cherry-pick: fix docs describing handling of empty commits
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-cherry-pick.txt
1 git-cherry-pick(1)
2 ==================
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-cherry-pick - Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git cherry-pick' [--edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-x] [--ff]
12 [-S[<key-id>]] <commit>...
13 'git cherry-pick' --continue
14 'git cherry-pick' --quit
15 'git cherry-pick' --abort
16
17 DESCRIPTION
18 -----------
19
20 Given one or more existing commits, apply the change each one
21 introduces, recording a new commit for each. This requires your
22 working tree to be clean (no modifications from the HEAD commit).
23
24 When it is not obvious how to apply a change, the following
25 happens:
26
27 1. The current branch and `HEAD` pointer stay at the last commit
28 successfully made.
29 2. The `CHERRY_PICK_HEAD` ref is set to point at the commit that
30 introduced the change that is difficult to apply.
31 3. Paths in which the change applied cleanly are updated both
32 in the index file and in your working tree.
33 4. For conflicting paths, the index file records up to three
34 versions, as described in the "TRUE MERGE" section of
35 linkgit:git-merge[1]. The working tree files will include
36 a description of the conflict bracketed by the usual
37 conflict markers `<<<<<<<` and `>>>>>>>`.
38 5. No other modifications are made.
39
40 See linkgit:git-merge[1] for some hints on resolving such
41 conflicts.
42
43 OPTIONS
44 -------
45 <commit>...::
46 Commits to cherry-pick.
47 For a more complete list of ways to spell commits, see
48 linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
49 Sets of commits can be passed but no traversal is done by
50 default, as if the '--no-walk' option was specified, see
51 linkgit:git-rev-list[1]. Note that specifying a range will
52 feed all <commit>... arguments to a single revision walk
53 (see a later example that uses 'maint master..next').
54
55 -e::
56 --edit::
57 With this option, 'git cherry-pick' will let you edit the commit
58 message prior to committing.
59
60 -x::
61 When recording the commit, append a line that says
62 "(cherry picked from commit ...)" to the original commit
63 message in order to indicate which commit this change was
64 cherry-picked from. This is done only for cherry
65 picks without conflicts. Do not use this option if
66 you are cherry-picking from your private branch because
67 the information is useless to the recipient. If on the
68 other hand you are cherry-picking between two publicly
69 visible branches (e.g. backporting a fix to a
70 maintenance branch for an older release from a
71 development branch), adding this information can be
72 useful.
73
74 -r::
75 It used to be that the command defaulted to do `-x`
76 described above, and `-r` was to disable it. Now the
77 default is not to do `-x` so this option is a no-op.
78
79 -m parent-number::
80 --mainline parent-number::
81 Usually you cannot cherry-pick a merge because you do not know which
82 side of the merge should be considered the mainline. This
83 option specifies the parent number (starting from 1) of
84 the mainline and allows cherry-pick to replay the change
85 relative to the specified parent.
86
87 -n::
88 --no-commit::
89 Usually the command automatically creates a sequence of commits.
90 This flag applies the changes necessary to cherry-pick
91 each named commit to your working tree and the index,
92 without making any commit. In addition, when this
93 option is used, your index does not have to match the
94 HEAD commit. The cherry-pick is done against the
95 beginning state of your index.
96 +
97 This is useful when cherry-picking more than one commits'
98 effect to your index in a row.
99
100 -s::
101 --signoff::
102 Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
103
104 -S[<key-id>]::
105 --gpg-sign[=<key-id>]::
106 GPG-sign commits.
107
108 --ff::
109 If the current HEAD is the same as the parent of the
110 cherry-pick'ed commit, then a fast forward to this commit will
111 be performed.
112
113 --allow-empty::
114 By default, cherry-picking an empty commit will fail,
115 indicating that an explicit invocation of `git commit
116 --allow-empty` is required. This option overrides that
117 behavior, allowing empty commits to be preserved automatically
118 in a cherry-pick. Note that when "--ff" is in effect, empty
119 commits that meet the "fast-forward" requirement will be kept
120 even without this option. Note also, that use of this option only
121 keeps commits that were initially empty (i.e. the commit recorded the
122 same tree as its parent). Commits which are made empty due to a
123 previous commit are dropped. To force the inclusion of those commits
124 use `--keep-redundant-commits`.
125
126 --allow-empty-message::
127 By default, cherry-picking a commit with an empty message will fail.
128 This option overrides that behaviour, allowing commits with empty
129 messages to be cherry picked.
130
131 --keep-redundant-commits::
132 If a commit being cherry picked duplicates a commit already in the
133 current history, it will become empty. By default these
134 redundant commits cause `cherry-pick` to stop so the user can
135 examine the commit. This option overrides that behavior and
136 creates an empty commit object. Implies `--allow-empty`.
137
138 --strategy=<strategy>::
139 Use the given merge strategy. Should only be used once.
140 See the MERGE STRATEGIES section in linkgit:git-merge[1]
141 for details.
142
143 -X<option>::
144 --strategy-option=<option>::
145 Pass the merge strategy-specific option through to the
146 merge strategy. See linkgit:git-merge[1] for details.
147
148 SEQUENCER SUBCOMMANDS
149 ---------------------
150 include::sequencer.txt[]
151
152 EXAMPLES
153 --------
154 `git cherry-pick master`::
155
156 Apply the change introduced by the commit at the tip of the
157 master branch and create a new commit with this change.
158
159 `git cherry-pick ..master`::
160 `git cherry-pick ^HEAD master`::
161
162 Apply the changes introduced by all commits that are ancestors
163 of master but not of HEAD to produce new commits.
164
165 `git cherry-pick maint next ^master`::
166 `git cherry-pick maint master..next`::
167
168 Apply the changes introduced by all commits that are
169 ancestors of maint or next, but not master or any of its
170 ancestors. Note that the latter does not mean `maint` and
171 everything between `master` and `next`; specifically,
172 `maint` will not be used if it is included in `master`.
173
174 `git cherry-pick master~4 master~2`::
175
176 Apply the changes introduced by the fifth and third last
177 commits pointed to by master and create 2 new commits with
178 these changes.
179
180 `git cherry-pick -n master~1 next`::
181
182 Apply to the working tree and the index the changes introduced
183 by the second last commit pointed to by master and by the last
184 commit pointed to by next, but do not create any commit with
185 these changes.
186
187 `git cherry-pick --ff ..next`::
188
189 If history is linear and HEAD is an ancestor of next, update
190 the working tree and advance the HEAD pointer to match next.
191 Otherwise, apply the changes introduced by those commits that
192 are in next but not HEAD to the current branch, creating a new
193 commit for each new change.
194
195 `git rev-list --reverse master -- README | git cherry-pick -n --stdin`::
196
197 Apply the changes introduced by all commits on the master
198 branch that touched README to the working tree and index,
199 so the result can be inspected and made into a single new
200 commit if suitable.
201
202 The following sequence attempts to backport a patch, bails out because
203 the code the patch applies to has changed too much, and then tries
204 again, this time exercising more care about matching up context lines.
205
206 ------------
207 $ git cherry-pick topic^ <1>
208 $ git diff <2>
209 $ git reset --merge ORIG_HEAD <3>
210 $ git cherry-pick -Xpatience topic^ <4>
211 ------------
212 <1> apply the change that would be shown by `git show topic^`.
213 In this example, the patch does not apply cleanly, so
214 information about the conflict is written to the index and
215 working tree and no new commit results.
216 <2> summarize changes to be reconciled
217 <3> cancel the cherry-pick. In other words, return to the
218 pre-cherry-pick state, preserving any local modifications you had in
219 the working tree.
220 <4> try to apply the change introduced by `topic^` again,
221 spending extra time to avoid mistakes based on incorrectly matching
222 context lines.
223
224 SEE ALSO
225 --------
226 linkgit:git-revert[1]
227
228 GIT
229 ---
230 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite