Change "remote tracking" to "remote-tracking"
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-p4.txt
1 git-p4(1)
2 =========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-p4 - Import from and submit to Perforce repositories
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git p4 clone' [<sync options>] [<clone options>] <p4 depot path>...
13 'git p4 sync' [<sync options>] [<p4 depot path>...]
14 'git p4 rebase'
15 'git p4 submit' [<submit options>] [<master branch name>]
16
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 This command provides a way to interact with p4 repositories
21 using Git.
22
23 Create a new Git repository from an existing p4 repository using
24 'git p4 clone', giving it one or more p4 depot paths. Incorporate
25 new commits from p4 changes with 'git p4 sync'. The 'sync' command
26 is also used to include new branches from other p4 depot paths.
27 Submit Git changes back to p4 using 'git p4 submit'. The command
28 'git p4 rebase' does a sync plus rebases the current branch onto
29 the updated p4 remote branch.
30
31
32 EXAMPLE
33 -------
34 * Clone a repository:
35 +
36 ------------
37 $ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
38 ------------
39
40 * Do some work in the newly created Git repository:
41 +
42 ------------
43 $ cd project
44 $ vi foo.h
45 $ git commit -a -m "edited foo.h"
46 ------------
47
48 * Update the Git repository with recent changes from p4, rebasing your
49 work on top:
50 +
51 ------------
52 $ git p4 rebase
53 ------------
54
55 * Submit your commits back to p4:
56 +
57 ------------
58 $ git p4 submit
59 ------------
60
61
62 COMMANDS
63 --------
64
65 Clone
66 ~~~~~
67 Generally, 'git p4 clone' is used to create a new Git directory
68 from an existing p4 repository:
69 ------------
70 $ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
71 ------------
72 This:
73
74 1. Creates an empty Git repository in a subdirectory called 'project'.
75 +
76 2. Imports the full contents of the head revision from the given p4
77 depot path into a single commit in the Git branch 'refs/remotes/p4/master'.
78 +
79 3. Creates a local branch, 'master' from this remote and checks it out.
80
81 To reproduce the entire p4 history in Git, use the '@all' modifier on
82 the depot path:
83 ------------
84 $ git p4 clone //depot/path/project@all
85 ------------
86
87
88 Sync
89 ~~~~
90 As development continues in the p4 repository, those changes can
91 be included in the Git repository using:
92 ------------
93 $ git p4 sync
94 ------------
95 This command finds new changes in p4 and imports them as Git commits.
96
97 P4 repositories can be added to an existing Git repository using
98 'git p4 sync' too:
99 ------------
100 $ mkdir repo-git
101 $ cd repo-git
102 $ git init
103 $ git p4 sync //path/in/your/perforce/depot
104 ------------
105 This imports the specified depot into
106 'refs/remotes/p4/master' in an existing Git repository. The
107 '--branch' option can be used to specify a different branch to
108 be used for the p4 content.
109
110 If a Git repository includes branches 'refs/remotes/origin/p4', these
111 will be fetched and consulted first during a 'git p4 sync'. Since
112 importing directly from p4 is considerably slower than pulling changes
113 from a Git remote, this can be useful in a multi-developer environment.
114
115 If there are multiple branches, doing 'git p4 sync' will automatically
116 use the "BRANCH DETECTION" algorithm to try to partition new changes
117 into the right branch. This can be overridden with the '--branch'
118 option to specify just a single branch to update.
119
120
121 Rebase
122 ~~~~~~
123 A common working pattern is to fetch the latest changes from the p4 depot
124 and merge them with local uncommitted changes. Often, the p4 repository
125 is the ultimate location for all code, thus a rebase workflow makes
126 sense. This command does 'git p4 sync' followed by 'git rebase' to move
127 local commits on top of updated p4 changes.
128 ------------
129 $ git p4 rebase
130 ------------
131
132
133 Submit
134 ~~~~~~
135 Submitting changes from a Git repository back to the p4 repository
136 requires a separate p4 client workspace. This should be specified
137 using the 'P4CLIENT' environment variable or the Git configuration
138 variable 'git-p4.client'. The p4 client must exist, but the client root
139 will be created and populated if it does not already exist.
140
141 To submit all changes that are in the current Git branch but not in
142 the 'p4/master' branch, use:
143 ------------
144 $ git p4 submit
145 ------------
146
147 To specify a branch other than the current one, use:
148 ------------
149 $ git p4 submit topicbranch
150 ------------
151
152 The upstream reference is generally 'refs/remotes/p4/master', but can
153 be overridden using the '--origin=' command-line option.
154
155 The p4 changes will be created as the user invoking 'git p4 submit'. The
156 '--preserve-user' option will cause ownership to be modified
157 according to the author of the Git commit. This option requires admin
158 privileges in p4, which can be granted using 'p4 protect'.
159
160
161 OPTIONS
162 -------
163
164 General options
165 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
166 All commands except clone accept these options.
167
168 --git-dir <dir>::
169 Set the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable. See linkgit:git[1].
170
171 --verbose, -v::
172 Provide more progress information.
173
174 Sync options
175 ~~~~~~~~~~~~
176 These options can be used in the initial 'clone' as well as in
177 subsequent 'sync' operations.
178
179 --branch <ref>::
180 Import changes into <ref> instead of refs/remotes/p4/master.
181 If <ref> starts with refs/, it is used as is. Otherwise, if
182 it does not start with p4/, that prefix is added.
183 +
184 By default a <ref> not starting with refs/ is treated as the
185 name of a remote-tracking branch (under refs/remotes/). This
186 behavior can be modified using the --import-local option.
187 +
188 The default <ref> is "master".
189 +
190 This example imports a new remote "p4/proj2" into an existing
191 Git repository:
192 +
193 ----
194 $ git init
195 $ git p4 sync --branch=refs/remotes/p4/proj2 //depot/proj2
196 ----
197
198 --detect-branches::
199 Use the branch detection algorithm to find new paths in p4. It is
200 documented below in "BRANCH DETECTION".
201
202 --changesfile <file>::
203 Import exactly the p4 change numbers listed in 'file', one per
204 line. Normally, 'git p4' inspects the current p4 repository
205 state and detects the changes it should import.
206
207 --silent::
208 Do not print any progress information.
209
210 --detect-labels::
211 Query p4 for labels associated with the depot paths, and add
212 them as tags in Git. Limited usefulness as only imports labels
213 associated with new changelists. Deprecated.
214
215 --import-labels::
216 Import labels from p4 into Git.
217
218 --import-local::
219 By default, p4 branches are stored in 'refs/remotes/p4/',
220 where they will be treated as remote-tracking branches by
221 linkgit:git-branch[1] and other commands. This option instead
222 puts p4 branches in 'refs/heads/p4/'. Note that future
223 sync operations must specify '--import-local' as well so that
224 they can find the p4 branches in refs/heads.
225
226 --max-changes <n>::
227 Limit the number of imported changes to 'n'. Useful to
228 limit the amount of history when using the '@all' p4 revision
229 specifier.
230
231 --keep-path::
232 The mapping of file names from the p4 depot path to Git, by
233 default, involves removing the entire depot path. With this
234 option, the full p4 depot path is retained in Git. For example,
235 path '//depot/main/foo/bar.c', when imported from
236 '//depot/main/', becomes 'foo/bar.c'. With '--keep-path', the
237 Git path is instead 'depot/main/foo/bar.c'.
238
239 --use-client-spec::
240 Use a client spec to find the list of interesting files in p4.
241 See the "CLIENT SPEC" section below.
242
243 Clone options
244 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
245 These options can be used in an initial 'clone', along with the 'sync'
246 options described above.
247
248 --destination <directory>::
249 Where to create the Git repository. If not provided, the last
250 component in the p4 depot path is used to create a new
251 directory.
252
253 --bare::
254 Perform a bare clone. See linkgit:git-clone[1].
255
256 -/ <path>::
257 Exclude selected depot paths when cloning.
258
259 Submit options
260 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
261 These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
262
263 --origin <commit>::
264 Upstream location from which commits are identified to submit to
265 p4. By default, this is the most recent p4 commit reachable
266 from 'HEAD'.
267
268 -M::
269 Detect renames. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. Renames will be
270 represented in p4 using explicit 'move' operations. There
271 is no corresponding option to detect copies, but there are
272 variables for both moves and copies.
273
274 --preserve-user::
275 Re-author p4 changes before submitting to p4. This option
276 requires p4 admin privileges.
277
278 --export-labels::
279 Export tags from Git as p4 labels. Tags found in Git are applied
280 to the perforce working directory.
281
282 --dry-run, -n::
283 Show just what commits would be submitted to p4; do not change
284 state in Git or p4.
285
286 --prepare-p4-only::
287 Apply a commit to the p4 workspace, opening, adding and deleting
288 files in p4 as for a normal submit operation. Do not issue the
289 final "p4 submit", but instead print a message about how to
290 submit manually or revert. This option always stops after the
291 first (oldest) commit. Git tags are not exported to p4.
292
293 --conflict=(ask|skip|quit)::
294 Conflicts can occur when applying a commit to p4. When this
295 happens, the default behavior ("ask") is to prompt whether to
296 skip this commit and continue, or quit. This option can be used
297 to bypass the prompt, causing conflicting commits to be automatically
298 skipped, or to quit trying to apply commits, without prompting.
299
300 --branch <branch>::
301 After submitting, sync this named branch instead of the default
302 p4/master. See the "Sync options" section above for more
303 information.
304
305 Rebase options
306 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
307 These options can be used to modify 'git p4 rebase' behavior.
308
309 --import-labels::
310 Import p4 labels.
311
312 DEPOT PATH SYNTAX
313 -----------------
314 The p4 depot path argument to 'git p4 sync' and 'git p4 clone' can
315 be one or more space-separated p4 depot paths, with an optional
316 p4 revision specifier on the end:
317
318 "//depot/my/project"::
319 Import one commit with all files in the '#head' change under that tree.
320
321 "//depot/my/project@all"::
322 Import one commit for each change in the history of that depot path.
323
324 "//depot/my/project@1,6"::
325 Import only changes 1 through 6.
326
327 "//depot/proj1@all //depot/proj2@all"::
328 Import all changes from both named depot paths into a single
329 repository. Only files below these directories are included.
330 There is not a subdirectory in Git for each "proj1" and "proj2".
331 You must use the '--destination' option when specifying more
332 than one depot path. The revision specifier must be specified
333 identically on each depot path. If there are files in the
334 depot paths with the same name, the path with the most recently
335 updated version of the file is the one that appears in Git.
336
337 See 'p4 help revisions' for the full syntax of p4 revision specifiers.
338
339
340 CLIENT SPEC
341 -----------
342 The p4 client specification is maintained with the 'p4 client' command
343 and contains among other fields, a View that specifies how the depot
344 is mapped into the client repository. The 'clone' and 'sync' commands
345 can consult the client spec when given the '--use-client-spec' option or
346 when the useClientSpec variable is true. After 'git p4 clone', the
347 useClientSpec variable is automatically set in the repository
348 configuration file. This allows future 'git p4 submit' commands to
349 work properly; the submit command looks only at the variable and does
350 not have a command-line option.
351
352 The full syntax for a p4 view is documented in 'p4 help views'. 'git p4'
353 knows only a subset of the view syntax. It understands multi-line
354 mappings, overlays with '+', exclusions with '-' and double-quotes
355 around whitespace. Of the possible wildcards, 'git p4' only handles
356 '...', and only when it is at the end of the path. 'git p4' will complain
357 if it encounters an unhandled wildcard.
358
359 Bugs in the implementation of overlap mappings exist. If multiple depot
360 paths map through overlays to the same location in the repository,
361 'git p4' can choose the wrong one. This is hard to solve without
362 dedicating a client spec just for 'git p4'.
363
364 The name of the client can be given to 'git p4' in multiple ways. The
365 variable 'git-p4.client' takes precedence if it exists. Otherwise,
366 normal p4 mechanisms of determining the client are used: environment
367 variable P4CLIENT, a file referenced by P4CONFIG, or the local host name.
368
369
370 BRANCH DETECTION
371 ----------------
372 P4 does not have the same concept of a branch as Git. Instead,
373 p4 organizes its content as a directory tree, where by convention
374 different logical branches are in different locations in the tree.
375 The 'p4 branch' command is used to maintain mappings between
376 different areas in the tree, and indicate related content. 'git p4'
377 can use these mappings to determine branch relationships.
378
379 If you have a repository where all the branches of interest exist as
380 subdirectories of a single depot path, you can use '--detect-branches'
381 when cloning or syncing to have 'git p4' automatically find
382 subdirectories in p4, and to generate these as branches in Git.
383
384 For example, if the P4 repository structure is:
385 ----
386 //depot/main/...
387 //depot/branch1/...
388 ----
389
390 And "p4 branch -o branch1" shows a View line that looks like:
391 ----
392 //depot/main/... //depot/branch1/...
393 ----
394
395 Then this 'git p4 clone' command:
396 ----
397 git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all
398 ----
399 produces a separate branch in 'refs/remotes/p4/' for //depot/main,
400 called 'master', and one for //depot/branch1 called 'depot/branch1'.
401
402 However, it is not necessary to create branches in p4 to be able to use
403 them like branches. Because it is difficult to infer branch
404 relationships automatically, a Git configuration setting
405 'git-p4.branchList' can be used to explicitly identify branch
406 relationships. It is a list of "source:destination" pairs, like a
407 simple p4 branch specification, where the "source" and "destination" are
408 the path elements in the p4 repository. The example above relied on the
409 presence of the p4 branch. Without p4 branches, the same result will
410 occur with:
411 ----
412 git init depot
413 cd depot
414 git config git-p4.branchList main:branch1
415 git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all .
416 ----
417
418
419 PERFORMANCE
420 -----------
421 The fast-import mechanism used by 'git p4' creates one pack file for
422 each invocation of 'git p4 sync'. Normally, Git garbage compression
423 (linkgit:git-gc[1]) automatically compresses these to fewer pack files,
424 but explicit invocation of 'git repack -adf' may improve performance.
425
426
427 CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
428 -----------------------
429 The following config settings can be used to modify 'git p4' behavior.
430 They all are in the 'git-p4' section.
431
432 General variables
433 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
434 git-p4.user::
435 User specified as an option to all p4 commands, with '-u <user>'.
436 The environment variable 'P4USER' can be used instead.
437
438 git-p4.password::
439 Password specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
440 '-P <password>'.
441 The environment variable 'P4PASS' can be used instead.
442
443 git-p4.port::
444 Port specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
445 '-p <port>'.
446 The environment variable 'P4PORT' can be used instead.
447
448 git-p4.host::
449 Host specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
450 '-h <host>'.
451 The environment variable 'P4HOST' can be used instead.
452
453 git-p4.client::
454 Client specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
455 '-c <client>', including the client spec.
456
457 Clone and sync variables
458 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
459 git-p4.syncFromOrigin::
460 Because importing commits from other Git repositories is much faster
461 than importing them from p4, a mechanism exists to find p4 changes
462 first in Git remotes. If branches exist under 'refs/remote/origin/p4',
463 those will be fetched and used when syncing from p4. This
464 variable can be set to 'false' to disable this behavior.
465
466 git-p4.branchUser::
467 One phase in branch detection involves looking at p4 branches
468 to find new ones to import. By default, all branches are
469 inspected. This option limits the search to just those owned
470 by the single user named in the variable.
471
472 git-p4.branchList::
473 List of branches to be imported when branch detection is
474 enabled. Each entry should be a pair of branch names separated
475 by a colon (:). This example declares that both branchA and
476 branchB were created from main:
477 +
478 -------------
479 git config git-p4.branchList main:branchA
480 git config --add git-p4.branchList main:branchB
481 -------------
482
483 git-p4.ignoredP4Labels::
484 List of p4 labels to ignore. This is built automatically as
485 unimportable labels are discovered.
486
487 git-p4.importLabels::
488 Import p4 labels into git, as per --import-labels.
489
490 git-p4.labelImportRegexp::
491 Only p4 labels matching this regular expression will be imported. The
492 default value is '[a-zA-Z0-9_\-.]+$'.
493
494 git-p4.useClientSpec::
495 Specify that the p4 client spec should be used to identify p4
496 depot paths of interest. This is equivalent to specifying the
497 option '--use-client-spec'. See the "CLIENT SPEC" section above.
498 This variable is a boolean, not the name of a p4 client.
499
500 Submit variables
501 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
502 git-p4.detectRenames::
503 Detect renames. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. This can be true,
504 false, or a score as expected by 'git diff -M'.
505
506 git-p4.detectCopies::
507 Detect copies. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. This can be true,
508 false, or a score as expected by 'git diff -C'.
509
510 git-p4.detectCopiesHarder::
511 Detect copies harder. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. A boolean.
512
513 git-p4.preserveUser::
514 On submit, re-author changes to reflect the Git author,
515 regardless of who invokes 'git p4 submit'.
516
517 git-p4.allowMissingP4Users::
518 When 'preserveUser' is true, 'git p4' normally dies if it
519 cannot find an author in the p4 user map. This setting
520 submits the change regardless.
521
522 git-p4.skipSubmitEdit::
523 The submit process invokes the editor before each p4 change
524 is submitted. If this setting is true, though, the editing
525 step is skipped.
526
527 git-p4.skipSubmitEditCheck::
528 After editing the p4 change message, 'git p4' makes sure that
529 the description really was changed by looking at the file
530 modification time. This option disables that test.
531
532 git-p4.allowSubmit::
533 By default, any branch can be used as the source for a 'git p4
534 submit' operation. This configuration variable, if set, permits only
535 the named branches to be used as submit sources. Branch names
536 must be the short names (no "refs/heads/"), and should be
537 separated by commas (","), with no spaces.
538
539 git-p4.skipUserNameCheck::
540 If the user running 'git p4 submit' does not exist in the p4
541 user map, 'git p4' exits. This option can be used to force
542 submission regardless.
543
544 git-p4.attemptRCSCleanup::
545 If enabled, 'git p4 submit' will attempt to cleanup RCS keywords
546 ($Header$, etc). These would otherwise cause merge conflicts and prevent
547 the submit going ahead. This option should be considered experimental at
548 present.
549
550 git-p4.exportLabels::
551 Export Git tags to p4 labels, as per --export-labels.
552
553 git-p4.labelExportRegexp::
554 Only p4 labels matching this regular expression will be exported. The
555 default value is '[a-zA-Z0-9_\-.]+$'.
556
557 git-p4.conflict::
558 Specify submit behavior when a conflict with p4 is found, as per
559 --conflict. The default behavior is 'ask'.
560
561 IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS
562 ----------------------
563 * Changesets from p4 are imported using Git fast-import.
564 * Cloning or syncing does not require a p4 client; file contents are
565 collected using 'p4 print'.
566 * Submitting requires a p4 client, which is not in the same location
567 as the Git repository. Patches are applied, one at a time, to
568 this p4 client and submitted from there.
569 * Each commit imported by 'git p4' has a line at the end of the log
570 message indicating the p4 depot location and change number. This
571 line is used by later 'git p4 sync' operations to know which p4
572 changes are new.