xmkstemp(): avoid showing truncated template more carefully
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-commit.txt
1 git-commit(1)
2 =============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-commit - Record changes to the repository
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git commit' [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
12 [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
13 [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
14 [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
15 [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--status | --no-status]
16 [-i | -o] [--] [<file>...]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Stores the current contents of the index in a new commit along
21 with a log message from the user describing the changes.
22
23 The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
24
25 1. by using 'git add' to incrementally "add" changes to the
26 index before using the 'commit' command (Note: even modified
27 files must be "added");
28
29 2. by using 'git rm' to remove files from the working tree
30 and the index, again before using the 'commit' command;
31
32 3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
33 case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
34 record the current content of the listed files (which must already
35 be known to git);
36
37 4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
38 "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
39 listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index
40 that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the
41 actual commit;
42
43 5. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the 'commit' command
44 to decide one by one which files or hunks should be part of the commit,
45 before finalizing the operation. See the ``Interactive Mode'' section of
46 linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate these modes.
47
48 The `--dry-run` option can be used to obtain a
49 summary of what is included by any of the above for the next
50 commit by giving the same set of parameters (options and paths).
51
52 If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after
53 that, you can recover from it with 'git reset'.
54
55
56 OPTIONS
57 -------
58 -a::
59 --all::
60 Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
61 been modified and deleted, but new files you have not
62 told git about are not affected.
63
64 -p::
65 --patch::
66 Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose
67 which changes to commit. See linkgit:git-add[1] for
68 details.
69
70 -C <commit>::
71 --reuse-message=<commit>::
72 Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message
73 and the authorship information (including the timestamp)
74 when creating the commit.
75
76 -c <commit>::
77 --reedit-message=<commit>::
78 Like '-C', but with '-c' the editor is invoked, so that
79 the user can further edit the commit message.
80
81 --fixup=<commit>::
82 Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
83 The commit message will be the subject line from the specified
84 commit with a prefix of "fixup! ". See linkgit:git-rebase[1]
85 for details.
86
87 --squash=<commit>::
88 Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
89 The commit message subject line is taken from the specified
90 commit with a prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional
91 commit message options (`-m`/`-c`/`-C`/`-F`). See
92 linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details.
93
94 --reset-author::
95 When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a
96 a conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the
97 resulting commit now belongs of the committer. This also renews
98 the author timestamp.
99
100 --short::
101 When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See
102 linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies `--dry-run`.
103
104 --branch::
105 Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.
106
107 --porcelain::
108 When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready
109 format. See linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies
110 `--dry-run`.
111
112 -z::
113 --null::
114 When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, terminate
115 entries in the status output with NUL, instead of LF. If no
116 format is given, implies the `--porcelain` output format.
117
118 -F <file>::
119 --file=<file>::
120 Take the commit message from the given file. Use '-' to
121 read the message from the standard input.
122
123 --author=<author>::
124 Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the
125 standard `A U Thor <author@example.com>` format. Otherwise <author>
126 is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing
127 commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>);
128 the commit author is then copied from the first such commit found.
129
130 --date=<date>::
131 Override the author date used in the commit.
132
133 -m <msg>::
134 --message=<msg>::
135 Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
136
137 -t <file>::
138 --template=<file>::
139 When editing the commit message, start the editor with the
140 contents in the given file. The `commit.template` configuration
141 variable is often used to give this option implicitly to the
142 command. This mechanism can be used by projects that want to
143 guide participants with some hints on what to write in the message
144 in what order. If the user exits the editor without editing the
145 message, the commit is aborted. This has no effect when a message
146 is given by other means, e.g. with the `-m` or `-F` options.
147
148 -s::
149 --signoff::
150 Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
151 log message.
152
153 -n::
154 --no-verify::
155 This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks.
156 See also linkgit:githooks[5].
157
158 --allow-empty::
159 Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its
160 sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you
161 from making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and
162 is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.
163
164 --allow-empty-message::
165 Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign
166 SCM interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an
167 empty commit message without using plumbing commands like
168 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
169
170 --cleanup=<mode>::
171 This option sets how the commit message is cleaned up.
172 The '<mode>' can be one of 'verbatim', 'whitespace', 'strip',
173 and 'default'. The 'default' mode will strip leading and
174 trailing empty lines and #commentary from the commit message
175 only if the message is to be edited. Otherwise only whitespace
176 removed. The 'verbatim' mode does not change message at all,
177 'whitespace' removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines
178 and 'strip' removes both whitespace and commentary.
179
180 -e::
181 --edit::
182 The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
183 `-m`, and from file with `-C` are usually used as the
184 commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
185 further edit the message taken from these sources.
186
187 --amend::
188 Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree
189 object you would want to replace the latest commit as usual
190 (this includes the usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the
191 commit log editor is seeded with the commit message from the
192 tip of the current branch. The commit you create replaces the
193 current tip -- if it was a merge, it will have the parents of
194 the current tip as parents -- so the current top commit is
195 discarded.
196
197 --no-post-rewrite::
198 Bypass the post-rewrite hook.
199
200 +
201 --
202 It is a rough equivalent for:
203 ------
204 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
205 $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
206 $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
207
208 ------
209 but can be used to amend a merge commit.
210 --
211 +
212 You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
213 amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING
214 FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
215
216 -i::
217 --include::
218 Before making a commit out of staged contents so far,
219 stage the contents of paths given on the command line
220 as well. This is usually not what you want unless you
221 are concluding a conflicted merge.
222
223 -o::
224 --only::
225 Make a commit only from the paths specified on the
226 command line, disregarding any contents that have been
227 staged so far. This is the default mode of operation of
228 'git commit' if any paths are given on the command line,
229 in which case this option can be omitted.
230 If this option is specified together with '--amend', then
231 no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
232 the last commit without committing changes that have
233 already been staged.
234
235 -u[<mode>]::
236 --untracked-files[=<mode>]::
237 Show untracked files.
238 +
239 The mode parameter is optional (defaults to 'all'), and is used to
240 specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
241 default is 'normal', i.e. show untracked files and directories.
242 +
243 The possible options are:
244 +
245 - 'no' - Show no untracked files
246 - 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
247 - 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
248 +
249 The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
250 configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
251
252 -v::
253 --verbose::
254 Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what
255 would be committed at the bottom of the commit message
256 template. Note that this diff output doesn't have its
257 lines prefixed with '#'.
258
259 -q::
260 --quiet::
261 Suppress commit summary message.
262
263 --dry-run::
264 Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are
265 to be committed, paths with local changes that will be left
266 uncommitted and paths that are untracked.
267
268 --status::
269 Include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the commit
270 message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
271 message. Defaults to on, but can be used to override
272 configuration variable commit.status.
273
274 --no-status::
275 Do not include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the
276 commit message template when using an editor to prepare the
277 default commit message.
278
279 \--::
280 Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
281
282 <file>...::
283 When files are given on the command line, the command
284 commits the contents of the named files, without
285 recording the changes already staged. The contents of
286 these files are also staged for the next commit on top
287 of what have been staged before.
288
289 :git-commit: 1
290 include::date-formats.txt[]
291
292 EXAMPLES
293 --------
294 When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in
295 your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area
296 called the "index" with 'git add'. A file can be
297 reverted back, only in the index but not in the working tree,
298 to that of the last commit with `git reset HEAD -- <file>`,
299 which effectively reverts 'git add' and prevents the changes to
300 this file from participating in the next commit. After building
301 the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
302 `git commit` (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
303 has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the
304 command. An example:
305
306 ------------
307 $ edit hello.c
308 $ git rm goodbye.c
309 $ git add hello.c
310 $ git commit
311 ------------
312
313 Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can
314 tell `git commit` to notice the changes to the files whose
315 contents are tracked in
316 your working tree and do corresponding `git add` and `git rm`
317 for you. That is, this example does the same as the earlier
318 example if there is no other change in your working tree:
319
320 ------------
321 $ edit hello.c
322 $ rm goodbye.c
323 $ git commit -a
324 ------------
325
326 The command `git commit -a` first looks at your working tree,
327 notices that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c,
328 and performs necessary `git add` and `git rm` for you.
329
330 After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
331 changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to `git commit`.
332 When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that
333 only records the changes made to the named paths:
334
335 ------------
336 $ edit hello.c hello.h
337 $ git add hello.c hello.h
338 $ edit Makefile
339 $ git commit Makefile
340 ------------
341
342 This makes a commit that records the modification to `Makefile`.
343 The changes staged for `hello.c` and `hello.h` are not included
344 in the resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost --
345 they are still staged and merely held back. After the above
346 sequence, if you do:
347
348 ------------
349 $ git commit
350 ------------
351
352 this second commit would record the changes to `hello.c` and
353 `hello.h` as expected.
354
355 After a merge (initiated by 'git merge' or 'git pull') stops
356 because of conflicts, cleanly merged
357 paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that
358 conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have to first
359 check which paths are conflicting with 'git status'
360 and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would
361 stage the result as usual with 'git add':
362
363 ------------
364 $ git status | grep unmerged
365 unmerged: hello.c
366 $ edit hello.c
367 $ git add hello.c
368 ------------
369
370 After resolving conflicts and staging the result, `git ls-files -u`
371 would stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done,
372 run `git commit` to finally record the merge:
373
374 ------------
375 $ git commit
376 ------------
377
378 As with the case to record your own changes, you can use `-a`
379 option to save typing. One difference is that during a merge
380 resolution, you cannot use `git commit` with pathnames to
381 alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge
382 should be recorded as a single commit. In fact, the command
383 refuses to run when given pathnames (but see `-i` option).
384
385
386 DISCUSSION
387 ----------
388
389 Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
390 with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
391 change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
392 The text up to the first blank line in a commit message is treated
393 as the commit title, and that title is used throughout git.
394 For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a commit into email, and it uses
395 the title on the Subject line and the rest of the commit in the body.
396
397 include::i18n.txt[]
398
399 ENVIRONMENT AND CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
400 ---------------------------------------
401 The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
402 GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the
403 VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that
404 order). See linkgit:git-var[1] for details.
405
406 HOOKS
407 -----
408 This command can run `commit-msg`, `prepare-commit-msg`, `pre-commit`,
409 and `post-commit` hooks. See linkgit:githooks[5] for more
410 information.
411
412 FILES
413 -----
414
415 `$GIT_DIR/COMMIT_EDITMSG`::
416 This file contains the commit message of a commit in progress.
417 If `git commit` exits due to an error before creating a commit,
418 any commit message that has been provided by the user (e.g., in
419 an editor session) will be available in this file, but will be
420 overwritten by the next invocation of `git commit`.
421
422 SEE ALSO
423 --------
424 linkgit:git-add[1],
425 linkgit:git-rm[1],
426 linkgit:git-mv[1],
427 linkgit:git-merge[1],
428 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
429
430 GIT
431 ---
432 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite