Merge branch 'jh/send-email-one-cc'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-for-each-ref.txt
1 git-for-each-ref(1)
2 ===================
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-for-each-ref - Output information on each ref
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git for-each-ref' [--count=<count>] [--shell|--perl|--python|--tcl]
12 [(--sort=<key>)...] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
13 [--points-at <object>] [(--merged | --no-merged) [<object>]]
14 [--contains [<object>]]
15
16 DESCRIPTION
17 -----------
18
19 Iterate over all refs that match `<pattern>` and show them
20 according to the given `<format>`, after sorting them according
21 to the given set of `<key>`. If `<count>` is given, stop after
22 showing that many refs. The interpolated values in `<format>`
23 can optionally be quoted as string literals in the specified
24 host language allowing their direct evaluation in that language.
25
26 OPTIONS
27 -------
28 <count>::
29 By default the command shows all refs that match
30 `<pattern>`. This option makes it stop after showing
31 that many refs.
32
33 <key>::
34 A field name to sort on. Prefix `-` to sort in
35 descending order of the value. When unspecified,
36 `refname` is used. You may use the --sort=<key> option
37 multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
38 key.
39
40 <format>::
41 A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from the
42 object pointed at by a ref being shown. If `fieldname`
43 is prefixed with an asterisk (`*`) and the ref points
44 at a tag object, the value for the field in the object
45 tag refers is used. When unspecified, defaults to
46 `%(objectname) SPC %(objecttype) TAB %(refname)`.
47 It also interpolates `%%` to `%`, and `%xx` where `xx`
48 are hex digits interpolates to character with hex code
49 `xx`; for example `%00` interpolates to `\0` (NUL),
50 `%09` to `\t` (TAB) and `%0a` to `\n` (LF).
51
52 <pattern>...::
53 If one or more patterns are given, only refs are shown that
54 match against at least one pattern, either using fnmatch(3) or
55 literally, in the latter case matching completely or from the
56 beginning up to a slash.
57
58 --shell::
59 --perl::
60 --python::
61 --tcl::
62 If given, strings that substitute `%(fieldname)`
63 placeholders are quoted as string literals suitable for
64 the specified host language. This is meant to produce
65 a scriptlet that can directly be `eval`ed.
66
67 --points-at <object>::
68 Only list refs which points at the given object.
69
70 --merged [<object>]::
71 Only list refs whose tips are reachable from the
72 specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
73
74 --no-merged [<object>]::
75 Only list refs whose tips are not reachable from the
76 specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
77
78 --contains [<object>]::
79 Only list refs which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
80 specified).
81
82 --ignore-case::
83 Sorting and filtering refs are case insensitive.
84
85 FIELD NAMES
86 -----------
87
88 Various values from structured fields in referenced objects can
89 be used to interpolate into the resulting output, or as sort
90 keys.
91
92 For all objects, the following names can be used:
93
94 refname::
95 The name of the ref (the part after $GIT_DIR/).
96 For a non-ambiguous short name of the ref append `:short`.
97 The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
98 abbreviation mode. If `lstrip=<N>` (`rstrip=<N>`) is appended, strips `<N>`
99 slash-separated path components from the front (back) of the refname
100 (e.g. `%(refname:lstrip=2)` turns `refs/tags/foo` into `foo` and
101 `%(refname:rstrip=2)` turns `refs/tags/foo` into `refs`).
102 If `<N>` is a negative number, strip as many path components as
103 necessary from the specified end to leave `-<N>` path components
104 (e.g. `%(refname:lstrip=-2)` turns
105 `refs/tags/foo` into `tags/foo` and `%(refname:rstrip=-1)`
106 turns `refs/tags/foo` into `refs`). When the ref does not have
107 enough components, the result becomes an empty string if
108 stripping with positive <N>, or it becomes the full refname if
109 stripping with negative <N>. Neither is an error.
110 +
111 `strip` can be used as a synomym to `lstrip`.
112
113 objecttype::
114 The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
115
116 objectsize::
117 The size of the object (the same as 'git cat-file -s' reports).
118
119 objectname::
120 The object name (aka SHA-1).
121 For a non-ambiguous abbreviation of the object name append `:short`.
122 For an abbreviation of the object name with desired length append
123 `:short=<length>`, where the minimum length is MINIMUM_ABBREV. The
124 length may be exceeded to ensure unique object names.
125
126 upstream::
127 The name of a local ref which can be considered ``upstream''
128 from the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:lstrip` and
129 `:rstrip` in the same way as `refname` above. Additionally
130 respects `:track` to show "[ahead N, behind M]" and
131 `:trackshort` to show the terse version: ">" (ahead), "<"
132 (behind), "<>" (ahead and behind), or "=" (in sync). `:track`
133 also prints "[gone]" whenever unknown upstream ref is
134 encountered. Append `:track,nobracket` to show tracking
135 information without brackets (i.e "ahead N, behind M"). Has
136 no effect if the ref does not have tracking information
137 associated with it. All the options apart from `nobracket`
138 are mutually exclusive, but if used together the last option
139 is selected.
140
141 push::
142 The name of a local ref which represents the `@{push}`
143 location for the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:lstrip`,
144 `:rstrip`, `:track`, and `:trackshort` options as `upstream`
145 does. Produces an empty string if no `@{push}` ref is
146 configured.
147
148 HEAD::
149 '*' if HEAD matches current ref (the checked out branch), ' '
150 otherwise.
151
152 color::
153 Change output color. Followed by `:<colorname>`, where names
154 are described in `color.branch.*`.
155
156 align::
157 Left-, middle-, or right-align the content between
158 %(align:...) and %(end). The "align:" is followed by
159 `width=<width>` and `position=<position>` in any order
160 separated by a comma, where the `<position>` is either left,
161 right or middle, default being left and `<width>` is the total
162 length of the content with alignment. For brevity, the
163 "width=" and/or "position=" prefixes may be omitted, and bare
164 <width> and <position> used instead. For instance,
165 `%(align:<width>,<position>)`. If the contents length is more
166 than the width then no alignment is performed. If used with
167 `--quote` everything in between %(align:...) and %(end) is
168 quoted, but if nested then only the topmost level performs
169 quoting.
170
171 if::
172 Used as %(if)...%(then)...%(end) or
173 %(if)...%(then)...%(else)...%(end). If there is an atom with
174 value or string literal after the %(if) then everything after
175 the %(then) is printed, else if the %(else) atom is used, then
176 everything after %(else) is printed. We ignore space when
177 evaluating the string before %(then), this is useful when we
178 use the %(HEAD) atom which prints either "*" or " " and we
179 want to apply the 'if' condition only on the 'HEAD' ref.
180 Append ":equals=<string>" or ":notequals=<string>" to compare
181 the value between the %(if:...) and %(then) atoms with the
182 given string.
183
184 symref::
185 The ref which the given symbolic ref refers to. If not a
186 symbolic ref, nothing is printed. Respects the `:short`,
187 `:lstrip` and `:rstrip` options in the same way as `refname`
188 above.
189
190 In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header
191 field names (`tree`, `parent`, `object`, `type`, and `tag`) can
192 be used to specify the value in the header field.
193
194 For commit and tag objects, the special `creatordate` and `creator`
195 fields will correspond to the appropriate date or name-email-date tuple
196 from the `committer` or `tagger` fields depending on the object type.
197 These are intended for working on a mix of annotated and lightweight tags.
198
199 Fields that have name-email-date tuple as its value (`author`,
200 `committer`, and `tagger`) can be suffixed with `name`, `email`,
201 and `date` to extract the named component.
202
203 The complete message in a commit and tag object is `contents`.
204 Its first line is `contents:subject`, where subject is the concatenation
205 of all lines of the commit message up to the first blank line. The next
206 line is 'contents:body', where body is all of the lines after the first
207 blank line. The optional GPG signature is `contents:signature`. The
208 first `N` lines of the message is obtained using `contents:lines=N`.
209 Additionally, the trailers as interpreted by linkgit:git-interpret-trailers[1]
210 are obtained as 'contents:trailers'.
211
212 For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric order
213 (`objectsize`, `authordate`, `committerdate`, `creatordate`, `taggerdate`).
214 All other fields are used to sort in their byte-value order.
215
216 There is also an option to sort by versions, this can be done by using
217 the fieldname `version:refname` or its alias `v:refname`.
218
219 In any case, a field name that refers to a field inapplicable to
220 the object referred by the ref does not cause an error. It
221 returns an empty string instead.
222
223 As a special case for the date-type fields, you may specify a format for
224 the date by adding `:` followed by date format name (see the
225 values the `--date` option to linkgit:git-rev-list[1] takes).
226
227 Some atoms like %(align) and %(if) always require a matching %(end).
228 We call them "opening atoms" and sometimes denote them as %($open).
229
230 When a scripting language specific quoting is in effect, everything
231 between a top-level opening atom and its matching %(end) is evaluated
232 according to the semantics of the opening atom and only its result
233 from the top-level is quoted.
234
235
236 EXAMPLES
237 --------
238
239 An example directly producing formatted text. Show the most recent
240 3 tagged commits:
241
242 ------------
243 #!/bin/sh
244
245 git for-each-ref --count=3 --sort='-*authordate' \
246 --format='From: %(*authorname) %(*authoremail)
247 Subject: %(*subject)
248 Date: %(*authordate)
249 Ref: %(*refname)
250
251 %(*body)
252 ' 'refs/tags'
253 ------------
254
255
256 A simple example showing the use of shell eval on the output,
257 demonstrating the use of --shell. List the prefixes of all heads:
258 ------------
259 #!/bin/sh
260
261 git for-each-ref --shell --format="ref=%(refname)" refs/heads | \
262 while read entry
263 do
264 eval "$entry"
265 echo `dirname $ref`
266 done
267 ------------
268
269
270 A bit more elaborate report on tags, demonstrating that the format
271 may be an entire script:
272 ------------
273 #!/bin/sh
274
275 fmt='
276 r=%(refname)
277 t=%(*objecttype)
278 T=${r#refs/tags/}
279
280 o=%(*objectname)
281 n=%(*authorname)
282 e=%(*authoremail)
283 s=%(*subject)
284 d=%(*authordate)
285 b=%(*body)
286
287 kind=Tag
288 if test "z$t" = z
289 then
290 # could be a lightweight tag
291 t=%(objecttype)
292 kind="Lightweight tag"
293 o=%(objectname)
294 n=%(authorname)
295 e=%(authoremail)
296 s=%(subject)
297 d=%(authordate)
298 b=%(body)
299 fi
300 echo "$kind $T points at a $t object $o"
301 if test "z$t" = zcommit
302 then
303 echo "The commit was authored by $n $e
304 at $d, and titled
305
306 $s
307
308 Its message reads as:
309 "
310 echo "$b" | sed -e "s/^/ /"
311 echo
312 fi
313 '
314
315 eval=`git for-each-ref --shell --format="$fmt" \
316 --sort='*objecttype' \
317 --sort=-taggerdate \
318 refs/tags`
319 eval "$eval"
320 ------------
321
322
323 An example to show the usage of %(if)...%(then)...%(else)...%(end).
324 This prefixes the current branch with a star.
325
326 ------------
327 git for-each-ref --format="%(if)%(HEAD)%(then)* %(else) %(end)%(refname:short)" refs/heads/
328 ------------
329
330
331 An example to show the usage of %(if)...%(then)...%(end).
332 This prints the authorname, if present.
333
334 ------------
335 git for-each-ref --format="%(refname)%(if)%(authorname)%(then) Authored by: %(authorname)%(end)"
336 ------------
337
338 SEE ALSO
339 --------
340 linkgit:git-show-ref[1]
341
342 GIT
343 ---
344 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite