of the branch before the reset.
40
41 The commits that were previously saved into the temporary area are
42 then reapplied to the current branch, one by one, in order. Note that
43 any commits in HEAD which introduce the same textual changes as a commit
44 in HEAD..<upstream> are omitted (i.e., a patch already accepted upstream
45 with a different commit message or timestamp will be skipped).
46
47 It is possible that a merge failure will prevent this process from being
48 completely automatic. You will have to resolve any such merge failure
49 and run `git rebase --continue`. Another option is to bypass the commit
50 that caused the merge failure with `git rebase --skip`. To check out the
51 original <branch> and remove the .git/rebase-apply working files, use the
52 command `git rebase --abort` instead.
53
54 Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "topic":
55
56 ------------
57 A---B---C topic
58 /
59 D---E---F---G master
60 ------------
61
62 From this point, the result of either of the following commands:
63
64
65 git rebase master
66 git rebase master topic
67
68 would be:
69
70 ------------
71 A'--B'--C' topic
72 /
73 D---E---F---G master
74 ------------
75
76 *NOTE:* The latter form is just a short-hand of `git checkout topic`
77 followed by `git rebase master`. When rebase exits `topic` will
78 remain the checked-out branch.
79
80 If the upstream branch already contains a change you have made (e.g.,
81 because you mailed a patch which was applied upstream), then that commit
82 will be skipped. For example, running `git rebase master` on the
83 following history (in which `A'` and `A` introduce the same set of changes,
84 but have different committer information):
85
86 ------------
87 A---B---C topic
88 /
89 D---E---A'---F master
90 ------------
91
92 will result in:
93
94 ------------
95 B'---C' topic
96 /
97 D---E---A'---F master
98 ------------
99
100 Here is how you would transplant a topic branch based on one
101 branch to another, to pretend that you forked the topic branch
102 from the latter branch, using `rebase --onto`.
103
104 First let's assume your 'topic' is based on branch 'next'.
105 For example, a feature developed in 'topic' depends on some
106 functionality which is found in 'next'.
107
108 ------------
109 o---o---o---o---o master
110 \
111 o---o---o---o---o next
112 \
113 o---o---o topic
114 ------------
115
116 We want to make 'topic' forked from branch 'master'; for example,
117 because the functionality on which 'topic' depends was merged into the
118 more stable 'master' branch. We want our tree to look like this:
119
120 ------------
121 o---o---o---o---o master
122 | \
123 | o'--o'--o' topic
124 \
125 o---o---o---o---o next
126 ------------
127
128 We can get this using the following command:
129
130 git rebase --onto master next topic
131
132
133 Another example of --onto option is to rebase part of a
134 branch. If we have the following situation:
135
136 ------------
137 H---I---J topicB
138 /
139 E---F---G topicA
140 /
141 A---B---C---D master
142 ------------
143
144 then the command
145
146 git rebase --onto master topicA topicB
147
148 would result in:
149
150 ------------
151 H'--I'--J' topicB
152 /
153 | E---F---G topicA
154 |/
155 A---B---C---D master
156 ------------
157
158 This is useful when topicB does not depend on topicA.
159
160 A range of commits could also be removed with rebase. If we have
161 the following situation:
162
163 ------------
164 E---F---G---H---I---J topicA
165 ------------
166
167 then the command
168
169 git rebase --onto topicA~5 topicA~3 topicA
170
171 would result in the removal of commits F and G:
172
173 ------------
174 E---H'---I'---J' topicA
175 ------------
176
177 This is useful if F and G were flawed in some way, or should not be
178 part of topicA. Note that the argument to --onto and the <upstream>
179 parameter can be any valid commit-ish.
180
181 In case of conflict, 'git rebase' will stop at the first problematic commit
182 and leave conflict markers in the tree. You can use 'git diff' to locate
183 the markers (<<<<<<) and make edits to resolve the conflict. For each
184 file you edit, you need to tell Git that the conflict has been resolved,
185 typically this would be done with
186
187
188 git add <filename>
189
190
191 After resolving the conflict manually and updating the index with the
192 desired resolution, you can continue the rebasing process with
193
194
195 git rebase --continue
196
197
198 Alternatively, you can undo the 'git rebase' with
199
200
201 git rebase --abort
202
203 CONFIGURATION
204 -------------
205
206 rebase.stat::
207 Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
208 rebase. False by default.
209
210 rebase.autoSquash::
211 If set to true enable '--autosquash' option by default.
212
213 rebase.autoStash::
214 If set to true enable '--autostash' option by default.
215
216 OPTIONS
217 -------
218 --onto <newbase>::
219 Starting point at which to create the new commits. If the
220 --onto option is not specified, the starting point is
221 <upstream>. May be any valid commit, and not just an
222 existing branch name.
223 +
224 As a special case, you may use "A\...B" as a shortcut for the
225 merge base of A and B if there is exactly one merge base. You can
226 leave out at most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.
227
228 <upstream>::
229 Upstream branch to compare against. May be any valid commit,
230 not just an existing branch name. Defaults to the configured
231 upstream for the current branch.
232
233 <branch>::
234 Working branch; defaults to HEAD.
235
236 --continue::
237 Restart the rebasing process after having resolved a merge conflict.
238
239 --abort::
240 Abort the rebase operation and reset HEAD to the original
241 branch. If <branch> was provided when the rebase operation was
242 started, then HEAD will be reset to <branch>. Otherwise HEAD
243 will be reset to where it was when the rebase operation was
244 started.
245
246 --keep-empty::
247 Keep the commits that do not change anything from its
248 parents in the result.
249
250 --skip::
251 Restart the rebasing process by skipping the current patch.
252
253 --edit-todo::
254 Edit the todo list during an interactive rebase.
255
256 -m::
257 --merge::
258 Use merging strategies to rebase. When the recursive (default) merge
259 strategy is used, this allows rebase to be aware of renames on the
260 upstream side.
261 +
262 Note that a rebase merge works by replaying each commit from the working
263 branch on top of the <upstream> branch. Because of this, when a merge
264 conflict happens, the side reported as 'ours' is the so-far rebased
265 series, starting with <upstream>, and 'theirs' is the working branch. In
266 other words, the sides are swapped.
267
268 -s <strategy>::
269 --strategy=<strategy>::
270 Use the given merge strategy.
271 If there is no `-s` option 'git merge-recursive' is used
272 instead. This implies --merge.
273 +
274 Because 'git rebase' replays each commit from the working branch
275 on top of the <upstream> branch using the given strategy, using
276 the 'ours' strategy simply discards all patches from the <branch>,
277 which makes little sense.
278
279 -X <strategy-option>::
280 --strategy-option=<strategy-option>::
281 Pass the <strategy-option> through to the merge strategy.
282 This implies `--merge` and, if no strategy has been
283 specified, `-s recursive`. Note the reversal of 'ours' and
284 'theirs' as noted above for the `-m` option.
285
286 -S[<keyid>]::
287 --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
288 GPG-sign commits.
289
290 -q::
291 --quiet::
292 Be quiet. Implies --no-stat.
293
294 -v::
295 --verbose::
296 Be verbose. Implies --stat.
297
298 --stat::
299 Show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last rebase. The
300 diffstat is also controlled by the configuration option rebase.stat.
301
302 -n::
303 --no-stat::
304 Do not show a diffstat as part of the rebase process.
305
306 --no-verify::
307 This option bypasses the pre-rebase hook. See also linkgit:githooks[5].
308
309 --verify::
310 Allows the pre-rebase hook to run, which is the default. This option can
311 be used to override --no-verify. See also linkgit:githooks[5].
312
313 -C<n>::
314 Ensure at least <n> lines of surrounding context match before
315 and after each change. When fewer lines of surrounding
316 context exist they all must match. By default no context is
317 ever ignored.
318
319 -f::
320 --force-rebase::
321 Force a rebase even if the current branch is up-to-date and
322 the command without `--force` would return without doing anything.
323 +
324 You may find this (or --no-ff with an interactive rebase) helpful after
325 reverting a topic branch merge, as this option recreates the topic branch with
326 fresh commits so it can be remerged successfully without needing to "revert
327 the reversion" (see the
328 link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
329
330 --fork-point::
331 --no-fork-point::
332 Use reflog to find a better common ancestor between <upstream>
333 and <branch> when calculating which commits have been
334 introduced by <branch>.
335 +
336 When --fork-point is active, 'fork_point' will be used instead of
337 <upstream> to calculate the set of commits to rebase, where
338 'fork_point' is the result of `git merge-base --fork-point <upstream>
339 <branch>` command (see linkgit:git-merge-base[1]). If 'fork_point'
340 ends up being empty, the <upstream> will be used as a fallback.
341 +
342 If either <upstream> or --root is given on the command line, then the
343 default is `--no-fork-point`, otherwise the default is `--fork-point`.
344
345 --ignore-whitespace::
346 --whitespace=<option>::
347 These flag are passed to the 'git apply' program
348 (see linkgit:git-apply[1]) that applies the patch.
349 Incompatible with the --interactive option.
350
351 --committer-date-is-author-date::
352 --ignore-date::
353 These flags are passed to 'git am' to easily change the dates
354 of the rebased commits (see linkgit:git-am[1]).
355 Incompatible with the --interactive option.
356
357 -i::
358 --interactive::
359 Make a list of the commits which are about to be rebased. Let the
360 user edit that list before rebasing. This mode can also be used to
361 split commits (see SPLITTING COMMITS below).
362
363 -p::
364 --preserve-merges::
365 Recreate merge commits instead of flattening the history by replaying
366 commits a merge commit introduces. Merge conflict resolutions or manual
367 amendments to merge commits are not preserved.
368 +
369 This uses the `--interactive` machinery internally, but combining it
370 with the `--interactive` option explicitly is generally not a good
371 idea unless you know what you are doing (see BUGS below).
372
373 -x <cmd>::
374 --exec <cmd>::
375 Append "exec <cmd>" after each line creating a commit in the
376 final history. <cmd> will be interpreted as one or more shell
377 commands.
378 +
379 This option can only be used with the `--interactive` option
380 (see INTERACTIVE MODE below).
381 +
382 You may execute several commands by either using one instance of `--exec`
383 with several commands:
384 +
385 git rebase -i --exec "cmd1 && cmd2 && ..."
386 +
387 or by giving more than one `--exec`:
388 +
389 git rebase -i --exec "cmd1" --exec "cmd2" --exec ...
390 +
391 If `--autosquash` is used, "exec" lines will not be appended for
392 the intermediate commits, and will only appear at the end of each
393 squash/fixup series.
394
395 --root::
396 Rebase all commits reachable from <branch>, instead of
397 limiting them with an <upstream>. This allows you to rebase
398 the root commit(s) on a branch. When used with --onto, it
399 will skip changes already contained in <newbase> (instead of
400 <upstream>) whereas without --onto it will operate on every change.
401 When used together with both --onto and --preserve-merges,
402 'all' root commits will be rewritten to have <newbase> as parent
403 instead.
404
405 --autosquash::
406 --no-autosquash::
407 When the commit log message begins with "squash! ..." (or
408 "fixup! ..."), and there is a commit whose title begins with
409 the same ..., automatically modify the todo list of rebase -i
410 so that the commit marked for squashing comes right after the
411 commit to be modified, and change the action of the moved
412 commit from `pick` to `squash` (or `fixup`). Ignores subsequent
413 "fixup! " or "squash! " after the first, in case you referred to an
414 earlier fixup/squash with `git commit --fixup/--squash`.
415 +
416 This option is only valid when the '--interactive' option is used.
417 +
418 If the '--autosquash' option is enabled by default using the
419 configuration variable `rebase.autoSquash`, this option can be
420 used to override and disable this setting.
421
422 --[no-]autostash::
423 Automatically create a temporary stash before the operation
424 begins, and apply it after the operation ends. This means
425 that you can run rebase on a dirty worktree. However, use
426 with care: the final stash application after a successful
427 rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
428
429 --no-ff::
430 With --interactive, cherry-pick all rebased commits instead of
431 fast-forwarding over the unchanged ones. This ensures that the
432 entire history of the rebased branch is composed of new commits.
433 +
434 Without --interactive, this is a synonym for --force-rebase.
435 +
436 You may find this helpful after reverting a topic branch merge, as this option
437 recreates the topic branch with fresh commits so it can be remerged
438 successfully without needing to "revert the reversion" (see the
439 link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
440
441 include::merge-strategies.txt[]
442
443 NOTES
444 -----
445
446 You should understand the implications of using 'git rebase' on a
447 repository that you share. See also RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE
448 below.
449
450 When the git-rebase command is run, it will first execute a "pre-rebase"
451 hook if one exists. You can use this hook to do sanity checks and
452 reject the rebase if it isn't appropriate. Please see the template
453 pre-rebase hook script for an example.
454
455 Upon completion, <branch> will be the current branch.
456
457 INTERACTIVE MODE
458 ----------------
459
460 Rebasing interactively means that you have a chance to edit the commits
461 which are rebased. You can reorder the commits, and you can
462 remove them (weeding out bad or otherwise unwanted patches).
463
464 The interactive mode is meant for this type of workflow:
465
466 1. have a wonderful idea
467 2. hack on the code
468 3. prepare a series for submission
469 4. submit
470
471 where point 2. consists of several instances of
472
473 a) regular use
474
475 1. finish something worthy of a commit
476 2. commit
477
478 b) independent fixup
479
480 1. realize that something does not work
481 2. fix that
482 3. commit it
483
484 Sometimes the thing fixed in b.2. cannot be amended to the not-quite
485 perfect commit it fixes, because that commit is buried deeply in a
486 patch series. That is exactly what interactive rebase is for: use it
487 after plenty of "a"s and "b"s, by rearranging and editing
488 commits, and squashing multiple commits into one.
489
490 Start it with the last commit you want to retain as-is:
491
492 git rebase -i <after-this-commit>
493
494 An editor will be fired up with all the commits in your current branch
495 (ignoring merge commits), which come after the given commit. You can
496 reorder the commits in this list to your heart's content, and you can
497 remove them. The list looks more or less like this:
498
499 -------------------------------------------
500 pick deadbee The oneline of this commit
501 pick fa1afe1 The oneline of the next commit
502 ...
503 -------------------------------------------
504
505 The oneline descriptions are purely for your pleasure; 'git rebase' will
506 not look at them but at the commit names ("deadbee" and "fa1afe1" in this
507 example), so do not delete or edit the names.
508
509 By replacing the command "pick" with the command "edit", you can tell
510 'git rebase' to stop after applying that commit, so that you can edit
511 the files and/or the commit message, amend the commit, and continue
512 rebasing.
513
514 If you just want to edit the commit message for a commit, replace the
515 command "pick" with the command "reword".
516
517 If you want to fold two or more commits into one, replace the command
518 "pick" for the second and subsequent commits with "squash" or "fixup".
519 If the commits had different authors, the folded commit will be
520 attributed to the author of the first commit. The suggested commit
521 message for the folded commit is the concatenation of the commit
522 messages of the first commit and of those with the "squash" command,
523 but omits the commit messages of commits with the "fixup" command.
524
525 'git rebase' will stop when "pick" has been replaced with "edit" or
526 when a command fails due to merge errors. When you are done editing
527 and/or resolving conflicts you can continue with `git rebase --continue`.
528
529 For example, if you want to reorder the last 5 commits, such that what
530 was HEAD~4 becomes the new HEAD. To achieve that, you would call
531 'git rebase' like this:
532
533 ----------------------
534 $ git rebase -i HEAD~5
535 ----------------------
536
537 And move the first patch to the end of the list.
538
539 You might want to preserve merges, if you have a history like this:
540
541 ------------------
542 X
543 \
544 A---M---B
545 /
546 ---o---O---P---Q
547 ------------------
548
549 Suppose you want to rebase the side branch starting at "A" to "Q". Make
550 sure that the current HEAD is "B", and call
551
552 -----------------------------
553 $ git rebase -i -p --onto Q O
554 -----------------------------
555
556 Reordering and editing commits usually creates untested intermediate
557 steps. You may want to check that your history editing did not break
558 anything by running a test, or at least recompiling at intermediate
559 points in history by using the "exec" command (shortcut "x"). You may
560 do so by creating a todo list like this one:
561
562 -------------------------------------------
563 pick deadbee Implement feature XXX
564 fixup f1a5c00 Fix to feature XXX
565 exec make
566 pick c0ffeee The oneline of the next commit
567 edit deadbab The oneline of the commit after
568 exec cd subdir; make test
569 ...
570 -------------------------------------------
571
572 The interactive rebase will stop when a command fails (i.e. exits with
573 non-0 status) to give you an opportunity to fix the problem. You can
574 continue with `git rebase --continue`.
575
576 The "exec" command launches the command in a shell (the one specified
577 in `$SHELL`, or the default shell if `$SHELL` is not set), so you can
578 use shell features (like "cd", ">", ";" ...). The command is run from
579 the root of the working tree.
580
581 ----------------------------------
582 $ git rebase -i --exec "make test"
583 ----------------------------------
584
585 This command lets you check that intermediate commits are compilable.
586 The todo list becomes like that:
587
588 --------------------
589 pick 5928aea one
590 exec make test
591 pick 04d0fda two
592 exec make test
593 pick ba46169 three
594 exec make test
595 pick f4593f9 four
596 exec make test
597 --------------------
598
599 SPLITTING COMMITS
600 -----------------
601
602 In interactive mode, you can mark commits with the action "edit". However,
603 this does not necessarily mean that 'git rebase' expects the result of this
604 edit to be exactly one commit. Indeed, you can undo the commit, or you can
605 add other commits. This can be used to split a commit into two:
606
607 - Start an interactive rebase with `git rebase -i <commit>^`, where
608 <commit> is the commit you want to split. In fact, any commit range
609 will do, as long as it contains that commit.
610
611 - Mark the commit you want to split with the action "edit".
612
613 - When it comes to editing that commit, execute `git reset HEAD^`. The
614 effect is that the HEAD is rewound by one, and the index follows suit.
615 However, the working tree stays the same.
616
617 - Now add the changes to the index that you want to have in the first
618 commit. You can use `git add` (possibly interactively) or
619 'git gui' (or both) to do that.
620
621 - Commit the now-current index with whatever commit message is appropriate
622 now.
623
624 - Repeat the last two steps until your working tree is clean.
625
626 - Continue the rebase with `git rebase --continue`.
627
628 If you are not absolutely sure that the intermediate revisions are
629 consistent (they compile, pass the testsuite, etc.) you should use
630 'git stash' to stash away the not-yet-committed changes
631 after each commit, test, and amend the commit if fixes are necessary.
632
633
634 RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE
635 -------------------------------
636
637 Rebasing (or any other form of rewriting) a branch that others have
638 based work on is a bad idea: anyone downstream of it is forced to
639 manually fix their history. This section explains how to do the fix
640 from the downstream's point of view. The real fix, however, would be
641 to avoid rebasing the upstream in the first place.
642
643 To illustrate, suppose you are in a situation where someone develops a
644 'subsystem' branch, and you are working on a 'topic' that is dependent
645 on this 'subsystem'. You might end up with a history like the
646 following:
647
648 ------------
649 o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
650 \
651 o---o---o---o---o subsystem
652 \
653 *---*---* topic
654 ------------
655
656 If 'subsystem' is rebased against 'master', the following happens:
657
658 ------------
659 o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
660 \ \
661 o---o---o---o---o o'--o'--o'--o'--o' subsystem
662 \
663 *---*---* topic
664 ------------
665
666 If you now continue development as usual, and eventually merge 'topic'
667 to 'subsystem', the commits from 'subsystem' will remain duplicated forever:
668
669 ------------
670 o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
671 \ \
672 o---o---o---o---o o'--o'--o'--o'--o'--M subsystem
673 \ /
674 *---*---*-..........-*--* topic
675 ------------
676
677 Such duplicates are generally frowned upon because they clutter up
678 history, making it harder to follow. To clean things up, you need to
679 transplant the commits on 'topic' to the new 'subsystem' tip, i.e.,
680 rebase 'topic'. This becomes a ripple effect: anyone downstream from
681 'topic' is forced to rebase too, and so on!
682
683 There are two kinds of fixes, discussed in the following subsections:
684
685 Easy case: The changes are literally the same.::
686
687 This happens if the 'subsystem' rebase was a simple rebase and
688 had no conflicts.
689
690 Hard case: The changes are not the same.::
691
692 This happens if the 'subsystem' rebase had conflicts, or used
693 `--interactive` to omit, edit, squash, or fixup commits; or
694 if the upstream used one of `commit --amend`, `reset`, or
695 `filter-branch`.
696
697
698 The easy case
699 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
700
701 Only works if the changes (patch IDs based on the diff contents) on
702 'subsystem' are literally the same before and after the rebase
703 'subsystem' did.
704
705 In that case, the fix is easy because 'git rebase' knows to skip
706 changes that are already present in the new upstream. So if you say
707 (assuming you're on 'topic')
708 ------------
709 $ git rebase subsystem
710 ------------
711 you will end up with the fixed history
712 ------------
713 o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
714 \
715 o'--o'--o'--o'--o' subsystem
716 \
717 *---*---* topic
718 ------------
719
720
721 The hard case
722 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
723
724 Things get more complicated if the 'subsystem' changes do not exactly
725 correspond to the ones before the rebase.
726
727 NOTE: While an "easy case recovery" sometimes appears to be successful
728 even in the hard case, it may have unintended consequences. For
729 example, a commit that was removed via `git rebase
730 --interactive` will be **resurrected**!
731
732 The idea is to manually tell 'git rebase' "where the old 'subsystem'
733 ended and your 'topic' began", that is, what the old merge-base
734 between them was. You will have to find a way to name the last commit
735 of the old 'subsystem', for example:
736
737 * With the 'subsystem' reflog: after 'git fetch', the old tip of
738 'subsystem' is at `subsystem@{1}`. Subsequent fetches will
739 increase the number. (See linkgit:git-reflog[1].)
740
741 * Relative to the tip of 'topic': knowing that your 'topic' has three
742 commits, the old tip of 'subsystem' must be `topic~3`.
743
744 You can then transplant the old `subsystem..topic` to the new tip by
745 saying (for the reflog case, and assuming you are on 'topic' already):
746 ------------
747 $ git rebase --onto subsystem subsystem@{1}
748 ------------
749
750 The ripple effect of a "hard case" recovery is especially bad:
751 'everyone' downstream from 'topic' will now have to perform a "hard
752 case" recovery too!
753
754 BUGS
755 ----
756 The todo list presented by `--preserve-merges --interactive` does not
757 represent the topology of the revision graph. Editing commits and
758 rewording their commit messages should work fine, but attempts to
759 reorder commits tend to produce counterintuitive results.
760
761 For example, an attempt to rearrange
762 ------------
763 1 --- 2 --- 3 --- 4 --- 5
764 ------------
765 to
766 ------------
767 1 --- 2 --- 4 --- 3 --- 5
768 ------------
769 by moving the "pick 4" line will result in the following history:
770 ------------
771 3
772 /
773 1 --- 2 --- 4 --- 5
774 ------------
775
776 GIT
777 ---
778 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite