Sync with 2.3.9
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.4.8/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.8]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.4.8.txt[2.4.8],
50 link:RelNotes/2.4.7.txt[2.4.7],
51 link:RelNotes/2.4.6.txt[2.4.6],
52 link:RelNotes/2.4.5.txt[2.4.5],
53 link:RelNotes/2.4.4.txt[2.4.4],
54 link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
55 link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
56 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
57 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
58
59 * link:v2.3.9/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.9]
60
61 * release notes for
62 link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
63 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
64 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
65 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
66 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
67 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
68 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
69 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
70 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
71 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
72
73 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
74
75 * release notes for
76 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
77 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
78 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
79 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
80
81 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
82
83 * release notes for
84 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
85 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
86 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
87 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
88 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
89
90 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
91
92 * release notes for
93 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
94 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
95 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
96 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
97 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
98 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
99
100 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
101
102 * release notes for
103 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
104 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
105 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
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107 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
108 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
109
110 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
111
112 * release notes for
113 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
114 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
115 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
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118 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
119 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
120
121 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
122
123 * release notes for
124 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
125 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
126 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
127 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
128 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
129 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
130
131 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
132
133 * release notes for
134 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
135 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
136 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
137 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
138 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
139
140 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
141
142 * release notes for
143 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
144 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
145 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
146 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
147
148 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
149
150 * release notes for
151 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
152 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
153 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
154 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
155 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
156 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
157 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
158
159 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
160
161 * release notes for
162 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
163 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
164 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
165 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
166
167 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
168
169 * release notes for
170 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
171 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
175
176 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
177
178 * release notes for
179 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
180 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
181 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
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185 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
187
188 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
189
190 * release notes for
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
193 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
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195 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
196 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
197
198 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
199
200 * release notes for
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202 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
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208 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
209
210 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
211
212 * release notes for
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214 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
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218 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
219 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
220
221 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
222
223 * release notes for
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225 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
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230 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
231 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
232
233 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
234
235 * release notes for
236 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
237 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
238 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
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242 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
243
244 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
245
246 * release notes for
247 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
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251 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
252
253 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
254
255 * release notes for
256 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
257 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
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261 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
262
263 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
264
265 * release notes for
266 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
267 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
268 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
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271 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
272
273 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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275 * release notes for
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277 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
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282
283 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
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290 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
291
292 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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294 * release notes for
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305
306 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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308 * release notes for
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310 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
311 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
312 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
313
314 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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316 * release notes for
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328 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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330 * release notes for
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338 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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340 * release notes for
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355 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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357 * release notes for
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363 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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374 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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385 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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387 * release notes for
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396 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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407
408 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
409
410 * release notes for
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420
421 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
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430
431 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
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438 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
439 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
441
442 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
443
444 * release notes for
445 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
446 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
452
453 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
454 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
455 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
456 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
457
458 ============
459
460 endif::stalenotes[]
461
462 OPTIONS
463 -------
464 --version::
465 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
466
467 --help::
468 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
469 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
470 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
471 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
472 +
473 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
474 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
475 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
476 help ...`.
477
478 -C <path>::
479 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
480 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
481 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
482 <path>`.
483 +
484 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
485 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
486 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
487 example the following invocations are equivalent:
488
489 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
490 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
491
492 -c <name>=<value>::
493 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
494 given will override values from configuration files.
495 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
496 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
497 +
498 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
499 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
500 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
501 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
502
503 --exec-path[=<path>]::
504 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
505 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
506 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
507 the current setting and then exit.
508
509 --html-path::
510 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
511 documentation is installed and exit.
512
513 --man-path::
514 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
515 this version of Git and exit.
516
517 --info-path::
518 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
519 version of Git are installed and exit.
520
521 -p::
522 --paginate::
523 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
524 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
525 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
526 below).
527
528 --no-pager::
529 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
530
531 --git-dir=<path>::
532 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
533 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
534 path or relative path to current working directory.
535
536 --work-tree=<path>::
537 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
538 or a path relative to the current working directory.
539 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
540 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
541 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
542 more detailed discussion).
543
544 --namespace=<path>::
545 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
546 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
547 variable.
548
549 --bare::
550 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
551 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
552 directory.
553
554 --no-replace-objects::
555 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
556 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
557
558 --literal-pathspecs::
559 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
560 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
561 variable to `1`.
562
563 --glob-pathspecs::
564 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
565 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
566 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
567 magic ":(literal)"
568
569 --noglob-pathspecs::
570 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
571 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
572 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
573 magic ":(glob)"
574
575 --icase-pathspecs::
576 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
577 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
578
579 GIT COMMANDS
580 ------------
581
582 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
583 ("plumbing") commands.
584
585 High-level commands (porcelain)
586 -------------------------------
587
588 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
589 ancillary user utilities.
590
591 Main porcelain commands
592 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
593
594 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
595
596 Ancillary Commands
597 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
598 Manipulators:
599
600 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
601
602 Interrogators:
603
604 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
605
606
607 Interacting with Others
608 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
609
610 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
611 people via patch over e-mail.
612
613 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
614
615
616 Low-level commands (plumbing)
617 -----------------------------
618
619 Although Git includes its
620 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
621 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
622 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
623 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
624
625 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
626 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
627 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
628 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
629 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
630 end user experience.
631
632 The following description divides
633 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
634 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
635 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
636 repositories.
637
638
639 Manipulation commands
640 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
641
642 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
643
644
645 Interrogation commands
646 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
647
648 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
649
650 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
651 the working tree.
652
653
654 Synching repositories
655 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
656
657 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
658
659 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
660 typically do not use them directly.
661
662 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
663
664
665 Internal helper commands
666 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
667
668 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
669 users typically do not use them directly.
670
671 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
672
673
674 Configuration Mechanism
675 -----------------------
676
677 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
678 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
679 like this:
680
681 ------------
682 #
683 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
684 #
685
686 ; core variables
687 [core]
688 ; Don't trust file modes
689 filemode = false
690
691 ; user identity
692 [user]
693 name = "Junio C Hamano"
694 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
695
696 ------------
697
698 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
699 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
700 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
701
702
703 Identifier Terminology
704 ----------------------
705 <object>::
706 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
707
708 <blob>::
709 Indicates a blob object name.
710
711 <tree>::
712 Indicates a tree object name.
713
714 <commit>::
715 Indicates a commit object name.
716
717 <tree-ish>::
718 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
719 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
720 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
721 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
722
723 <commit-ish>::
724 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
725 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
726 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
727 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
728
729 <type>::
730 Indicates that an object type is required.
731 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
732
733 <file>::
734 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
735 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
736
737 Symbolic Identifiers
738 --------------------
739 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
740 symbolic notation:
741
742 HEAD::
743 indicates the head of the current branch.
744
745 <tag>::
746 a valid tag 'name'
747 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
748
749 <head>::
750 a valid head 'name'
751 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
752
753 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
754 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
755
756
757 File/Directory Structure
758 ------------------------
759
760 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
761
762 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
763
764 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
765 `$GIT_DIR`.
766
767
768 Terminology
769 -----------
770 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
771
772
773 Environment Variables
774 ---------------------
775 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
776
777 The Git Repository
778 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
779 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
780 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
781 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
782
783 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
784 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
785 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
786 is used.
787
788 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
789 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
790 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
791 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
792 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
793
794 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
795 If the object storage directory is specified via this
796 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
797 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
798 directory is used.
799
800 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
801 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
802 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
803 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
804 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
805 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
806
807 'GIT_DIR'::
808 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
809 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
810 for the base of the repository.
811 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
812
813 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
814 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
815 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
816 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
817
818 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
819 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
820 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
821
822 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
823 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
824 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
825 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
826 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
827 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
828 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
829 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
830 might be present in order to compare them with the current
831 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
832 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
833 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
834 e.g.,
835 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
836
837 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
838 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
839 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
840 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
841 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
842 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
843 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
844 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
845 command line.
846
847 Git Commits
848 ~~~~~~~~~~~
849 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
850 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
851 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
852 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
853 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
854 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
855 'EMAIL'::
856 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
857
858 Git Diffs
859 ~~~~~~~~~
860 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
861 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
862 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
863 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
864 value passed on the Git diff command line.
865
866 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
867 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
868 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
869 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
870 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
871
872 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
873 +
874 where:
875
876 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
877 contents of <old|new>,
878 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
879 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
880 +
881 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
882 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
883 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
884 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
885 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
886 +
887 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
888 parameter, <path>.
889 +
890 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
891 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
892
893 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
894 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
895
896 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
897 The total number of paths.
898
899 other
900 ~~~~~
901 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
902 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
903 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
904 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
905
906 'GIT_PAGER'::
907 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
908 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
909 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
910 linkgit:git-config[1].
911
912 'GIT_EDITOR'::
913 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
914 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
915 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
916 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
917
918 'GIT_SSH'::
919 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
920 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
921 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
922 when they need to connect to a remote system.
923 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
924 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
925 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
926 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
927 something other than the default SSH port.
928 +
929 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
930 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
931 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
932 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
933 needed).
934 +
935 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
936 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
937 for further details.
938
939 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
940 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
941 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
942 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
943 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
944 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
945
946 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
947 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
948 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
949
950 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
951 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
952 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
953 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
954 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
955 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
956 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
957
958 'GIT_FLUSH'::
959 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
960 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
961 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
962 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
963 flushed. If this
964 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
965 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
966 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
967 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
968
969 'GIT_TRACE'::
970 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
971 command execution and external command execution.
972 +
973 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
974 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
975 stderr.
976 +
977 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
978 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
979 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
980 trace messages into this file descriptor.
981 +
982 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
983 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
984 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
985 into it.
986 +
987 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
988 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
989
990 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
991 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
992 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
993 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
994 pack-related performance problems.
995 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
996
997 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
998 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
999 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1000 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1001 starting with "PACK".
1002 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1003
1004 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1005 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1006 time of each Git command.
1007 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1008
1009 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1010 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1011 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1012 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1013
1014 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1015 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1016 cloning of shallow repositories.
1017 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1018
1019 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
1020 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1021 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1022 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1023 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1024 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1025 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1026 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1027
1028 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1029 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1030 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1031
1032 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1033 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1034 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1035
1036 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1037 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1038 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1039
1040 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1041 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1042 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1043 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1044 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1045 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1046 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1047 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1048 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1049
1050 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1051 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1052 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1053 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1054 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1055 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1056 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1057 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1058 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1059 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1060
1061
1062 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1063 ------------------------
1064
1065 More detail on the following is available from the
1066 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1067 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1068
1069 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1070 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1071 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1072 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1073 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1074 as tags and branch heads.
1075
1076 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1077 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1078 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1079 and some number of parent commits.
1080
1081 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1082 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1083 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1084 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1085
1086 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1087 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1088 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1089 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1090 purpose.
1091
1092 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1093 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1094
1095 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1096 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1097 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1098 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1099 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1100 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1101
1102 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1103 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1104 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1105 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1106 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1107 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1108 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1109 content stored in the index.
1110
1111 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1112 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1113 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1114
1115 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1116 ---------------------
1117
1118 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1119 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1120 for a first-time user.
1121
1122 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1123 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1124 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1125
1126 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1127
1128 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1129 examples.
1130
1131 The internals are documented in the
1132 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1133
1134 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1135 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1136
1137
1138 Authors
1139 -------
1140 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1141 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1142 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1143 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1144
1145 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1146 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1147 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1148
1149 Reporting Bugs
1150 --------------
1151
1152 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1153 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1154 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1155
1156 SEE ALSO
1157 --------
1158 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1159 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1160 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1161 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1162 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1163
1164 GIT
1165 ---
1166 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite