Git 2.3.9
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.3.9/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.9]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
50 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
51 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
52 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
53 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
54 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
55 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
56 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
57 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
58 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
59
60 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
61
62 * release notes for
63 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
64 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
65 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
66 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
67
68 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
69
70 * release notes for
71 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
72 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
73 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
74 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
75 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
76
77 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
78
79 * release notes for
80 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
81 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
82 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
83 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
84 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
85 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
86
87 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
88
89 * release notes for
90 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
91 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
92 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
93 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
94 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
95 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
96
97 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
98
99 * release notes for
100 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
101 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
102 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
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105 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
106 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
107
108 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
109
110 * release notes for
111 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
112 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
113 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
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115 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
116 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
117
118 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
119
120 * release notes for
121 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
122 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
123 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
124 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
125 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
126
127 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
128
129 * release notes for
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131 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
132 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
133 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
134
135 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
136
137 * release notes for
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144 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
145
146 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
147
148 * release notes for
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150 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
151 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
152 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
153
154 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
155
156 * release notes for
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158 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
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160 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
162
163 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
164
165 * release notes for
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173 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
174
175 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
176
177 * release notes for
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179 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
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183 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
184
185 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
186
187 * release notes for
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195 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
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197 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
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206 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
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208 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
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220 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
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231 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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240 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
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250 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
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260 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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293 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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301 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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315 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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325 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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342 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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350 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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361 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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372 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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408 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
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437 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
438 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
439
440 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
441 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
442 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
443 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
444
445 ============
446
447 endif::stalenotes[]
448
449 OPTIONS
450 -------
451 --version::
452 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
453
454 --help::
455 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
456 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
457 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
458 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
459 +
460 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
461 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
462 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
463 help ...`.
464
465 -C <path>::
466 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
467 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
468 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
469 <path>`.
470 +
471 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
472 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
473 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
474 example the following invocations are equivalent:
475
476 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
477 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
478
479 -c <name>=<value>::
480 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
481 given will override values from configuration files.
482 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
483 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
484 +
485 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
486 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
487 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
488 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
489
490 --exec-path[=<path>]::
491 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
492 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
493 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
494 the current setting and then exit.
495
496 --html-path::
497 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
498 documentation is installed and exit.
499
500 --man-path::
501 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
502 this version of Git and exit.
503
504 --info-path::
505 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
506 version of Git are installed and exit.
507
508 -p::
509 --paginate::
510 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
511 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
512 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
513 below).
514
515 --no-pager::
516 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
517
518 --git-dir=<path>::
519 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
520 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
521 path or relative path to current working directory.
522
523 --work-tree=<path>::
524 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
525 or a path relative to the current working directory.
526 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
527 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
528 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
529 more detailed discussion).
530
531 --namespace=<path>::
532 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
533 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
534 variable.
535
536 --bare::
537 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
538 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
539 directory.
540
541 --no-replace-objects::
542 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
543 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
544
545 --literal-pathspecs::
546 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
547 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
548 variable to `1`.
549
550 --glob-pathspecs::
551 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
552 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
553 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
554 magic ":(literal)"
555
556 --noglob-pathspecs::
557 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
558 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
559 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
560 magic ":(glob)"
561
562 --icase-pathspecs::
563 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
564 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
565
566 GIT COMMANDS
567 ------------
568
569 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
570 ("plumbing") commands.
571
572 High-level commands (porcelain)
573 -------------------------------
574
575 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
576 ancillary user utilities.
577
578 Main porcelain commands
579 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
580
581 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
582
583 Ancillary Commands
584 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
585 Manipulators:
586
587 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
588
589 Interrogators:
590
591 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
592
593
594 Interacting with Others
595 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
596
597 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
598 people via patch over e-mail.
599
600 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
601
602
603 Low-level commands (plumbing)
604 -----------------------------
605
606 Although Git includes its
607 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
608 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
609 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
610 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
611
612 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
613 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
614 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
615 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
616 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
617 end user experience.
618
619 The following description divides
620 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
621 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
622 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
623 repositories.
624
625
626 Manipulation commands
627 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
628
629 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
630
631
632 Interrogation commands
633 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
634
635 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
636
637 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
638 the working tree.
639
640
641 Synching repositories
642 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
643
644 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
645
646 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
647 typically do not use them directly.
648
649 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
650
651
652 Internal helper commands
653 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
654
655 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
656 users typically do not use them directly.
657
658 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
659
660
661 Configuration Mechanism
662 -----------------------
663
664 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
665 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
666 like this:
667
668 ------------
669 #
670 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
671 #
672
673 ; core variables
674 [core]
675 ; Don't trust file modes
676 filemode = false
677
678 ; user identity
679 [user]
680 name = "Junio C Hamano"
681 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
682
683 ------------
684
685 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
686 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
687 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
688
689
690 Identifier Terminology
691 ----------------------
692 <object>::
693 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
694
695 <blob>::
696 Indicates a blob object name.
697
698 <tree>::
699 Indicates a tree object name.
700
701 <commit>::
702 Indicates a commit object name.
703
704 <tree-ish>::
705 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
706 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
707 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
708 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
709
710 <commit-ish>::
711 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
712 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
713 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
714 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
715
716 <type>::
717 Indicates that an object type is required.
718 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
719
720 <file>::
721 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
722 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
723
724 Symbolic Identifiers
725 --------------------
726 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
727 symbolic notation:
728
729 HEAD::
730 indicates the head of the current branch.
731
732 <tag>::
733 a valid tag 'name'
734 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
735
736 <head>::
737 a valid head 'name'
738 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
739
740 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
741 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
742
743
744 File/Directory Structure
745 ------------------------
746
747 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
748
749 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
750
751 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
752 `$GIT_DIR`.
753
754
755 Terminology
756 -----------
757 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
758
759
760 Environment Variables
761 ---------------------
762 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
763
764 The Git Repository
765 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
766 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
767 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
768 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
769
770 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
771 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
772 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
773 is used.
774
775 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
776 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
777 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
778 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
779 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
780
781 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
782 If the object storage directory is specified via this
783 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
784 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
785 directory is used.
786
787 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
788 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
789 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
790 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
791 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
792 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
793
794 'GIT_DIR'::
795 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
796 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
797 for the base of the repository.
798 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
799
800 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
801 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
802 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
803 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
804
805 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
806 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
807 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
808
809 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
810 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
811 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
812 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
813 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
814 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
815 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
816 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
817 might be present in order to compare them with the current
818 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
819 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
820 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
821 e.g.,
822 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
823
824 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
825 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
826 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
827 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
828 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
829 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
830 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
831 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
832 command line.
833
834 Git Commits
835 ~~~~~~~~~~~
836 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
837 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
838 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
839 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
840 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
841 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
842 'EMAIL'::
843 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
844
845 Git Diffs
846 ~~~~~~~~~
847 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
848 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
849 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
850 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
851 value passed on the Git diff command line.
852
853 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
854 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
855 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
856 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
857 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
858
859 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
860 +
861 where:
862
863 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
864 contents of <old|new>,
865 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
866 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
867 +
868 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
869 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
870 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
871 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
872 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
873 +
874 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
875 parameter, <path>.
876 +
877 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
878 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
879
880 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
881 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
882
883 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
884 The total number of paths.
885
886 other
887 ~~~~~
888 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
889 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
890 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
891 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
892
893 'GIT_PAGER'::
894 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
895 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
896 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
897 linkgit:git-config[1].
898
899 'GIT_EDITOR'::
900 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
901 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
902 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
903 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
904
905 'GIT_SSH'::
906 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
907 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
908 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
909 when they need to connect to a remote system.
910 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
911 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
912 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
913 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
914 something other than the default SSH port.
915 +
916 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
917 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
918 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
919 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
920 needed).
921 +
922 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
923 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
924 for further details.
925
926 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
927 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
928 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
929 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
930 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
931 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
932
933 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
934 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
935 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
936
937 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
938 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
939 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
940 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
941 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
942 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
943 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
944
945 'GIT_FLUSH'::
946 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
947 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
948 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
949 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
950 flushed. If this
951 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
952 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
953 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
954 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
955
956 'GIT_TRACE'::
957 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
958 command execution and external command execution.
959 +
960 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
961 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
962 stderr.
963 +
964 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
965 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
966 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
967 trace messages into this file descriptor.
968 +
969 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
970 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
971 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
972 into it.
973 +
974 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
975 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
976
977 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
978 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
979 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
980 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
981 pack-related performance problems.
982 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
983
984 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
985 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
986 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
987 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
988 starting with "PACK".
989 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
990
991 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
992 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
993 time of each Git command.
994 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
995
996 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
997 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
998 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
999 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1000
1001 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1002 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1003 cloning of shallow repositories.
1004 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1005
1006 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
1007 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1008 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1009 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1010 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1011 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1012 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1013 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1014
1015 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1016 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1017 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1018
1019 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1020 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1021 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1022
1023 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1024 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1025 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1026
1027 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1028 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1029 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1030 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1031 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1032 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1033 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1034 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1035 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1036
1037 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1038 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1039 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1040 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1041 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1042 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1043 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1044 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1045 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1046 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1047
1048
1049 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1050 ------------------------
1051
1052 More detail on the following is available from the
1053 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1054 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1055
1056 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1057 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1058 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1059 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1060 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1061 as tags and branch heads.
1062
1063 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1064 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1065 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1066 and some number of parent commits.
1067
1068 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1069 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1070 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1071 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1072
1073 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1074 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1075 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1076 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1077 purpose.
1078
1079 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1080 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1081
1082 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1083 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1084 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1085 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1086 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1087 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1088
1089 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1090 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1091 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1092 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1093 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1094 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1095 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1096 content stored in the index.
1097
1098 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1099 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1100 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1101
1102 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1103 ---------------------
1104
1105 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1106 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1107 for a first-time user.
1108
1109 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1110 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1111 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1112
1113 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1114
1115 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1116 examples.
1117
1118 The internals are documented in the
1119 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1120
1121 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1122 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1123
1124
1125 Authors
1126 -------
1127 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1128 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1129 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1130 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1131
1132 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1133 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1134 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1135
1136 Reporting Bugs
1137 --------------
1138
1139 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1140 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1141 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1142
1143 SEE ALSO
1144 --------
1145 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1146 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1147 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1148 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1149 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1150
1151 GIT
1152 ---
1153 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite