t5537: re-drop http tests
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.0.0/git.html[documentation for release 2.0]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
50
51 * link:v1.9.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.3]
52
53 * release notes for
54 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
55 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
56 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
57 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
58
59 * link:v1.8.5.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.5]
60
61 * release notes for
62 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
63 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
64 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
65 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
66 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
67 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
68
69 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
70
71 * release notes for
72 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
73 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
74 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
75 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
76 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
77 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
78
79 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
80
81 * release notes for
82 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
83 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
84 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
85 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
86 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
87
88 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
89
90 * release notes for
91 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
92 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
93 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
94 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
95
96 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
97
98 * release notes for
99 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
100 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
101 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
102 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
103 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
104 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
105 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
106
107 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
108
109 * release notes for
110 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
111 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
112 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
113 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
114
115 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
116
117 * release notes for
118 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
119 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
120 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
121 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
122 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
123
124 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
125
126 * release notes for
127 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
129 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
130 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
131 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
132 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
134 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
135
136 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
137
138 * release notes for
139 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
141 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
145
146 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
147
148 * release notes for
149 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
150 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
151 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
156 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
157
158 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
159
160 * release notes for
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
165 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
166 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
167 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
168
169 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
170
171 * release notes for
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
177 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
178 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
179 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
180
181 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
182
183 * release notes for
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
188 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
189 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
191
192 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
193
194 * release notes for
195 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
196 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
197 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
198 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
199 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
200
201 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
202
203 * release notes for
204 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
205 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
206 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
207 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
209 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
210
211 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
212
213 * release notes for
214 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
216 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
217 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
218 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
219 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
220
221 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
222
223 * release notes for
224 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
225 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
226 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
227 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
228 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
229 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
230
231 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
232
233 * release notes for
234 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
235 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
236 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
237 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
238 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
239
240 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
241
242 * release notes for
243 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
244 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
245 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
246 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
247 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
249 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
250 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
251 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
252 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
253
254 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
255
256 * release notes for
257 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
258 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
259 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
260 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
261
262 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
263
264 * release notes for
265 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
266 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
267 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
268 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
269 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
270 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
271 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
272 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
273 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
274 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
275
276 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
277
278 * release notes for
279 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
280 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
281 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
282 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
283 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
284 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
285
286 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
287
288 * release notes for
289 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
290 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
291 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
292 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
293 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
294
295 * release notes for
296 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
297 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
298 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
299 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
300 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
301 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
302
303 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
304
305 * release notes for
306 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
307 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
308 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
309 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
310
311 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
312
313 * release notes for
314 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
315 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
316 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
317 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
318 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
319 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
320 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
321
322 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
323
324 * release notes for
325 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
326 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
327 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
328 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
329 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
330 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
331 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
332
333 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
334
335 * release notes for
336 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
337 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
338 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
339 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
340 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
341 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
342 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
343
344 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
345
346 * release notes for
347 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
348 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
349 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
350 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
351 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
352 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
353 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
354 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
355
356 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
357
358 * release notes for
359 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
360 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
361 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
362 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
363 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
364 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
365 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
366 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
367 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
368
369 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
370
371 * release notes for
372 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
373 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
374 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
375 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
376 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
377 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
378
379 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
380
381 * release notes for
382 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
383 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
386 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
387 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
388 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
389
390 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
391
392 * release notes for
393 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
394 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
396 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
397 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
398 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
399 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
400
401 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
402 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
403 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
404 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
405
406 ============
407
408 endif::stalenotes[]
409
410 OPTIONS
411 -------
412 --version::
413 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
414
415 --help::
416 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
417 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
418 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
419 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
420 +
421 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
422 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
423 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
424 help ...`.
425
426 -C <path>::
427 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
428 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
429 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
430 <path>`.
431 +
432 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
433 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
434 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
435 example the following invocations are equivalent:
436
437 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
438 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
439
440 -c <name>=<value>::
441 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
442 given will override values from configuration files.
443 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
444 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
445
446 --exec-path[=<path>]::
447 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
448 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
449 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
450 the current setting and then exit.
451
452 --html-path::
453 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
454 documentation is installed and exit.
455
456 --man-path::
457 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
458 this version of Git and exit.
459
460 --info-path::
461 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
462 version of Git are installed and exit.
463
464 -p::
465 --paginate::
466 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
467 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
468 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
469 below).
470
471 --no-pager::
472 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
473
474 --git-dir=<path>::
475 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
476 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
477 path or relative path to current working directory.
478
479 --work-tree=<path>::
480 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
481 or a path relative to the current working directory.
482 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
483 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
484 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
485 more detailed discussion).
486
487 --namespace=<path>::
488 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
489 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
490 variable.
491
492 --bare::
493 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
494 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
495 directory.
496
497 --no-replace-objects::
498 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
499 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
500
501 --literal-pathspecs::
502 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
503 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
504 variable to `1`.
505
506 --glob-pathspecs::
507 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
508 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
509 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
510 magic ":(literal)"
511
512 --noglob-pathspecs::
513 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
514 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
515 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
516 magic ":(glob)"
517
518 --icase-pathspecs::
519 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
520 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
521
522 GIT COMMANDS
523 ------------
524
525 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
526 ("plumbing") commands.
527
528 High-level commands (porcelain)
529 -------------------------------
530
531 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
532 ancillary user utilities.
533
534 Main porcelain commands
535 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
536
537 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
538
539 Ancillary Commands
540 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
541 Manipulators:
542
543 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
544
545 Interrogators:
546
547 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
548
549
550 Interacting with Others
551 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
552
553 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
554 people via patch over e-mail.
555
556 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
557
558
559 Low-level commands (plumbing)
560 -----------------------------
561
562 Although Git includes its
563 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
564 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
565 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
566 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
567
568 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
569 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
570 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
571 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
572 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
573 end user experience.
574
575 The following description divides
576 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
577 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
578 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
579 repositories.
580
581
582 Manipulation commands
583 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
584
585 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
586
587
588 Interrogation commands
589 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
590
591 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
592
593 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
594 the working tree.
595
596
597 Synching repositories
598 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
599
600 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
601
602 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
603 typically do not use them directly.
604
605 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
606
607
608 Internal helper commands
609 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
610
611 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
612 users typically do not use them directly.
613
614 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
615
616
617 Configuration Mechanism
618 -----------------------
619
620 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
621 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
622 like this:
623
624 ------------
625 #
626 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
627 #
628
629 ; core variables
630 [core]
631 ; Don't trust file modes
632 filemode = false
633
634 ; user identity
635 [user]
636 name = "Junio C Hamano"
637 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
638
639 ------------
640
641 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
642 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
643 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
644
645
646 Identifier Terminology
647 ----------------------
648 <object>::
649 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
650
651 <blob>::
652 Indicates a blob object name.
653
654 <tree>::
655 Indicates a tree object name.
656
657 <commit>::
658 Indicates a commit object name.
659
660 <tree-ish>::
661 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
662 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
663 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
664 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
665
666 <commit-ish>::
667 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
668 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
669 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
670 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
671
672 <type>::
673 Indicates that an object type is required.
674 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
675
676 <file>::
677 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
678 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
679
680 Symbolic Identifiers
681 --------------------
682 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
683 symbolic notation:
684
685 HEAD::
686 indicates the head of the current branch.
687
688 <tag>::
689 a valid tag 'name'
690 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
691
692 <head>::
693 a valid head 'name'
694 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
695
696 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
697 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
698
699
700 File/Directory Structure
701 ------------------------
702
703 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
704
705 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
706
707 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
708 `$GIT_DIR`.
709
710
711 Terminology
712 -----------
713 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
714
715
716 Environment Variables
717 ---------------------
718 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
719
720 The Git Repository
721 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
722 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
723 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
724 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
725
726 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
727 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
728 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
729 is used.
730
731 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
732 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
733 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
734 files. By default index file version [23] is used.
735
736 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
737 If the object storage directory is specified via this
738 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
739 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
740 directory is used.
741
742 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
743 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
744 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
745 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
746 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
747 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
748
749 'GIT_DIR'::
750 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
751 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
752 for the base of the repository.
753 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
754
755 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
756 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
757 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
758 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
759
760 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
761 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
762 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
763
764 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
765 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
766 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
767 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
768 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
769 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
770 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
771 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
772 might be present in order to compare them with the current
773 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
774 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
775 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
776 e.g.,
777 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
778
779 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
780 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
781 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
782 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
783 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
784 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
785 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
786 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
787 command line.
788
789 Git Commits
790 ~~~~~~~~~~~
791 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
792 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
793 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
794 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
795 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
796 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
797 'EMAIL'::
798 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
799
800 Git Diffs
801 ~~~~~~~~~
802 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
803 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
804 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
805 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
806 value passed on the Git diff command line.
807
808 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
809 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
810 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
811 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
812 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
813
814 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
815 +
816 where:
817
818 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
819 contents of <old|new>,
820 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
821 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
822 +
823 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
824 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
825 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
826 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
827 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
828 +
829 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
830 parameter, <path>.
831 +
832 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
833 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
834
835 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
836 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
837
838 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
839 The total number of paths.
840
841 other
842 ~~~~~
843 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
844 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
845 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
846 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
847
848 'GIT_PAGER'::
849 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
850 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
851 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
852 linkgit:git-config[1].
853
854 'GIT_EDITOR'::
855 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
856 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
857 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
858 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
859
860 'GIT_SSH'::
861 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
862 and 'git push' will use this command instead
863 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
864 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
865 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
866 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
867 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
868 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
869 than the default SSH port.
870 +
871 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
872 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
873 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
874 +
875 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
876 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
877 for further details.
878
879 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
880 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
881 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
882 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
883 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
884 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
885
886 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
887 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
888 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
889 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
890 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
891 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
892 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
893
894 'GIT_FLUSH'::
895 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
896 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
897 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
898 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
899 flushed. If this
900 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
901 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
902 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
903 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
904
905 'GIT_TRACE'::
906 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
907 is case insensitive), Git will print `trace:` messages on
908 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
909 execution and external command execution.
910 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
911 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
912 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
913 trace messages into this file descriptor.
914 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
915 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
916 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
917 into it.
918
919 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
920 If this variable is set to a path, a file will be created at
921 the given path logging all accesses to any packs. For each
922 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
923 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
924 pack-related performance problems.
925
926 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
927 If this variable is set, it shows a trace of all packets
928 coming in or out of a given program. This can help with
929 debugging object negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing
930 is turned off at a packet starting with "PACK".
931
932 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
933 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
934 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
935 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
936 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
937 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
938 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
939 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
940
941 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
942 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
943 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
944
945 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
946 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
947 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
948
949 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
950 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
951 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
952
953 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
954 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
955 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
956 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
957 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
958 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
959 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
960 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
961 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
962
963
964 Discussion[[Discussion]]
965 ------------------------
966
967 More detail on the following is available from the
968 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
969 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
970
971 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
972 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
973 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
974 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
975 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
976 as tags and branch heads.
977
978 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
979 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
980 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
981 and some number of parent commits.
982
983 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
984 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
985 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
986 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
987
988 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
989 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
990 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
991 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
992 purpose.
993
994 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
995 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
996
997 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
998 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
999 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1000 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1001 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1002 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1003
1004 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1005 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1006 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1007 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1008 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1009 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1010 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1011 content stored in the index.
1012
1013 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1014 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1015 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1016
1017 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1018 ---------------------
1019
1020 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1021 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1022 for a first-time user.
1023
1024 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1025 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1026 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1027
1028 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1029
1030 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1031 examples.
1032
1033 The internals are documented in the
1034 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1035
1036 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1037 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1038
1039
1040 Authors
1041 -------
1042 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1043 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1044 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1045 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1046
1047 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1048 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1049 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1050
1051 Reporting Bugs
1052 --------------
1053
1054 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1055 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1056 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1057
1058 SEE ALSO
1059 --------
1060 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1061 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1062 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1063 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1064 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1065
1066 GIT
1067 ---
1068 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite