doc: git-htmldocs.googlecode.com is no more
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.8.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.8.4]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.8.4.txt[2.8.4],
50 link:RelNotes/2.8.3.txt[2.8.3],
51 link:RelNotes/2.8.2.txt[2.8.2],
52 link:RelNotes/2.8.1.txt[2.8.1],
53 link:RelNotes/2.8.0.txt[2.8].
54
55 * link:v2.7.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.7.3]
56
57 * release notes for
58 link:RelNotes/2.7.3.txt[2.7.3],
59 link:RelNotes/2.7.2.txt[2.7.2],
60 link:RelNotes/2.7.1.txt[2.7.1],
61 link:RelNotes/2.7.0.txt[2.7].
62
63 * link:v2.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 2.6.6]
64
65 * release notes for
66 link:RelNotes/2.6.6.txt[2.6.6],
67 link:RelNotes/2.6.5.txt[2.6.5],
68 link:RelNotes/2.6.4.txt[2.6.4],
69 link:RelNotes/2.6.3.txt[2.6.3],
70 link:RelNotes/2.6.2.txt[2.6.2],
71 link:RelNotes/2.6.1.txt[2.6.1],
72 link:RelNotes/2.6.0.txt[2.6].
73
74 * link:v2.5.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.5.5]
75
76 * release notes for
77 link:RelNotes/2.5.5.txt[2.5.5],
78 link:RelNotes/2.5.4.txt[2.5.4],
79 link:RelNotes/2.5.3.txt[2.5.3],
80 link:RelNotes/2.5.2.txt[2.5.2],
81 link:RelNotes/2.5.1.txt[2.5.1],
82 link:RelNotes/2.5.0.txt[2.5].
83
84 * link:v2.4.11/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.11]
85
86 * release notes for
87 link:RelNotes/2.4.11.txt[2.4.11],
88 link:RelNotes/2.4.10.txt[2.4.10],
89 link:RelNotes/2.4.9.txt[2.4.9],
90 link:RelNotes/2.4.8.txt[2.4.8],
91 link:RelNotes/2.4.7.txt[2.4.7],
92 link:RelNotes/2.4.6.txt[2.4.6],
93 link:RelNotes/2.4.5.txt[2.4.5],
94 link:RelNotes/2.4.4.txt[2.4.4],
95 link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
96 link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
97 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
98 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
99
100 * link:v2.3.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.10]
101
102 * release notes for
103 link:RelNotes/2.3.10.txt[2.3.10],
104 link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
105 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
106 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
107 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
108 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
109 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
110 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
111 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
112 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
113 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
114
115 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
116
117 * release notes for
118 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
119 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
120 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
121 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
122
123 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
124
125 * release notes for
126 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
127 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
128 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
129 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
130 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
131
132 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
133
134 * release notes for
135 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
136 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
137 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
138 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
139 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
140 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
141
142 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
143
144 * release notes for
145 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
146 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
147 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
148 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
149 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
150 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
151
152 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
153
154 * release notes for
155 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
156 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
157 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
158 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
159 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
160 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
161 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
162
163 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
164
165 * release notes for
166 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
167 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
168 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
169 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
170 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
171 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
172
173 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
174
175 * release notes for
176 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
177 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
178 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
179 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
180 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
181
182 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
183
184 * release notes for
185 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
186 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
187 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
188 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
189
190 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
191
192 * release notes for
193 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
194 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
195 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
196 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
197 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
198 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
199 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
200
201 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
202
203 * release notes for
204 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
205 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
206 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
207 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
208
209 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
210
211 * release notes for
212 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
213 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
214 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
216 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
217
218 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
219
220 * release notes for
221 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
222 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
223 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
224 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
225 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
226 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
227 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
228 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
229
230 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
231
232 * release notes for
233 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
234 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
235 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
236 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
237 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
238 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
239
240 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
241
242 * release notes for
243 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
244 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
245 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
246 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
247 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
249 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
250 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
251
252 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
253
254 * release notes for
255 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
256 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
257 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
258 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
259 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
260 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
261 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
262
263 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
264
265 * release notes for
266 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
267 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
268 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
269 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
270 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
271 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
272 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
273 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
274
275 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
276
277 * release notes for
278 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
279 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
280 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
281 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
282 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
283 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
284 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
285
286 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
287
288 * release notes for
289 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
290 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
291 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
292 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
293 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
294
295 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
296
297 * release notes for
298 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
299 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
300 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
301 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
302 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
303 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
304
305 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
306
307 * release notes for
308 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
309 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
310 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
311 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
312 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
313 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
314
315 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
316
317 * release notes for
318 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
319 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
320 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
321 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
322 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
323 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
324
325 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
326
327 * release notes for
328 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
329 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
330 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
331 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
332 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
333
334 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
335
336 * release notes for
337 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
338 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
339 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
340 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
341 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
342 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
343 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
344 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
345 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
346 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
347
348 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
349
350 * release notes for
351 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
352 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
353 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
354 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
355
356 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
357
358 * release notes for
359 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
360 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
361 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
362 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
363 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
364 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
365 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
366 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
367 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
368 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
369
370 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
371
372 * release notes for
373 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
374 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
375 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
376 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
377 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
378 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
379
380 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
381
382 * release notes for
383 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
384 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
385 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
386 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
387 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
388
389 * release notes for
390 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
391 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
392 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
393 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
394 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
395 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
396
397 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
398
399 * release notes for
400 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
401 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
402 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
403 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
404
405 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
406
407 * release notes for
408 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
409 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
410 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
411 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
412 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
413 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
414 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
415
416 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
417
418 * release notes for
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
420 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
421 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
422 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
423 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
424 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
425 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
426
427 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
428
429 * release notes for
430 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
431 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
432 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
433 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
434 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
435 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
436 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
437
438 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
439
440 * release notes for
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
443 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
444 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
445 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
446 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
449
450 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
451
452 * release notes for
453 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
454 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
455 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
456 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
457 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
458 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
459 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
460 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
461 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
462
463 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
464
465 * release notes for
466 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
467 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
468 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
469 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
470 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
471 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
472
473 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
474
475 * release notes for
476 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
477 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
478 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
479 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
480 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
481 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
482 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
483
484 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
485
486 * release notes for
487 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
488 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
489 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
490 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
491 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
492 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
493 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
494
495 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
496 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
497 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
498 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
499
500 ============
501
502 endif::stalenotes[]
503
504 OPTIONS
505 -------
506 --version::
507 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
508
509 --help::
510 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
511 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
512 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
513 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
514 +
515 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
516 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
517 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
518 help ...`.
519
520 -C <path>::
521 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
522 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
523 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
524 <path>`.
525 +
526 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
527 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
528 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
529 example the following invocations are equivalent:
530
531 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
532 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
533
534 -c <name>=<value>::
535 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
536 given will override values from configuration files.
537 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
538 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
539 +
540 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
541 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
542 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
543 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
544
545 --exec-path[=<path>]::
546 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
547 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
548 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
549 the current setting and then exit.
550
551 --html-path::
552 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
553 documentation is installed and exit.
554
555 --man-path::
556 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
557 this version of Git and exit.
558
559 --info-path::
560 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
561 version of Git are installed and exit.
562
563 -p::
564 --paginate::
565 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
566 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
567 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
568 below).
569
570 --no-pager::
571 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
572
573 --git-dir=<path>::
574 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
575 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
576 path or relative path to current working directory.
577
578 --work-tree=<path>::
579 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
580 or a path relative to the current working directory.
581 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
582 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
583 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
584 more detailed discussion).
585
586 --namespace=<path>::
587 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
588 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
589 variable.
590
591 --bare::
592 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
593 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
594 directory.
595
596 --no-replace-objects::
597 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
598 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
599
600 --literal-pathspecs::
601 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
602 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
603 variable to `1`.
604
605 --glob-pathspecs::
606 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
607 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
608 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
609 magic ":(literal)"
610
611 --noglob-pathspecs::
612 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
613 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
614 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
615 magic ":(glob)"
616
617 --icase-pathspecs::
618 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
619 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
620
621 GIT COMMANDS
622 ------------
623
624 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
625 ("plumbing") commands.
626
627 High-level commands (porcelain)
628 -------------------------------
629
630 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
631 ancillary user utilities.
632
633 Main porcelain commands
634 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
635
636 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
637
638 Ancillary Commands
639 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
640 Manipulators:
641
642 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
643
644 Interrogators:
645
646 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
647
648
649 Interacting with Others
650 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
651
652 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
653 people via patch over e-mail.
654
655 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
656
657
658 Low-level commands (plumbing)
659 -----------------------------
660
661 Although Git includes its
662 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
663 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
664 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
665 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
666
667 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
668 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
669 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
670 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
671 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
672 end user experience.
673
674 The following description divides
675 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
676 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
677 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
678 repositories.
679
680
681 Manipulation commands
682 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
683
684 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
685
686
687 Interrogation commands
688 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
689
690 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
691
692 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
693 the working tree.
694
695
696 Synching repositories
697 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
698
699 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
700
701 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
702 typically do not use them directly.
703
704 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
705
706
707 Internal helper commands
708 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
709
710 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
711 users typically do not use them directly.
712
713 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
714
715
716 Configuration Mechanism
717 -----------------------
718
719 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
720 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
721 like this:
722
723 ------------
724 #
725 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
726 #
727
728 ; core variables
729 [core]
730 ; Don't trust file modes
731 filemode = false
732
733 ; user identity
734 [user]
735 name = "Junio C Hamano"
736 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
737
738 ------------
739
740 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
741 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
742 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
743
744
745 Identifier Terminology
746 ----------------------
747 <object>::
748 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
749
750 <blob>::
751 Indicates a blob object name.
752
753 <tree>::
754 Indicates a tree object name.
755
756 <commit>::
757 Indicates a commit object name.
758
759 <tree-ish>::
760 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
761 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
762 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
763 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
764
765 <commit-ish>::
766 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
767 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
768 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
769 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
770
771 <type>::
772 Indicates that an object type is required.
773 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
774
775 <file>::
776 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
777 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
778
779 Symbolic Identifiers
780 --------------------
781 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
782 symbolic notation:
783
784 HEAD::
785 indicates the head of the current branch.
786
787 <tag>::
788 a valid tag 'name'
789 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
790
791 <head>::
792 a valid head 'name'
793 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
794
795 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
796 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
797
798
799 File/Directory Structure
800 ------------------------
801
802 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
803
804 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
805
806 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
807 `$GIT_DIR`.
808
809
810 Terminology
811 -----------
812 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
813
814
815 Environment Variables
816 ---------------------
817 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
818
819 The Git Repository
820 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
821 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
822 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
823 Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
824
825 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
826 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
827 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
828 is used.
829
830 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
831 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
832 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
833 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
834 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
835
836 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
837 If the object storage directory is specified via this
838 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
839 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
840 directory is used.
841
842 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
843 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
844 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
845 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
846 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
847 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
848
849 'GIT_DIR'::
850 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
851 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
852 for the base of the repository.
853 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
854
855 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
856 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
857 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
858 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
859
860 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
861 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
862 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
863
864 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
865 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
866 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
867 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
868 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
869 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
870 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
871 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
872 might be present in order to compare them with the current
873 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
874 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
875 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
876 e.g.,
877 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
878
879 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
880 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
881 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
882 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
883 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
884 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
885 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
886 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
887 command line.
888
889 'GIT_COMMON_DIR'::
890 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
891 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
892 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
893 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
894 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
895 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
896 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
897
898 Git Commits
899 ~~~~~~~~~~~
900 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
901 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
902 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
903 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
904 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
905 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
906 'EMAIL'::
907 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
908
909 Git Diffs
910 ~~~~~~~~~
911 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
912 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
913 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
914 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
915 value passed on the Git diff command line.
916
917 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
918 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
919 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
920 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
921 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
922
923 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
924 +
925 where:
926
927 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
928 contents of <old|new>,
929 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
930 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
931 +
932 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
933 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
934 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
935 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
936 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
937 +
938 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
939 parameter, <path>.
940 +
941 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
942 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
943
944 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
945 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
946
947 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
948 The total number of paths.
949
950 other
951 ~~~~~
952 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
953 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
954 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
955 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
956
957 'GIT_PAGER'::
958 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
959 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
960 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
961 linkgit:git-config[1].
962
963 'GIT_EDITOR'::
964 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
965 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
966 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
967 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
968
969 'GIT_SSH'::
970 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
971 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
972 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
973 when they need to connect to a remote system.
974 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
975 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
976 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
977 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
978 something other than the default SSH port.
979 +
980 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
981 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
982 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
983 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
984 needed).
985 +
986 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
987 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
988 for further details.
989
990 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
991 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
992 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
993 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
994 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
995 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
996
997 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
998 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
999 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
1000
1001 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
1002 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
1003 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
1004 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
1005 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
1006 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
1007 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
1008
1009 'GIT_FLUSH'::
1010 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
1011 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
1012 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
1013 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
1014 flushed. If this
1015 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
1016 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
1017 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
1018 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
1019
1020 'GIT_TRACE'::
1021 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
1022 command execution and external command execution.
1023 +
1024 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
1025 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
1026 stderr.
1027 +
1028 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
1029 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
1030 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
1031 trace messages into this file descriptor.
1032 +
1033 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
1034 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
1035 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
1036 into it.
1037 +
1038 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
1039 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
1040
1041 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
1042 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
1043 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1044 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1045 pack-related performance problems.
1046 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1047
1048 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
1049 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1050 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1051 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1052 starting with "PACK" (but see 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE' below).
1053 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1054
1055 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE'::
1056 Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
1057 given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
1058 verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
1059 certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
1060 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
1061 the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
1062 +
1063 Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
1064 of clones and fetches.
1065
1066 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1067 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1068 time of each Git command.
1069 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1070
1071 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1072 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1073 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1074 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1075
1076 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1077 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1078 cloning of shallow repositories.
1079 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1080
1081 'GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS'::
1082 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1083 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1084 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1085 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1086 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1087 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1088 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1089
1090 'GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS'::
1091 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1092 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1093
1094 'GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS'::
1095 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1096 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1097
1098 'GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS'::
1099 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1100 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1101
1102 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1103 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1104 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1105 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1106 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1107 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1108 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1109 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1110 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1111
1112 'GIT_REF_PARANOIA'::
1113 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1114 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1115 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1116 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1117 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1118 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1119 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1120 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1121 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1122
1123 'GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL'::
1124 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1125 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1126 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1127 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1128 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1129 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1130 currently used by git are:
1131
1132 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1133 or local paths)
1134
1135 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1136 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1137
1138 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
1139 `ssh://`, etc).
1140
1141 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1142 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1143 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1144
1145 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1146 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
1147
1148
1149 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1150 ------------------------
1151
1152 More detail on the following is available from the
1153 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1154 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1155
1156 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1157 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1158 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1159 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1160 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1161 as tags and branch heads.
1162
1163 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1164 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1165 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1166 and some number of parent commits.
1167
1168 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1169 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1170 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1171 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1172
1173 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1174 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1175 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1176 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1177 purpose.
1178
1179 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1180 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1181
1182 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1183 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1184 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1185 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1186 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1187 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1188
1189 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1190 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1191 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1192 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1193 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1194 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1195 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1196 content stored in the index.
1197
1198 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1199 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1200 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1201
1202 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1203 ---------------------
1204
1205 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1206 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1207 for a first-time user.
1208
1209 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1210 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1211 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1212
1213 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1214
1215 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1216 examples.
1217
1218 The internals are documented in the
1219 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1220
1221 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1222 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1223
1224
1225 Authors
1226 -------
1227 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1228 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1229 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1230 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1231
1232 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1233 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1234 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1235
1236 Reporting Bugs
1237 --------------
1238
1239 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1240 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1241 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1242
1243 SEE ALSO
1244 --------
1245 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1246 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1247 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1248 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1249 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1250
1251 GIT
1252 ---
1253 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite