ls-refs: filter refs using namespace-stripped name
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
1 Commit Limiting
2 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4 Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
5 special notations explained in the description, additional commit
6 limiting may be applied.
7
8 Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
9 `--since=<date1>` limits to commits newer than `<date1>`, and using it
10 with `--grep=<pattern>` further limits to commits whose log message
11 has a line that matches `<pattern>`), unless otherwise noted.
12
13 Note that these are applied before commit
14 ordering and formatting options, such as `--reverse`.
15
16 --
17
18 -<number>::
19 -n <number>::
20 --max-count=<number>::
21 Limit the number of commits to output.
22
23 --skip=<number>::
24 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
25
26 --since=<date>::
27 --after=<date>::
28 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
29
30 --until=<date>::
31 --before=<date>::
32 Show commits older than a specific date.
33
34 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
35 --max-age=<timestamp>::
36 --min-age=<timestamp>::
37 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
38 endif::git-rev-list[]
39
40 --author=<pattern>::
41 --committer=<pattern>::
42 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
43 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular
44 expression). With more than one `--author=<pattern>`,
45 commits whose author matches any of the given patterns are
46 chosen (similarly for multiple `--committer=<pattern>`).
47
48 --grep-reflog=<pattern>::
49 Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that
50 match the specified pattern (regular expression). With
51 more than one `--grep-reflog`, commits whose reflog message
52 matches any of the given patterns are chosen. It is an
53 error to use this option unless `--walk-reflogs` is in use.
54
55 --grep=<pattern>::
56 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
57 matches the specified pattern (regular expression). With
58 more than one `--grep=<pattern>`, commits whose message
59 matches any of the given patterns are chosen (but see
60 `--all-match`).
61 ifndef::git-rev-list[]
62 +
63 When `--show-notes` is in effect, the message from the notes is
64 matched as if it were part of the log message.
65 endif::git-rev-list[]
66
67 --all-match::
68 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given `--grep`,
69 instead of ones that match at least one.
70
71 --invert-grep::
72 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not
73 match the pattern specified with `--grep=<pattern>`.
74
75 -i::
76 --regexp-ignore-case::
77 Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to letter
78 case.
79
80 --basic-regexp::
81 Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
82 this is the default.
83
84 -E::
85 --extended-regexp::
86 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
87 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
88
89 -F::
90 --fixed-strings::
91 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
92 pattern as a regular expression).
93
94 -P::
95 --perl-regexp::
96 Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular
97 expressions.
98 +
99 Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional
100 compile-time dependency. If Git wasn't compiled with support for them
101 providing this option will cause it to die.
102
103 --remove-empty::
104 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
105
106 --merges::
107 Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as `--min-parents=2`.
108
109 --no-merges::
110 Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is
111 exactly the same as `--max-parents=1`.
112
113 --min-parents=<number>::
114 --max-parents=<number>::
115 --no-min-parents::
116 --no-max-parents::
117 Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
118 commits. In particular, `--max-parents=1` is the same as `--no-merges`,
119 `--min-parents=2` is the same as `--merges`. `--max-parents=0`
120 gives all root commits and `--min-parents=3` all octopus merges.
121 +
122 `--no-min-parents` and `--no-max-parents` reset these limits (to no limit)
123 again. Equivalent forms are `--min-parents=0` (any commit has 0 or more
124 parents) and `--max-parents=-1` (negative numbers denote no upper limit).
125
126 --first-parent::
127 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
128 commit. This option can give a better overview when
129 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
130 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
131 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
132 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
133 brought in to your history by such a merge. Cannot be
134 combined with --bisect.
135
136 --not::
137 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
138 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next `--not`.
139
140 --all::
141 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/`, along with `HEAD`, are
142 listed on the command line as '<commit>'.
143
144 --branches[=<pattern>]::
145 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/heads` are listed
146 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
147 branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?',
148 '{asterisk}', or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
149
150 --tags[=<pattern>]::
151 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/tags` are listed
152 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
153 tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}',
154 or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
155
156 --remotes[=<pattern>]::
157 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/remotes` are listed
158 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
159 remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
160 If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}', or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
161
162 --glob=<glob-pattern>::
163 Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob '<glob-pattern>'
164 are listed on the command line as '<commit>'. Leading 'refs/',
165 is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}',
166 or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
167
168 --exclude=<glob-pattern>::
169
170 Do not include refs matching '<glob-pattern>' that the next `--all`,
171 `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or `--glob` would otherwise
172 consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns
173 up to the next `--all`, `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or
174 `--glob` option (other options or arguments do not clear
175 accumulated patterns).
176 +
177 The patterns given should not begin with `refs/heads`, `refs/tags`, or
178 `refs/remotes` when applied to `--branches`, `--tags`, or `--remotes`,
179 respectively, and they must begin with `refs/` when applied to `--glob`
180 or `--all`. If a trailing '/{asterisk}' is intended, it must be given
181 explicitly.
182
183 --reflog::
184 Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
185 command line as `<commit>`.
186
187 --single-worktree::
188 By default, all working trees will be examined by the
189 following options when there are more than one (see
190 linkgit:git-worktree[1]): `--all`, `--reflog` and
191 `--indexed-objects`.
192 This option forces them to examine the current working tree
193 only.
194
195 --ignore-missing::
196 Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if
197 the bad input was not given.
198
199 ifndef::git-rev-list[]
200 --bisect::
201 Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `refs/bisect/bad`
202 was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
203 bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
204 line. Cannot be combined with --first-parent.
205 endif::git-rev-list[]
206
207 --stdin::
208 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
209 line, read them from the standard input. If a `--` separator is
210 seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
211 result.
212
213 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
214 --quiet::
215 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
216 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
217 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
218 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
219 to `/dev/null` as the output does not have to be formatted.
220 endif::git-rev-list[]
221
222 --cherry-mark::
223 Like `--cherry-pick` (see below) but mark equivalent commits
224 with `=` rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with `+`.
225
226 --cherry-pick::
227 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
228 another commit on the ``other side'' when the set of
229 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
230 +
231 For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
232 to list all commits on only one side of them is with
233 `--left-right` (see the example below in the description of
234 the `--left-right` option). However, it shows the commits that were
235 cherry-picked from the other branch (for example, ``3rd on b'' may be
236 cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
237 excluded from the output.
238
239 --left-only::
240 --right-only::
241 List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric difference,
242 i.e. only those which would be marked `<` resp. `>` by
243 `--left-right`.
244 +
245 For example, `--cherry-pick --right-only A...B` omits those
246 commits from `B` which are in `A` or are patch-equivalent to a commit in
247 `A`. In other words, this lists the `+` commits from `git cherry A B`.
248 More precisely, `--cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges` gives the exact
249 list.
250
251 --cherry::
252 A synonym for `--right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges`; useful to
253 limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
254 have been applied to the other side of a forked history with
255 `git log --cherry upstream...mybranch`, similar to
256 `git cherry upstream mybranch`.
257
258 -g::
259 --walk-reflogs::
260 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
261 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
262 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
263 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
264 and 'commit1\...commit2' notations cannot be used).
265 +
266 With `--pretty` format other than `oneline` (for obvious reasons),
267 this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
268 taken from the reflog. The reflog designator in the output may be shown
269 as `ref@{Nth}` (where `Nth` is the reverse-chronological index in the
270 reflog) or as `ref@{timestamp}` (with the timestamp for that entry),
271 depending on a few rules:
272 +
273 --
274 1. If the starting point is specified as `ref@{Nth}`, show the index
275 format.
276 +
277 2. If the starting point was specified as `ref@{now}`, show the
278 timestamp format.
279 +
280 3. If neither was used, but `--date` was given on the command line, show
281 the timestamp in the format requested by `--date`.
282 +
283 4. Otherwise, show the index format.
284 --
285 +
286 Under `--pretty=oneline`, the commit message is
287 prefixed with this information on the same line.
288 This option cannot be combined with `--reverse`.
289 See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
290
291 --merge::
292 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
293 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
294
295 --boundary::
296 Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are
297 prefixed with `-`.
298
299 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
300 --use-bitmap-index::
301
302 Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if
303 one is available). Note that when traversing with `--objects`,
304 trees and blobs will not have their associated path printed.
305
306 --progress=<header>::
307 Show progress reports on stderr as objects are considered. The
308 `<header>` text will be printed with each progress update.
309 endif::git-rev-list[]
310
311 --
312
313 History Simplification
314 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
315
316 Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
317 commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
318 'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
319 is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
320
321 The following options select the commits to be shown:
322
323 <paths>::
324 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
325
326 --simplify-by-decoration::
327 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
328
329 Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
330
331 The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
332
333 Default mode::
334 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
335 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
336 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
337 with the same content)
338
339 --full-history::
340 Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.
341
342 --dense::
343 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
344 meaningful history.
345
346 --sparse::
347 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
348
349 --simplify-merges::
350 Additional option to `--full-history` to remove some needless
351 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
352 commits contributing to this merge.
353
354 --ancestry-path::
355 When given a range of commits to display (e.g. 'commit1..commit2'
356 or 'commit2 {caret}commit1'), only display commits that exist
357 directly on the ancestry chain between the 'commit1' and
358 'commit2', i.e. commits that are both descendants of 'commit1',
359 and ancestors of 'commit2'.
360
361 A more detailed explanation follows.
362
363 Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
364 that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
365 filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
366
367 In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
368 illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
369 that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
370 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
371 .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
372 / / / / / /
373 I B C D E Y
374 \ / / / / /
375 `-------------' X
376 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
377 The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
378 each merge. The commits are:
379
380 * `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
381 ``asdf'', and a file `quux` exists with contents ``quux''. Initial
382 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
383
384 * In `A`, `foo` contains just ``foo''.
385
386 * `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
387 hence TREESAME to all parents.
388
389 * `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to ``foobar'',
390 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
391
392 * `D` sets `foo` to ``baz''. Its merge `O` combines the strings from
393 `N` and `D` to ``foobarbaz''; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
394
395 * `E` changes `quux` to ``xyzzy'', and its merge `P` combines the
396 strings to ``quux xyzzy''. `P` is TREESAME to `O`, but not to `E`.
397
398 * `X` is an independent root commit that added a new file `side`, and `Y`
399 modified it. `Y` is TREESAME to `X`. Its merge `Q` added `side` to `P`, and
400 `Q` is TREESAME to `P`, but not to `Y`.
401
402 `rev-list` walks backwards through history, including or excluding
403 commits based on whether `--full-history` and/or parent rewriting
404 (via `--parents` or `--children`) are used. The following settings
405 are available.
406
407 Default mode::
408 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
409 (though this can be changed, see `--sparse` below). If the
410 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
411 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
412 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
413 parents.
414 +
415 This results in:
416 +
417 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
418 .-A---N---O
419 / / /
420 I---------D
421 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
422 +
423 Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
424 available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
425 considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
426 empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
427 +
428 Parent/child relations are only visible with `--parents`, but that does
429 not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
430 parent lines.
431
432 --full-history without parent rewriting::
433 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
434 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
435 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
436 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
437 the example, we get
438 +
439 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
440 I A B N D O P Q
441 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
442 +
443 `M` was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents. `E`,
444 `C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
445 do not appear.
446 +
447 Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
448 about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
449 them disconnected.
450
451 --full-history with parent rewriting::
452 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
453 (though this can be changed, see `--sparse` below).
454 +
455 Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
456 Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
457 themselves. This results in
458 +
459 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
460 .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
461 / / / / /
462 I B / D /
463 \ / / / /
464 `-------------'
465 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
466 +
467 Compare to `--full-history` without rewriting above. Note that `E`
468 was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
469 rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
470 `N`, and `X`, `Y` and `Q`.
471
472 In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
473 affects inclusion:
474
475 --dense::
476 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
477 to any parent.
478
479 --sparse::
480 All commits that are walked are included.
481 +
482 Note that without `--full-history`, this still simplifies merges: if
483 one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
484 sides of the merge are never walked.
485
486 --simplify-merges::
487 First, build a history graph in the same way that
488 `--full-history` with parent rewriting does (see above).
489 +
490 Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
491 history according to the following rules:
492 +
493 --
494 * Set `C'` to `C`.
495 +
496 * Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
497 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or that are
498 root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove duplicates, but take care
499 to never drop all parents that we are TREESAME to.
500 +
501 * If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
502 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
503 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
504 --
505 +
506 The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
507 `--full-history` with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
508 +
509 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
510 .-A---M---N---O
511 / / /
512 I B D
513 \ / /
514 `---------'
515 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
516 +
517 Note the major differences in `N`, `P`, and `Q` over `--full-history`:
518 +
519 --
520 * `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
521 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
522 +
523 * `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
524 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
525 +
526 * `Q`'s parent list had `Y` simplified to `X`. `X` was then removed, because it
527 was a TREESAME root. `Q` was then removed completely, because it had one
528 parent and is TREESAME.
529 --
530
531 Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:
532
533 --ancestry-path::
534 Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
535 chain between the ``from'' and ``to'' commits in the given commit
536 range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the ``to''
537 commit and descendants of the ``from'' commit.
538 +
539 As an example use case, consider the following commit history:
540 +
541 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
542 D---E-------F
543 / \ \
544 B---C---G---H---I---J
545 / \
546 A-------K---------------L--M
547 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
548 +
549 A regular 'D..M' computes the set of commits that are ancestors of `M`,
550 but excludes the ones that are ancestors of `D`. This is useful to see
551 what happened to the history leading to `M` since `D`, in the sense
552 that ``what does `M` have that did not exist in `D`''. The result in this
553 example would be all the commits, except `A` and `B` (and `D` itself,
554 of course).
555 +
556 When we want to find out what commits in `M` are contaminated with the
557 bug introduced by `D` and need fixing, however, we might want to view
558 only the subset of 'D..M' that are actually descendants of `D`, i.e.
559 excluding `C` and `K`. This is exactly what the `--ancestry-path`
560 option does. Applied to the 'D..M' range, it results in:
561 +
562 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
563 E-------F
564 \ \
565 G---H---I---J
566 \
567 L--M
568 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
569
570 The `--simplify-by-decoration` option allows you to view only the
571 big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
572 that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
573 (in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
574 above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
575 contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
576 commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
577
578 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
579 Bisection Helpers
580 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
581
582 --bisect::
583 Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
584 included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
585 `refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
586 exists) and the good bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` are
587 added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
588 are no refs in `refs/bisect/`, if
589 +
590 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
591 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
592 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
593 +
594 outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
595 +
596 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
597 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
598 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
599 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
600 +
601 would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
602 introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
603 generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
604 one. Cannot be combined with --first-parent.
605
606 --bisect-vars::
607 This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
608 `refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
609 text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
610 name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
611 expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
612 to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
613 `bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
614 number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
615 `bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
616 `bisect_all`.
617
618 --bisect-all::
619 This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
620 commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
621 commits. Refs in `refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
622 from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
623 `--bisect`.)
624 +
625 This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
626 test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
627 may not compile for example).
628 +
629 This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
630 after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
631 `--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
632 endif::git-rev-list[]
633
634
635 Commit Ordering
636 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
637
638 By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
639
640 --date-order::
641 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
642 otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp order.
643
644 --author-date-order::
645 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
646 otherwise show commits in the author timestamp order.
647
648 --topo-order::
649 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and
650 avoid showing commits on multiple lines of history
651 intermixed.
652 +
653 For example, in a commit history like this:
654 +
655 ----------------------------------------------------------------
656
657 ---1----2----4----7
658 \ \
659 3----5----6----8---
660
661 ----------------------------------------------------------------
662 +
663 where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, `git
664 rev-list` and friends with `--date-order` show the commits in the
665 timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.
666 +
667 With `--topo-order`, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5
668 3 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to
669 avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed
670 together.
671
672 --reverse::
673 Output the commits chosen to be shown (see Commit Limiting
674 section above) in reverse order. Cannot be combined with
675 `--walk-reflogs`.
676
677 Object Traversal
678 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
679
680 These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.
681
682 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
683 --objects::
684 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
685 commits. `--objects foo ^bar` thus means ``send me
686 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
687 object _bar_ but not _foo_''.
688
689 --in-commit-order::
690 Print tree and blob ids in order of the commits. The tree
691 and blob ids are printed after they are first referenced
692 by a commit.
693
694 --objects-edge::
695 Similar to `--objects`, but also print the IDs of excluded
696 commits prefixed with a ``-'' character. This is used by
697 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build a ``thin'' pack, which records
698 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
699 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
700
701 --objects-edge-aggressive::
702 Similar to `--objects-edge`, but it tries harder to find excluded
703 commits at the cost of increased time. This is used instead of
704 `--objects-edge` to build ``thin'' packs for shallow repositories.
705
706 --indexed-objects::
707 Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed
708 on the command line. Note that you probably want to use
709 `--objects`, too.
710
711 --unpacked::
712 Only useful with `--objects`; print the object IDs that are not
713 in packs.
714
715 --filter=<filter-spec>::
716 Only useful with one of the `--objects*`; omits objects (usually
717 blobs) from the list of printed objects. The '<filter-spec>'
718 may be one of the following:
719 +
720 The form '--filter=blob:none' omits all blobs.
721 +
722 The form '--filter=blob:limit=<n>[kmg]' omits blobs larger than n bytes
723 or units. n may be zero. The suffixes k, m, and g can be used to name
724 units in KiB, MiB, or GiB. For example, 'blob:limit=1k' is the same
725 as 'blob:limit=1024'.
726 +
727 The form '--filter=sparse:oid=<blob-ish>' uses a sparse-checkout
728 specification contained in the blob (or blob-expression) '<blob-ish>'
729 to omit blobs that would not be not required for a sparse checkout on
730 the requested refs.
731 +
732 The form '--filter=sparse:path=<path>' similarly uses a sparse-checkout
733 specification contained in <path>.
734 +
735 The form '--filter=tree:<depth>' omits all blobs and trees whose depth
736 from the root tree is >= <depth> (minimum depth if an object is located
737 at multiple depths in the commits traversed). Currently, only <depth>=0
738 is supported, which omits all blobs and trees.
739
740 --no-filter::
741 Turn off any previous `--filter=` argument.
742
743 --filter-print-omitted::
744 Only useful with `--filter=`; prints a list of the objects omitted
745 by the filter. Object IDs are prefixed with a ``~'' character.
746
747 --missing=<missing-action>::
748 A debug option to help with future "partial clone" development.
749 This option specifies how missing objects are handled.
750 +
751 The form '--missing=error' requests that rev-list stop with an error if
752 a missing object is encountered. This is the default action.
753 +
754 The form '--missing=allow-any' will allow object traversal to continue
755 if a missing object is encountered. Missing objects will silently be
756 omitted from the results.
757 +
758 The form '--missing=allow-promisor' is like 'allow-any', but will only
759 allow object traversal to continue for EXPECTED promisor missing objects.
760 Unexpected missing objects will raise an error.
761 +
762 The form '--missing=print' is like 'allow-any', but will also print a
763 list of the missing objects. Object IDs are prefixed with a ``?'' character.
764
765 --exclude-promisor-objects::
766 (For internal use only.) Prefilter object traversal at
767 promisor boundary. This is used with partial clone. This is
768 stronger than `--missing=allow-promisor` because it limits the
769 traversal, rather than just silencing errors about missing
770 objects.
771 endif::git-rev-list[]
772
773 --no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]::
774 Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
775 This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
776 `unsorted` is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
777 given on the command line. Otherwise (if `sorted` or no argument
778 was given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order
779 by commit time.
780 Cannot be combined with `--graph`.
781
782 --do-walk::
783 Overrides a previous `--no-walk`.
784
785 Commit Formatting
786 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
787
788 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
789 Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
790 more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
791 linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
792 endif::git-rev-list[]
793
794 include::pretty-options.txt[]
795
796 --relative-date::
797 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
798
799 --date=<format>::
800 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
801 as when using `--pretty`. `log.date` config variable sets a default
802 value for the log command's `--date` option. By default, dates
803 are shown in the original time zone (either committer's or
804 author's). If `-local` is appended to the format (e.g.,
805 `iso-local`), the user's local time zone is used instead.
806 +
807 `--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
808 e.g. ``2 hours ago''. The `-local` option has no effect for
809 `--date=relative`.
810 +
811 `--date=local` is an alias for `--date=default-local`.
812 +
813 `--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in a ISO 8601-like format.
814 The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:
815
816 - a space instead of the `T` date/time delimiter
817 - a space between time and time zone
818 - no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone
819
820 +
821 `--date=iso-strict` (or `--date=iso8601-strict`) shows timestamps in strict
822 ISO 8601 format.
823 +
824 `--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
825 format, often found in email messages.
826 +
827 `--date=short` shows only the date, but not the time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
828 +
829 `--date=raw` shows the date as seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01
830 00:00:00 UTC), followed by a space, and then the timezone as an offset
831 from UTC (a `+` or `-` with four digits; the first two are hours, and
832 the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp were formatted
833 with `strftime("%s %z")`).
834 Note that the `-local` option does not affect the seconds-since-epoch
835 value (which is always measured in UTC), but does switch the accompanying
836 timezone value.
837 +
838 `--date=unix` shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp (seconds since
839 1970). As with `--raw`, this is always in UTC and therefore `-local`
840 has no effect.
841 +
842 `--date=format:...` feeds the format `...` to your system `strftime`,
843 except for %z and %Z, which are handled internally.
844 Use `--date=format:%c` to show the date in your system locale's
845 preferred format. See the `strftime` manual for a complete list of
846 format placeholders. When using `-local`, the correct syntax is
847 `--date=format-local:...`.
848 +
849 `--date=default` is the default format, and is similar to
850 `--date=rfc2822`, with a few exceptions:
851
852 - there is no comma after the day-of-week
853
854 - the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is used
855
856 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
857 --header::
858 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
859 separated with a NUL character.
860 endif::git-rev-list[]
861
862 --parents::
863 Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent...").
864 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' above.
865
866 --children::
867 Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child...").
868 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' above.
869
870 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
871 --timestamp::
872 Print the raw commit timestamp.
873 endif::git-rev-list[]
874
875 --left-right::
876 Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is reachable from.
877 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
878 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
879 commits are prefixed with `-`.
880 +
881 For example, if you have this topology:
882 +
883 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
884 y---b---b branch B
885 / \ /
886 / .
887 / / \
888 o---x---a---a branch A
889 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
890 +
891 you would get an output like this:
892 +
893 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
894 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
895
896 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
897 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
898 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
899 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
900 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
901 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
902 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
903
904 --graph::
905 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
906 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
907 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
908 to be drawn properly.
909 Cannot be combined with `--no-walk`.
910 +
911 This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' above.
912 +
913 This implies the `--topo-order` option by default, but the
914 `--date-order` option may also be specified.
915
916 --show-linear-break[=<barrier>]::
917 When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened
918 which can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits
919 do not belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier
920 in between them in that case. If `<barrier>` is specified, it
921 is the string that will be shown instead of the default one.
922
923 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
924 --count::
925 Print a number stating how many commits would have been
926 listed, and suppress all other output. When used together
927 with `--left-right`, instead print the counts for left and
928 right commits, separated by a tab. When used together with
929 `--cherry-mark`, omit patch equivalent commits from these
930 counts and print the count for equivalent commits separated
931 by a tab.
932 endif::git-rev-list[]
933
934 ifndef::git-rev-list[]
935 Diff Formatting
936 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
937
938 Listed below are options that control the formatting of diff output.
939 Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
940 options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
941
942 -c::
943 With this option, diff output for a merge commit
944 shows the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
945 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
946 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
947 which were modified from all parents.
948
949 --cc::
950 This flag implies the `-c` option and further compresses the
951 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
952 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
953 one of them without modification.
954
955 -m::
956 This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like
957 regular commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry
958 and diff is generated. An exception is that only diff against
959 the first parent is shown when `--first-parent` option is given;
960 in that case, the output represents the changes the merge
961 brought _into_ the then-current branch.
962
963 -r::
964 Show recursive diffs.
965
966 -t::
967 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies `-r`.
968 endif::git-rev-list[]