db5d5570cf001683875b8c50f50dcecd8608196c
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
13 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
14 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
15 [-c <name>=<value>]
16 [--help] <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
26 "man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
27 also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
28 the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
29 introduction.
30
31 The '<command>' is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
32 as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
35 documentation can be viewed at
36 `http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
37
38 ifdef::stalenotes[]
39 [NOTE]
40 ============
41
42 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
43 unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
44 branch of the `git.git` repository.
45 Documentation for older releases are available here:
46
47 * link:v1.7.8.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.4]
48
49 * release notes for
50 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
51 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
52 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
53 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
54 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
55
56 * link:v1.7.7.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.6]
57
58 * release notes for
59 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
60 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
61 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
62 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
63 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
64 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
65 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
66
67 * link:v1.7.6.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.5]
68
69 * release notes for
70 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
71 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
72 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
73 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
74 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
75 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
76
77 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
78
79 * release notes for
80 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
81 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
82 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
83 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
84 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
85
86 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
87
88 * release notes for
89 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
90 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
91 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
92 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
93 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
94 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
95
96 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
97
98 * release notes for
99 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
100 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
101 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
102 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
103 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
104 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
105
106 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
107
108 * release notes for
109 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
110 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
111 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
112 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
113 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
114 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
115
116 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
117
118 * release notes for
119 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
120 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
121 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
122 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
123 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
124
125 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
126
127 * release notes for
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
129 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
130 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
131 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
132 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
134 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
135 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
136 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
137 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
138
139 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
140
141 * release notes for
142 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
143 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
144 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
145 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
146
147 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
148
149 * release notes for
150 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
151 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
152 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
153 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
154 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
155 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
156 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
157 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
158 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
159 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
160
161 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
162
163 * release notes for
164 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
165 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
166 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
167 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
168 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
169 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
170
171 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
172
173 * release notes for
174 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
175 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
176 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
177 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
178 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
179
180 * release notes for
181 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
182 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
183 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
184 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
185 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
186 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
187
188 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
189
190 * release notes for
191 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
192 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
193 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
194 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
195
196 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
197
198 * release notes for
199 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
200 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
201 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
202 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
203 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
204 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
205 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
206
207 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
208
209 * release notes for
210 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
211 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
212 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
213 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
214 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
215 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
216 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
217
218 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
219
220 * release notes for
221 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
222 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
223 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
224 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
225 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
226 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
227 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
228
229 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
230
231 * release notes for
232 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
233 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
234 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
235 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
236 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
237 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
238 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
239 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
240
241 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
242
243 * release notes for
244 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
245 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
246 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
247 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
248 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
249 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
250 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
251 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
252 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
253
254 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
255
256 * release notes for
257 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
258 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
259 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
260 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
261 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
262 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
263
264 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
265
266 * release notes for
267 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
268 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
269 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
270 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
271 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
272 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
273 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
274
275 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
276
277 * release notes for
278 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
279 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
280 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
281 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
282 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
283 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
284 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
285
286 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
287 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
288 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
289 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
290
291 ============
292
293 endif::stalenotes[]
294
295 OPTIONS
296 -------
297 --version::
298 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
299
300 --help::
301 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
302 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
303 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
304 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
305 +
306 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
307 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
308 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
309 help ...`.
310
311 -c <name>=<value>::
312 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
313 given will override values from configuration files.
314 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
315 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
316
317 --exec-path[=<path>]::
318 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
319 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
320 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
321 the current setting and then exit.
322
323 --html-path::
324 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
325 documentation is installed and exit.
326
327 --man-path::
328 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
329 this version of git and exit.
330
331 --info-path::
332 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
333 version of git are installed and exit.
334
335 -p::
336 --paginate::
337 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
338 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
339 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
340 below).
341
342 --no-pager::
343 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
344
345 --git-dir=<path>::
346 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
347 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
348 path or relative path to current working directory.
349
350 --work-tree=<path>::
351 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
352 or a path relative to the current working directory.
353 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
354 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
355 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
356 more detailed discussion).
357
358 --namespace=<path>::
359 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
360 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
361 variable.
362
363 --bare::
364 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
365 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
366 directory.
367
368 --no-replace-objects::
369 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
370 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
371
372
373 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
374 ---------------------
375
376 See the references above to get started using git. The following is
377 probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
378
379 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
380 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
381 introductions to the underlying git architecture.
382
383 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
384
385 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
386 examples.
387
388 The internals are documented in the
389 link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
390
391 GIT COMMANDS
392 ------------
393
394 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
395 ("plumbing") commands.
396
397 High-level commands (porcelain)
398 -------------------------------
399
400 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
401 ancillary user utilities.
402
403 Main porcelain commands
404 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
405
406 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
407
408 Ancillary Commands
409 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
410 Manipulators:
411
412 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
413
414 Interrogators:
415
416 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
417
418
419 Interacting with Others
420 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
421
422 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
423 people via patch over e-mail.
424
425 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
426
427
428 Low-level commands (plumbing)
429 -----------------------------
430
431 Although git includes its
432 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
433 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
434 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
435 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
436
437 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
438 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
439 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
440 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
441 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
442 end user experience.
443
444 The following description divides
445 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
446 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
447 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
448 repositories.
449
450
451 Manipulation commands
452 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
453
454 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
455
456
457 Interrogation commands
458 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
459
460 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
461
462 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
463 the working tree.
464
465
466 Synching repositories
467 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
468
469 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
470
471 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
472 typically do not use them directly.
473
474 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
475
476
477 Internal helper commands
478 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
479
480 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
481 users typically do not use them directly.
482
483 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
484
485
486 Configuration Mechanism
487 -----------------------
488
489 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
490 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
491 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
492 people. Here is an example:
493
494 ------------
495 #
496 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
497 #
498
499 ; core variables
500 [core]
501 ; Don't trust file modes
502 filemode = false
503
504 ; user identity
505 [user]
506 name = "Junio C Hamano"
507 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
508
509 ------------
510
511 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
512 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
513 list.
514
515
516 Identifier Terminology
517 ----------------------
518 <object>::
519 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
520
521 <blob>::
522 Indicates a blob object name.
523
524 <tree>::
525 Indicates a tree object name.
526
527 <commit>::
528 Indicates a commit object name.
529
530 <tree-ish>::
531 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
532 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
533 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
534 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
535
536 <commit-ish>::
537 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
538 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
539 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
540 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
541
542 <type>::
543 Indicates that an object type is required.
544 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
545
546 <file>::
547 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
548 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
549
550 Symbolic Identifiers
551 --------------------
552 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
553 symbolic notation:
554
555 HEAD::
556 indicates the head of the current branch.
557
558 <tag>::
559 a valid tag 'name'
560 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
561
562 <head>::
563 a valid head 'name'
564 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
565
566 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
567 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
568
569
570 File/Directory Structure
571 ------------------------
572
573 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
574
575 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
576
577 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
578 `$GIT_DIR`.
579
580
581 Terminology
582 -----------
583 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
584
585
586 Environment Variables
587 ---------------------
588 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
589
590 The git Repository
591 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
592 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
593 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
594 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
595
596 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
597 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
598 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
599 is used.
600
601 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
602 If the object storage directory is specified via this
603 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
604 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
605 directory is used.
606
607 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
608 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
609 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
610 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
611 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
612 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
613
614 'GIT_DIR'::
615 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
616 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
617 for the base of the repository.
618
619 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
620 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
621 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
622 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
623 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
624 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
625
626 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
627 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
628 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
629
630 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
631 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
632 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
633 up into while looking for a repository directory.
634 It will not exclude the current working directory or
635 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
636 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
637
638 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
639 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
640 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
641 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
642 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
643 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
644 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
645 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
646 command line.
647
648 git Commits
649 ~~~~~~~~~~~
650 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
651 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
652 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
653 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
654 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
655 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
656 'EMAIL'::
657 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
658
659 git Diffs
660 ~~~~~~~~~
661 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
662 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
663 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
664 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
665 value passed on the git diff command line.
666
667 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
668 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
669 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
670 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
671 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
672
673 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
674 +
675 where:
676
677 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
678 contents of <old|new>,
679 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
680 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
681 +
682 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
683 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
684 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
685 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
686 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
687 +
688 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
689 parameter, <path>.
690
691 other
692 ~~~~~
693 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
694 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
695 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
696 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
697
698 'GIT_PAGER'::
699 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
700 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
701 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
702 linkgit:git-config[1].
703
704 'GIT_SSH'::
705 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
706 and 'git push' will use this command instead
707 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
708 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
709 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
710 shell command to execute on that remote system.
711 +
712 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
713 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
714 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
715 +
716 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
717 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
718 for further details.
719
720 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
721 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
722 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
723 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
724 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
725 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
726
727 'GIT_FLUSH'::
728 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
729 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
730 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
731 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
732 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
733 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
734 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
735 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
736
737 'GIT_TRACE'::
738 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
739 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
740 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
741 execution and external command execution.
742 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
743 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
744 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
745 trace messages into this file descriptor.
746 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
747 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
748 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
749 into it.
750
751 Discussion[[Discussion]]
752 ------------------------
753
754 More detail on the following is available from the
755 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
756 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
757
758 A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
759 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
760 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
761 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
762 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
763 as tags and branch heads.
764
765 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
766 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
767 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
768 and some number of parent commits.
769
770 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
771 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
772 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
773 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
774
775 All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
776 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
777 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
778 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
779 purpose.
780
781 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
782 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
783
784 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
785 may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
786 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
787 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
788 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
789 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
790
791 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
792 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
793 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
794 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
795 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
796 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
797 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
798 content stored in the index.
799
800 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
801 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
802 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
803
804 Authors
805 -------
806 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
807 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
808 <git@vger.kernel.org>. For a more complete list of contributors, see
809 http://git-scm.com/about. If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
810 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
811 the authors for specific parts of the project.
812
813 Reporting Bugs
814 --------------
815
816 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
817 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
818 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
819
820 SEE ALSO
821 --------
822 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
823 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
824 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
825 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
826 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
827
828 GIT
829 ---
830 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite