Merge branch 'ls/git-gui-no-double-utf8-author-name'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-branch.txt
1 git-branch(1)
2 =============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-branch - List, create, or delete branches
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git branch' [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [-r | -a]
12 [--list] [-v [--abbrev=<length> | --no-abbrev]]
13 [--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [--sort=<key>]
14 [(--merged | --no-merged) [<commit>]]
15 [--contains [<commit]] [--no-contains [<commit>]]
16 [--points-at <object>] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
17 'git branch' [--track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
18 'git branch' (--set-upstream-to=<upstream> | -u <upstream>) [<branchname>]
19 'git branch' --unset-upstream [<branchname>]
20 'git branch' (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
21 'git branch' (-c | -C) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
22 'git branch' (-d | -D) [-r] <branchname>...
23 'git branch' --edit-description [<branchname>]
24
25 DESCRIPTION
26 -----------
27
28 If `--list` is given, or if there are no non-option arguments, existing
29 branches are listed; the current branch will be highlighted with an
30 asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking branches to be listed,
31 and option `-a` shows both local and remote branches. If a `<pattern>`
32 is given, it is used as a shell wildcard to restrict the output to
33 matching branches. If multiple patterns are given, a branch is shown if
34 it matches any of the patterns. Note that when providing a
35 `<pattern>`, you must use `--list`; otherwise the command is interpreted
36 as branch creation.
37
38 With `--contains`, shows only the branches that contain the named commit
39 (in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the
40 named commit), `--no-contains` inverts it. With `--merged`, only branches
41 merged into the named commit (i.e. the branches whose tip commits are
42 reachable from the named commit) will be listed. With `--no-merged` only
43 branches not merged into the named commit will be listed. If the <commit>
44 argument is missing it defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the tip of the current
45 branch).
46
47 The command's second form creates a new branch head named <branchname>
48 which points to the current `HEAD`, or <start-point> if given.
49
50 Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
51 working tree to it; use "git checkout <newbranch>" to switch to the
52 new branch.
53
54 When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, Git sets up the
55 branch (specifically the `branch.<name>.remote` and `branch.<name>.merge`
56 configuration entries) so that 'git pull' will appropriately merge from
57 the remote-tracking branch. This behavior may be changed via the global
58 `branch.autoSetupMerge` configuration flag. That setting can be
59 overridden by using the `--track` and `--no-track` options, and
60 changed later using `git branch --set-upstream-to`.
61
62 With a `-m` or `-M` option, <oldbranch> will be renamed to <newbranch>.
63 If <oldbranch> had a corresponding reflog, it is renamed to match
64 <newbranch>, and a reflog entry is created to remember the branch
65 renaming. If <newbranch> exists, -M must be used to force the rename
66 to happen.
67
68 The `-c` and `-C` options have the exact same semantics as `-m` and
69 `-M`, except instead of the branch being renamed it along with its
70 config and reflog will be copied to a new name.
71
72 With a `-d` or `-D` option, `<branchname>` will be deleted. You may
73 specify more than one branch for deletion. If the branch currently
74 has a reflog then the reflog will also be deleted.
75
76 Use `-r` together with `-d` to delete remote-tracking branches. Note, that it
77 only makes sense to delete remote-tracking branches if they no longer exist
78 in the remote repository or if 'git fetch' was configured not to fetch
79 them again. See also the 'prune' subcommand of linkgit:git-remote[1] for a
80 way to clean up all obsolete remote-tracking branches.
81
82
83 OPTIONS
84 -------
85 -d::
86 --delete::
87 Delete a branch. The branch must be fully merged in its
88 upstream branch, or in `HEAD` if no upstream was set with
89 `--track` or `--set-upstream-to`.
90
91 -D::
92 Shortcut for `--delete --force`.
93
94 -l::
95 --create-reflog::
96 Create the branch's reflog. This activates recording of
97 all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
98 based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
99 Note that in non-bare repositories, reflogs are usually
100 enabled by default by the `core.logAllRefUpdates` config option.
101 The negated form `--no-create-reflog` only overrides an earlier
102 `--create-reflog`, but currently does not negate the setting of
103 `core.logAllRefUpdates`.
104
105 -f::
106 --force::
107 Reset <branchname> to <startpoint>, even if <branchname> exists
108 already. Without `-f`, 'git branch' refuses to change an existing branch.
109 In combination with `-d` (or `--delete`), allow deleting the
110 branch irrespective of its merged status. In combination with
111 `-m` (or `--move`), allow renaming the branch even if the new
112 branch name already exists, the same applies for `-c` (or `--copy`).
113
114 -m::
115 --move::
116 Move/rename a branch and the corresponding reflog.
117
118 -M::
119 Shortcut for `--move --force`.
120
121 -c::
122 --copy::
123 Copy a branch and the corresponding reflog.
124
125 -C::
126 Shortcut for `--copy --force`.
127
128 --color[=<when>]::
129 Color branches to highlight current, local, and
130 remote-tracking branches.
131 The value must be always (the default), never, or auto.
132
133 --no-color::
134 Turn off branch colors, even when the configuration file gives the
135 default to color output.
136 Same as `--color=never`.
137
138 -i::
139 --ignore-case::
140 Sorting and filtering branches are case insensitive.
141
142 --column[=<options>]::
143 --no-column::
144 Display branch listing in columns. See configuration variable
145 column.branch for option syntax.`--column` and `--no-column`
146 without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never' respectively.
147 +
148 This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
149
150 -r::
151 --remotes::
152 List or delete (if used with -d) the remote-tracking branches.
153
154 -a::
155 --all::
156 List both remote-tracking branches and local branches.
157
158 --list::
159 List branches. With optional `<pattern>...`, e.g. `git
160 branch --list 'maint-*'`, list only the branches that match
161 the pattern(s).
162 +
163 This should not be confused with `git branch -l <branchname>`,
164 which creates a branch named `<branchname>` with a reflog.
165 See `--create-reflog` above for details.
166
167 -v::
168 -vv::
169 --verbose::
170 When in list mode,
171 show sha1 and commit subject line for each head, along with
172 relationship to upstream branch (if any). If given twice, print
173 the name of the upstream branch, as well (see also `git remote
174 show <remote>`).
175
176 -q::
177 --quiet::
178 Be more quiet when creating or deleting a branch, suppressing
179 non-error messages.
180
181 --abbrev=<length>::
182 Alter the sha1's minimum display length in the output listing.
183 The default value is 7 and can be overridden by the `core.abbrev`
184 config option.
185
186 --no-abbrev::
187 Display the full sha1s in the output listing rather than abbreviating them.
188
189 -t::
190 --track::
191 When creating a new branch, set up `branch.<name>.remote` and
192 `branch.<name>.merge` configuration entries to mark the
193 start-point branch as "upstream" from the new branch. This
194 configuration will tell git to show the relationship between the
195 two branches in `git status` and `git branch -v`. Furthermore,
196 it directs `git pull` without arguments to pull from the
197 upstream when the new branch is checked out.
198 +
199 This behavior is the default when the start point is a remote-tracking branch.
200 Set the branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable to `false` if you
201 want `git checkout` and `git branch` to always behave as if `--no-track`
202 were given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
203 start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
204
205 --no-track::
206 Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
207 branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable is true.
208
209 --set-upstream::
210 As this option had confusing syntax, it is no longer supported.
211 Please use `--track` or `--set-upstream-to` instead.
212
213 -u <upstream>::
214 --set-upstream-to=<upstream>::
215 Set up <branchname>'s tracking information so <upstream> is
216 considered <branchname>'s upstream branch. If no <branchname>
217 is specified, then it defaults to the current branch.
218
219 --unset-upstream::
220 Remove the upstream information for <branchname>. If no branch
221 is specified it defaults to the current branch.
222
223 --edit-description::
224 Open an editor and edit the text to explain what the branch is
225 for, to be used by various other commands (e.g. `format-patch`,
226 `request-pull`, and `merge` (if enabled)). Multi-line explanations
227 may be used.
228
229 --contains [<commit>]::
230 Only list branches which contain the specified commit (HEAD
231 if not specified). Implies `--list`.
232
233 --no-contains [<commit>]::
234 Only list branches which don't contain the specified commit
235 (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
236
237 --merged [<commit>]::
238 Only list branches whose tips are reachable from the
239 specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`,
240 incompatible with `--no-merged`.
241
242 --no-merged [<commit>]::
243 Only list branches whose tips are not reachable from the
244 specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`,
245 incompatible with `--merged`.
246
247 <branchname>::
248 The name of the branch to create or delete.
249 The new branch name must pass all checks defined by
250 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
251 may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.
252
253 <start-point>::
254 The new branch head will point to this commit. It may be
255 given as a branch name, a commit-id, or a tag. If this
256 option is omitted, the current HEAD will be used instead.
257
258 <oldbranch>::
259 The name of an existing branch to rename.
260
261 <newbranch>::
262 The new name for an existing branch. The same restrictions as for
263 <branchname> apply.
264
265 --sort=<key>::
266 Sort based on the key given. Prefix `-` to sort in descending
267 order of the value. You may use the --sort=<key> option
268 multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
269 key. The keys supported are the same as those in `git
270 for-each-ref`. Sort order defaults to sorting based on the
271 full refname (including `refs/...` prefix). This lists
272 detached HEAD (if present) first, then local branches and
273 finally remote-tracking branches.
274
275
276 --points-at <object>::
277 Only list branches of the given object.
278
279 --format <format>::
280 A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from a branch ref being shown
281 and the object it points at. The format is the same as
282 that of linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1].
283
284 CONFIGURATION
285 -------------
286 `pager.branch` is only respected when listing branches, i.e., when
287 `--list` is used or implied. The default is to use a pager.
288 See linkgit:git-config[1].
289
290 Examples
291 --------
292
293 Start development from a known tag::
294 +
295 ------------
296 $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
297 $ cd my2.6
298 $ git branch my2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
299 $ git checkout my2.6.14
300 ------------
301 +
302 <1> This step and the next one could be combined into a single step with
303 "checkout -b my2.6.14 v2.6.14".
304
305 Delete an unneeded branch::
306 +
307 ------------
308 $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/.../git.git my.git
309 $ cd my.git
310 $ git branch -d -r origin/todo origin/html origin/man <1>
311 $ git branch -D test <2>
312 ------------
313 +
314 <1> Delete the remote-tracking branches "todo", "html" and "man". The next
315 'fetch' or 'pull' will create them again unless you configure them not to.
316 See linkgit:git-fetch[1].
317 <2> Delete the "test" branch even if the "master" branch (or whichever branch
318 is currently checked out) does not have all commits from the test branch.
319
320
321 Notes
322 -----
323
324 If you are creating a branch that you want to checkout immediately, it is
325 easier to use the git checkout command with its `-b` option to create
326 a branch and check it out with a single command.
327
328 The options `--contains`, `--no-contains`, `--merged` and `--no-merged`
329 serve four related but different purposes:
330
331 - `--contains <commit>` is used to find all branches which will need
332 special attention if <commit> were to be rebased or amended, since those
333 branches contain the specified <commit>.
334
335 - `--no-contains <commit>` is the inverse of that, i.e. branches that don't
336 contain the specified <commit>.
337
338 - `--merged` is used to find all branches which can be safely deleted,
339 since those branches are fully contained by HEAD.
340
341 - `--no-merged` is used to find branches which are candidates for merging
342 into HEAD, since those branches are not fully contained by HEAD.
343
344 SEE ALSO
345 --------
346 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1],
347 linkgit:git-fetch[1],
348 linkgit:git-remote[1],
349 link:user-manual.html#what-is-a-branch[``Understanding history: What is
350 a branch?''] in the Git User's Manual.
351
352 GIT
353 ---
354 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite