edceb50866f184b7c17dac16a54fedd8e45ccfcb
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.2.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.2]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
50 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
51 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
52
53 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
54
55 * release notes for
56 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
57 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
58 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
59 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
60 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
61
62 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
63
64 * release notes for
65 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
66 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
67 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
68 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
69 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
70 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
71
72 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
73
74 * release notes for
75 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
76 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
77 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
78 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
79 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
80 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
81
82 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
83
84 * release notes for
85 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
86 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
87 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
88 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
89 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
90 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
91 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
92
93 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
94
95 * release notes for
96 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
97 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
98 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
99 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
100 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
101 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
102
103 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
104
105 * release notes for
106 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
107 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
108 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
109 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
110 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
111
112 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
113
114 * release notes for
115 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
116 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
117 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
118 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
119
120 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
121
122 * release notes for
123 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
124 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
125 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
126 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
127 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
128 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
129 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
130
131 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
132
133 * release notes for
134 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
135 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
136 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
137 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
138
139 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
140
141 * release notes for
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
146 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
147
148 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
149
150 * release notes for
151 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
156 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
157 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
158 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
159
160 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
161
162 * release notes for
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
165 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
166 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
167 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
168 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
169
170 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
171
172 * release notes for
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
177 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
178 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
179 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
180 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
181
182 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
183
184 * release notes for
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
188 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
189 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
192
193 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
194
195 * release notes for
196 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
197 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
198 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
199 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
200 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
201 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
202 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
203 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
204
205 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
206
207 * release notes for
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
209 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
210 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
211 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
212 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
213 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
214 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
215
216 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
217
218 * release notes for
219 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
220 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
221 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
222 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
223 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
224
225 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
226
227 * release notes for
228 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
229 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
230 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
231 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
232 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
233 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
234
235 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
236
237 * release notes for
238 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
239 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
240 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
241 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
242 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
243 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
244
245 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
246
247 * release notes for
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
249 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
250 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
251 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
252 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
253 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
254
255 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
256
257 * release notes for
258 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
259 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
260 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
261 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
262 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
263
264 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
265
266 * release notes for
267 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
268 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
269 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
270 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
271 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
272 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
273 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
274 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
275 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
276 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
277
278 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
279
280 * release notes for
281 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
282 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
283 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
284 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
285
286 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
287
288 * release notes for
289 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
290 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
291 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
292 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
293 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
294 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
295 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
296 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
297 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
298 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
299
300 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
301
302 * release notes for
303 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
304 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
305 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
306 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
307 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
308 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
309
310 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
311
312 * release notes for
313 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
314 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
315 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
316 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
317 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
318
319 * release notes for
320 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
321 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
322 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
323 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
324 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
325 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
326
327 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
328
329 * release notes for
330 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
331 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
332 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
333 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
334
335 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
336
337 * release notes for
338 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
339 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
340 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
341 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
342 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
343 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
344 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
345
346 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
347
348 * release notes for
349 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
350 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
351 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
352 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
353 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
354 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
355 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
356
357 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
358
359 * release notes for
360 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
361 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
362 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
363 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
364 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
365 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
366 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
367
368 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
369
370 * release notes for
371 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
372 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
373 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
374 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
375 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
376 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
377 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
378 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
379
380 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
381
382 * release notes for
383 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
386 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
387 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
388 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
389 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
390 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
391 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
392
393 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
394
395 * release notes for
396 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
397 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
398 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
399 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
400 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
401 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
402
403 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
404
405 * release notes for
406 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
407 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
408 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
409 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
410 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
411 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
412 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
413
414 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
415
416 * release notes for
417 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
418 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
420 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
421 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
422 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
423 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
424
425 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
426 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
427 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
428 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
429
430 ============
431
432 endif::stalenotes[]
433
434 OPTIONS
435 -------
436 --version::
437 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
438
439 --help::
440 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
441 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
442 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
443 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
444 +
445 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
446 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
447 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
448 help ...`.
449
450 -C <path>::
451 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
452 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
453 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
454 <path>`.
455 +
456 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
457 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
458 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
459 example the following invocations are equivalent:
460
461 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
462 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
463
464 -c <name>=<value>::
465 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
466 given will override values from configuration files.
467 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
468 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
469 +
470 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
471 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
472 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
473 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
474
475 --exec-path[=<path>]::
476 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
477 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
478 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
479 the current setting and then exit.
480
481 --html-path::
482 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
483 documentation is installed and exit.
484
485 --man-path::
486 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
487 this version of Git and exit.
488
489 --info-path::
490 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
491 version of Git are installed and exit.
492
493 -p::
494 --paginate::
495 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
496 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
497 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
498 below).
499
500 --no-pager::
501 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
502
503 --git-dir=<path>::
504 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
505 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
506 path or relative path to current working directory.
507
508 --work-tree=<path>::
509 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
510 or a path relative to the current working directory.
511 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
512 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
513 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
514 more detailed discussion).
515
516 --namespace=<path>::
517 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
518 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
519 variable.
520
521 --bare::
522 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
523 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
524 directory.
525
526 --no-replace-objects::
527 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
528 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
529
530 --literal-pathspecs::
531 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
532 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
533 variable to `1`.
534
535 --glob-pathspecs::
536 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
537 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
538 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
539 magic ":(literal)"
540
541 --noglob-pathspecs::
542 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
543 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
544 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
545 magic ":(glob)"
546
547 --icase-pathspecs::
548 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
549 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
550
551 GIT COMMANDS
552 ------------
553
554 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
555 ("plumbing") commands.
556
557 High-level commands (porcelain)
558 -------------------------------
559
560 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
561 ancillary user utilities.
562
563 Main porcelain commands
564 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
565
566 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
567
568 Ancillary Commands
569 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
570 Manipulators:
571
572 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
573
574 Interrogators:
575
576 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
577
578
579 Interacting with Others
580 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
581
582 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
583 people via patch over e-mail.
584
585 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
586
587
588 Low-level commands (plumbing)
589 -----------------------------
590
591 Although Git includes its
592 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
593 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
594 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
595 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
596
597 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
598 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
599 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
600 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
601 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
602 end user experience.
603
604 The following description divides
605 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
606 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
607 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
608 repositories.
609
610
611 Manipulation commands
612 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
613
614 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
615
616
617 Interrogation commands
618 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
619
620 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
621
622 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
623 the working tree.
624
625
626 Synching repositories
627 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
628
629 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
630
631 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
632 typically do not use them directly.
633
634 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
635
636
637 Internal helper commands
638 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
639
640 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
641 users typically do not use them directly.
642
643 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
644
645
646 Configuration Mechanism
647 -----------------------
648
649 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
650 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
651 like this:
652
653 ------------
654 #
655 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
656 #
657
658 ; core variables
659 [core]
660 ; Don't trust file modes
661 filemode = false
662
663 ; user identity
664 [user]
665 name = "Junio C Hamano"
666 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
667
668 ------------
669
670 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
671 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
672 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
673
674
675 Identifier Terminology
676 ----------------------
677 <object>::
678 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
679
680 <blob>::
681 Indicates a blob object name.
682
683 <tree>::
684 Indicates a tree object name.
685
686 <commit>::
687 Indicates a commit object name.
688
689 <tree-ish>::
690 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
691 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
692 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
693 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
694
695 <commit-ish>::
696 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
697 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
698 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
699 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
700
701 <type>::
702 Indicates that an object type is required.
703 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
704
705 <file>::
706 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
707 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
708
709 Symbolic Identifiers
710 --------------------
711 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
712 symbolic notation:
713
714 HEAD::
715 indicates the head of the current branch.
716
717 <tag>::
718 a valid tag 'name'
719 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
720
721 <head>::
722 a valid head 'name'
723 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
724
725 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
726 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
727
728
729 File/Directory Structure
730 ------------------------
731
732 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
733
734 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
735
736 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
737 `$GIT_DIR`.
738
739
740 Terminology
741 -----------
742 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
743
744
745 Environment Variables
746 ---------------------
747 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
748
749 The Git Repository
750 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
751 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
752 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
753 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
754
755 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
756 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
757 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
758 is used.
759
760 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
761 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
762 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
763 files. By default index file version [23] is used.
764
765 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
766 If the object storage directory is specified via this
767 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
768 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
769 directory is used.
770
771 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
772 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
773 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
774 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
775 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
776 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
777
778 'GIT_DIR'::
779 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
780 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
781 for the base of the repository.
782 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
783
784 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
785 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
786 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
787 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
788
789 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
790 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
791 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
792
793 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
794 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
795 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
796 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
797 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
798 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
799 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
800 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
801 might be present in order to compare them with the current
802 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
803 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
804 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
805 e.g.,
806 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
807
808 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
809 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
810 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
811 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
812 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
813 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
814 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
815 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
816 command line.
817
818 Git Commits
819 ~~~~~~~~~~~
820 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
821 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
822 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
823 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
824 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
825 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
826 'EMAIL'::
827 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
828
829 Git Diffs
830 ~~~~~~~~~
831 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
832 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
833 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
834 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
835 value passed on the Git diff command line.
836
837 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
838 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
839 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
840 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
841 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
842
843 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
844 +
845 where:
846
847 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
848 contents of <old|new>,
849 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
850 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
851 +
852 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
853 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
854 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
855 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
856 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
857 +
858 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
859 parameter, <path>.
860 +
861 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
862 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
863
864 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
865 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
866
867 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
868 The total number of paths.
869
870 other
871 ~~~~~
872 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
873 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
874 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
875 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
876
877 'GIT_PAGER'::
878 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
879 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
880 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
881 linkgit:git-config[1].
882
883 'GIT_EDITOR'::
884 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
885 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
886 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
887 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
888
889 'GIT_SSH'::
890 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
891 and 'git push' will use this command instead
892 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
893 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
894 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
895 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
896 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
897 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
898 than the default SSH port.
899 +
900 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
901 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
902 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
903 +
904 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
905 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
906 for further details.
907
908 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
909 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
910 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
911 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
912 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
913 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
914
915 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
916 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
917 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
918 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
919 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
920 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
921 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
922
923 'GIT_FLUSH'::
924 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
925 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
926 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
927 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
928 flushed. If this
929 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
930 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
931 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
932 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
933
934 'GIT_TRACE'::
935 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
936 command execution and external command execution.
937 +
938 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
939 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
940 stderr.
941 +
942 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
943 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
944 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
945 trace messages into this file descriptor.
946 +
947 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
948 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
949 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
950 into it.
951 +
952 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
953 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
954
955 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
956 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
957 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
958 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
959 pack-related performance problems.
960 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
961
962 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
963 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
964 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
965 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
966 starting with "PACK".
967 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
968
969 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
970 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
971 time of each Git command.
972 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
973
974 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
975 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
976 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
977 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
978
979 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
980 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
981 cloning of shallow repositories.
982 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
983
984 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
985 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
986 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
987 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
988 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
989 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
990 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
991 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
992
993 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
994 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
995 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
996
997 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
998 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
999 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1000
1001 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1002 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1003 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1004
1005 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1006 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1007 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1008 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1009 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1010 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1011 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1012 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1013 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1014
1015
1016 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1017 ------------------------
1018
1019 More detail on the following is available from the
1020 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1021 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1022
1023 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1024 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1025 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1026 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1027 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1028 as tags and branch heads.
1029
1030 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1031 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1032 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1033 and some number of parent commits.
1034
1035 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1036 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1037 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1038 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1039
1040 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1041 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1042 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1043 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1044 purpose.
1045
1046 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1047 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1048
1049 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1050 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1051 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1052 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1053 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1054 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1055
1056 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1057 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1058 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1059 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1060 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1061 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1062 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1063 content stored in the index.
1064
1065 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1066 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1067 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1068
1069 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1070 ---------------------
1071
1072 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1073 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1074 for a first-time user.
1075
1076 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1077 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1078 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1079
1080 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1081
1082 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1083 examples.
1084
1085 The internals are documented in the
1086 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1087
1088 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1089 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1090
1091
1092 Authors
1093 -------
1094 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1095 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1096 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1097 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1098
1099 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1100 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1101 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1102
1103 Reporting Bugs
1104 --------------
1105
1106 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1107 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1108 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1109
1110 SEE ALSO
1111 --------
1112 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1113 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1114 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1115 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1116 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1117
1118 GIT
1119 ---
1120 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite