Merge branch 'jc/i18n-shell-script-gettext'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
26 "man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
27 also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
28 the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
29 introduction.
30
31 The '<command>' is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
32 as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
35 documentation can be viewed at
36 `http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
37
38 ifdef::stalenotes[]
39 [NOTE]
40 ============
41
42 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
43 unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
44 branch of the `git.git` repository.
45 Documentation for older releases are available here:
46
47 * link:v1.7.9.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.4]
48
49 * release notes for
50 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
51 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
52 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
53 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
54 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
55
56 * link:v1.7.8.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.4]
57
58 * release notes for
59 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
60 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
61 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
62 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
63 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
64
65 * link:v1.7.7.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.6]
66
67 * release notes for
68 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
69 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
70 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
71 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
72 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
73 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
74 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
75
76 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
77
78 * release notes for
79 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
80 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
81 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
82 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
83 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
84 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
85 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
86
87 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
88
89 * release notes for
90 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
91 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
92 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
93 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
94 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
95
96 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
97
98 * release notes for
99 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
100 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
101 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
102 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
103 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
104 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
105
106 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
107
108 * release notes for
109 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
110 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
111 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
112 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
113 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
114 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
115
116 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
117
118 * release notes for
119 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
120 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
121 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
122 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
123 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
124 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
125
126 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
127
128 * release notes for
129 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
130 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
131 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
132 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
134
135 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
136
137 * release notes for
138 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
139 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
141 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
146 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
147 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
148
149 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
150
151 * release notes for
152 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
153 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
154 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
155 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
156
157 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
158
159 * release notes for
160 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
161 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
162 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
163 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
164 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
165 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
166 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
167 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
168 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
169 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
170
171 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
172
173 * release notes for
174 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
175 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
176 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
177 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
178 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
179 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
180
181 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
182
183 * release notes for
184 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
185 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
186 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
187 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
188 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
189
190 * release notes for
191 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
192 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
193 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
194 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
195 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
196 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
197
198 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
199
200 * release notes for
201 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
202 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
203 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
204 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
205
206 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
207
208 * release notes for
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
211 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
212 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
213 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
214 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
215 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
216
217 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
218
219 * release notes for
220 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
221 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
222 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
223 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
224 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
225 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
226 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
227
228 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
229
230 * release notes for
231 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
232 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
233 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
234 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
235 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
236 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
237 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
238
239 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
240
241 * release notes for
242 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
243 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
244 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
245 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
246 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
247 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
248 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
249 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
250
251 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
252
253 * release notes for
254 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
255 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
256 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
257 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
258 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
259 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
260 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
261 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
262 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
263
264 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
265
266 * release notes for
267 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
268 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
269 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
270 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
271 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
272 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
273
274 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
275
276 * release notes for
277 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
278 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
279 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
280 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
281 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
282 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
283 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
284
285 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
286
287 * release notes for
288 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
289 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
290 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
291 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
292 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
293 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
294 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
295
296 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
297 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
298 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
299 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
300
301 ============
302
303 endif::stalenotes[]
304
305 OPTIONS
306 -------
307 --version::
308 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
309
310 --help::
311 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
312 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
313 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
314 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
315 +
316 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
317 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
318 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
319 help ...`.
320
321 -c <name>=<value>::
322 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
323 given will override values from configuration files.
324 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
325 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
326
327 --exec-path[=<path>]::
328 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
329 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
330 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
331 the current setting and then exit.
332
333 --html-path::
334 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
335 documentation is installed and exit.
336
337 --man-path::
338 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
339 this version of git and exit.
340
341 --info-path::
342 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
343 version of git are installed and exit.
344
345 -p::
346 --paginate::
347 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
348 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
349 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
350 below).
351
352 --no-pager::
353 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
354
355 --git-dir=<path>::
356 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
357 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
358 path or relative path to current working directory.
359
360 --work-tree=<path>::
361 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
362 or a path relative to the current working directory.
363 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
364 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
365 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
366 more detailed discussion).
367
368 --namespace=<path>::
369 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
370 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
371 variable.
372
373 --bare::
374 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
375 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
376 directory.
377
378 --no-replace-objects::
379 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
380 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
381
382
383 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
384 ---------------------
385
386 See the references above to get started using git. The following is
387 probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
388
389 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
390 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
391 introductions to the underlying git architecture.
392
393 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
394
395 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
396 examples.
397
398 The internals are documented in the
399 link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
400
401 GIT COMMANDS
402 ------------
403
404 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
405 ("plumbing") commands.
406
407 High-level commands (porcelain)
408 -------------------------------
409
410 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
411 ancillary user utilities.
412
413 Main porcelain commands
414 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
415
416 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
417
418 Ancillary Commands
419 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
420 Manipulators:
421
422 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
423
424 Interrogators:
425
426 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
427
428
429 Interacting with Others
430 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
431
432 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
433 people via patch over e-mail.
434
435 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
436
437
438 Low-level commands (plumbing)
439 -----------------------------
440
441 Although git includes its
442 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
443 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
444 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
445 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
446
447 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
448 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
449 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
450 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
451 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
452 end user experience.
453
454 The following description divides
455 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
456 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
457 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
458 repositories.
459
460
461 Manipulation commands
462 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
463
464 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
465
466
467 Interrogation commands
468 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
469
470 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
471
472 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
473 the working tree.
474
475
476 Synching repositories
477 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
478
479 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
480
481 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
482 typically do not use them directly.
483
484 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
485
486
487 Internal helper commands
488 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
489
490 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
491 users typically do not use them directly.
492
493 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
494
495
496 Configuration Mechanism
497 -----------------------
498
499 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
500 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
501 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
502 people. Here is an example:
503
504 ------------
505 #
506 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
507 #
508
509 ; core variables
510 [core]
511 ; Don't trust file modes
512 filemode = false
513
514 ; user identity
515 [user]
516 name = "Junio C Hamano"
517 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
518
519 ------------
520
521 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
522 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
523 list.
524
525
526 Identifier Terminology
527 ----------------------
528 <object>::
529 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
530
531 <blob>::
532 Indicates a blob object name.
533
534 <tree>::
535 Indicates a tree object name.
536
537 <commit>::
538 Indicates a commit object name.
539
540 <tree-ish>::
541 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
542 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
543 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
544 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
545
546 <commit-ish>::
547 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
548 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
549 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
550 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
551
552 <type>::
553 Indicates that an object type is required.
554 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
555
556 <file>::
557 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
558 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
559
560 Symbolic Identifiers
561 --------------------
562 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
563 symbolic notation:
564
565 HEAD::
566 indicates the head of the current branch.
567
568 <tag>::
569 a valid tag 'name'
570 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
571
572 <head>::
573 a valid head 'name'
574 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
575
576 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
577 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
578
579
580 File/Directory Structure
581 ------------------------
582
583 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
584
585 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
586
587 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
588 `$GIT_DIR`.
589
590
591 Terminology
592 -----------
593 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
594
595
596 Environment Variables
597 ---------------------
598 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
599
600 The git Repository
601 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
602 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
603 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
604 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
605
606 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
607 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
608 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
609 is used.
610
611 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
612 If the object storage directory is specified via this
613 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
614 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
615 directory is used.
616
617 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
618 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
619 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
620 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
621 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
622 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
623
624 'GIT_DIR'::
625 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
626 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
627 for the base of the repository.
628
629 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
630 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
631 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
632 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
633 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
634 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
635
636 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
637 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
638 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
639
640 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
641 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
642 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
643 up into while looking for a repository directory.
644 It will not exclude the current working directory or
645 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
646 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
647
648 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
649 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
650 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
651 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
652 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
653 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
654 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
655 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
656 command line.
657
658 git Commits
659 ~~~~~~~~~~~
660 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
661 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
662 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
663 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
664 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
665 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
666 'EMAIL'::
667 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
668
669 git Diffs
670 ~~~~~~~~~
671 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
672 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
673 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
674 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
675 value passed on the git diff command line.
676
677 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
678 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
679 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
680 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
681 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
682
683 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
684 +
685 where:
686
687 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
688 contents of <old|new>,
689 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
690 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
691 +
692 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
693 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
694 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
695 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
696 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
697 +
698 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
699 parameter, <path>.
700
701 other
702 ~~~~~
703 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
704 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
705 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
706 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
707
708 'GIT_PAGER'::
709 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
710 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
711 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
712 linkgit:git-config[1].
713
714 'GIT_SSH'::
715 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
716 and 'git push' will use this command instead
717 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
718 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
719 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
720 shell command to execute on that remote system.
721 +
722 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
723 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
724 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
725 +
726 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
727 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
728 for further details.
729
730 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
731 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
732 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
733 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
734 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
735 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
736
737 'GIT_FLUSH'::
738 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
739 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
740 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
741 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
742 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
743 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
744 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
745 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
746
747 'GIT_TRACE'::
748 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
749 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
750 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
751 execution and external command execution.
752 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
753 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
754 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
755 trace messages into this file descriptor.
756 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
757 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
758 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
759 into it.
760
761 Discussion[[Discussion]]
762 ------------------------
763
764 More detail on the following is available from the
765 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
766 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
767
768 A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
769 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
770 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
771 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
772 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
773 as tags and branch heads.
774
775 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
776 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
777 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
778 and some number of parent commits.
779
780 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
781 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
782 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
783 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
784
785 All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
786 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
787 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
788 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
789 purpose.
790
791 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
792 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
793
794 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
795 may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
796 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
797 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
798 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
799 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
800
801 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
802 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
803 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
804 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
805 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
806 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
807 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
808 content stored in the index.
809
810 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
811 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
812 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
813
814 Authors
815 -------
816 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
817 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
818 <git@vger.kernel.org>. For a more complete list of contributors, see
819 http://git-scm.com/about. If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
820 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
821 the authors for specific parts of the project.
822
823 Reporting Bugs
824 --------------
825
826 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
827 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
828 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
829
830 SEE ALSO
831 --------
832 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
833 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
834 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
835 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
836 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
837
838 GIT
839 ---
840 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite