Git 2.9.4
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46
47 * link:v2.9.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.9.4]
48
49 * release notes for
50 link:RelNotes/2.9.4.txt[2.9.4],
51 link:RelNotes/2.9.3.txt[2.9.3],
52 link:RelNotes/2.9.2.txt[2.9.2],
53 link:RelNotes/2.9.1.txt[2.9.1],
54 link:RelNotes/2.9.0.txt[2.9].
55
56 * link:v2.8.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.8.5]
57
58 * release notes for
59 link:RelNotes/2.8.5.txt[2.8.5],
60 link:RelNotes/2.8.4.txt[2.8.4],
61 link:RelNotes/2.8.3.txt[2.8.3],
62 link:RelNotes/2.8.2.txt[2.8.2],
63 link:RelNotes/2.8.1.txt[2.8.1],
64 link:RelNotes/2.8.0.txt[2.8].
65
66 * link:v2.7.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.7.5]
67
68 * release notes for
69 link:RelNotes/2.7.5.txt[2.7.5],
70 link:RelNotes/2.7.4.txt[2.7.4],
71 link:RelNotes/2.7.3.txt[2.7.3],
72 link:RelNotes/2.7.2.txt[2.7.2],
73 link:RelNotes/2.7.1.txt[2.7.1],
74 link:RelNotes/2.7.0.txt[2.7].
75
76 * link:v2.6.7/git.html[documentation for release 2.6.7]
77
78 * release notes for
79 link:RelNotes/2.6.7.txt[2.6.7],
80 link:RelNotes/2.6.6.txt[2.6.6],
81 link:RelNotes/2.6.5.txt[2.6.5],
82 link:RelNotes/2.6.4.txt[2.6.4],
83 link:RelNotes/2.6.3.txt[2.6.3],
84 link:RelNotes/2.6.2.txt[2.6.2],
85 link:RelNotes/2.6.1.txt[2.6.1],
86 link:RelNotes/2.6.0.txt[2.6].
87
88 * link:v2.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 2.5.6]
89
90 * release notes for
91 link:RelNotes/2.5.6.txt[2.5.6],
92 link:RelNotes/2.5.5.txt[2.5.5],
93 link:RelNotes/2.5.4.txt[2.5.4],
94 link:RelNotes/2.5.3.txt[2.5.3],
95 link:RelNotes/2.5.2.txt[2.5.2],
96 link:RelNotes/2.5.1.txt[2.5.1],
97 link:RelNotes/2.5.0.txt[2.5].
98
99 * link:v2.4.12/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.12]
100
101 * release notes for
102 link:RelNotes/2.4.12.txt[2.4.12],
103 link:RelNotes/2.4.11.txt[2.4.11],
104 link:RelNotes/2.4.10.txt[2.4.10],
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113 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
114 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
115
116 * link:v2.3.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.10]
117
118 * release notes for
119 link:RelNotes/2.3.10.txt[2.3.10],
120 link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
121 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
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128 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
129 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
130
131 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
132
133 * release notes for
134 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
135 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
136 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
137 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
138
139 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
140
141 * release notes for
142 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
143 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
144 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
145 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
146 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
147
148 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
149
150 * release notes for
151 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
152 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
153 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
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155 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
156 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
157
158 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
159
160 * release notes for
161 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
162 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
163 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
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165 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
166 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
167
168 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
169
170 * release notes for
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172 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
173 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
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176 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
177 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
178
179 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
180
181 * release notes for
182 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
183 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
184 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
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186 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
187 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
188
189 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
190
191 * release notes for
192 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
193 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
194 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
195 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
196 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
197
198 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
199
200 * release notes for
201 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
202 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
203 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
204 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
205
206 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
207
208 * release notes for
209 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
210 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
211 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
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214 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
215 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
216
217 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
218
219 * release notes for
220 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
221 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
222 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
223 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
224
225 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
226
227 * release notes for
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229 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
230 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
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232 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
233
234 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
235
236 * release notes for
237 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
238 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
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244 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
245
246 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
247
248 * release notes for
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250 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
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254 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
255
256 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
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258 * release notes for
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266 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
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268 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
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270 * release notes for
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279 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
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290
291 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
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293 * release notes for
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300 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
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302 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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304 * release notes for
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310
311 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
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313 * release notes for
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320
321 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
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323 * release notes for
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331 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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333 * release notes for
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341 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
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350 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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364 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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372 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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386 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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396 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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413 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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421 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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432 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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443 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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447 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
452 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
453
454 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
455
456 * release notes for
457 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
458 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
459 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
460 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
461 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
462 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
463 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
464 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
465
466 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
467
468 * release notes for
469 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
470 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
471 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
472 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
473 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
474 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
475 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
476 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
477 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
478
479 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
480
481 * release notes for
482 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
483 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
484 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
485 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
486 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
487 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
488
489 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
490
491 * release notes for
492 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
493 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
494 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
495 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
496 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
497 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
498 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
499
500 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
501
502 * release notes for
503 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
504 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
505 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
506 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
507 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
508 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
509 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
510
511 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
512 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
513 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
514 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
515
516 ============
517
518 endif::stalenotes[]
519
520 OPTIONS
521 -------
522 --version::
523 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
524
525 --help::
526 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
527 commands. If the option `--all` or `-a` is given then all
528 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
529 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
530 +
531 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
532 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
533 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
534 help ...`.
535
536 -C <path>::
537 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
538 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
539 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
540 <path>`.
541 +
542 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
543 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
544 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
545 example the following invocations are equivalent:
546
547 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
548 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
549
550 -c <name>=<value>::
551 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
552 given will override values from configuration files.
553 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
554 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
555 +
556 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
557 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
558 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
559 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
560
561 --exec-path[=<path>]::
562 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
563 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
564 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
565 the current setting and then exit.
566
567 --html-path::
568 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
569 documentation is installed and exit.
570
571 --man-path::
572 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
573 this version of Git and exit.
574
575 --info-path::
576 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
577 version of Git are installed and exit.
578
579 -p::
580 --paginate::
581 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
582 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
583 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
584 below).
585
586 --no-pager::
587 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
588
589 --git-dir=<path>::
590 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
591 setting the `GIT_DIR` environment variable. It can be an absolute
592 path or relative path to current working directory.
593
594 --work-tree=<path>::
595 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
596 or a path relative to the current working directory.
597 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
598 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
599 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
600 more detailed discussion).
601
602 --namespace=<path>::
603 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
604 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
605 variable.
606
607 --bare::
608 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
609 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
610 directory.
611
612 --no-replace-objects::
613 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
614 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
615
616 --literal-pathspecs::
617 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
618 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
619 variable to `1`.
620
621 --glob-pathspecs::
622 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
623 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
624 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
625 magic ":(literal)"
626
627 --noglob-pathspecs::
628 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
629 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
630 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
631 magic ":(glob)"
632
633 --icase-pathspecs::
634 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
635 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
636
637 GIT COMMANDS
638 ------------
639
640 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
641 ("plumbing") commands.
642
643 High-level commands (porcelain)
644 -------------------------------
645
646 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
647 ancillary user utilities.
648
649 Main porcelain commands
650 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
651
652 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
653
654 Ancillary Commands
655 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
656 Manipulators:
657
658 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
659
660 Interrogators:
661
662 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
663
664
665 Interacting with Others
666 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
667
668 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
669 people via patch over e-mail.
670
671 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
672
673
674 Low-level commands (plumbing)
675 -----------------------------
676
677 Although Git includes its
678 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
679 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
680 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
681 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
682
683 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
684 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
685 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
686 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
687 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
688 end user experience.
689
690 The following description divides
691 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
692 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
693 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
694 repositories.
695
696
697 Manipulation commands
698 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
699
700 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
701
702
703 Interrogation commands
704 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
705
706 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
707
708 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
709 the working tree.
710
711
712 Synching repositories
713 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
714
715 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
716
717 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
718 typically do not use them directly.
719
720 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
721
722
723 Internal helper commands
724 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
725
726 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
727 users typically do not use them directly.
728
729 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
730
731
732 Configuration Mechanism
733 -----------------------
734
735 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
736 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
737 like this:
738
739 ------------
740 #
741 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
742 #
743
744 ; core variables
745 [core]
746 ; Don't trust file modes
747 filemode = false
748
749 ; user identity
750 [user]
751 name = "Junio C Hamano"
752 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
753
754 ------------
755
756 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
757 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
758 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
759
760
761 Identifier Terminology
762 ----------------------
763 <object>::
764 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
765
766 <blob>::
767 Indicates a blob object name.
768
769 <tree>::
770 Indicates a tree object name.
771
772 <commit>::
773 Indicates a commit object name.
774
775 <tree-ish>::
776 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
777 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
778 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
779 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
780
781 <commit-ish>::
782 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
783 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
784 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
785 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
786
787 <type>::
788 Indicates that an object type is required.
789 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
790
791 <file>::
792 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
793 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
794
795 Symbolic Identifiers
796 --------------------
797 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
798 symbolic notation:
799
800 HEAD::
801 indicates the head of the current branch.
802
803 <tag>::
804 a valid tag 'name'
805 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
806
807 <head>::
808 a valid head 'name'
809 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
810
811 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
812 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
813
814
815 File/Directory Structure
816 ------------------------
817
818 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
819
820 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
821
822 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
823 `$GIT_DIR`.
824
825
826 Terminology
827 -----------
828 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
829
830
831 Environment Variables
832 ---------------------
833 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
834
835 The Git Repository
836 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
837 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
838 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
839 Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
840
841 `GIT_INDEX_FILE`::
842 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
843 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
844 is used.
845
846 `GIT_INDEX_VERSION`::
847 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
848 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
849 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
850 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
851
852 `GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY`::
853 If the object storage directory is specified via this
854 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
855 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
856 directory is used.
857
858 `GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES`::
859 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
860 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
861 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
862 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
863 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
864
865 `GIT_DIR`::
866 If the `GIT_DIR` environment variable is set then it
867 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
868 for the base of the repository.
869 The `--git-dir` command-line option also sets this value.
870
871 `GIT_WORK_TREE`::
872 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
873 This can also be controlled by the `--work-tree` command-line
874 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
875
876 `GIT_NAMESPACE`::
877 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
878 The `--namespace` command-line option also sets this value.
879
880 `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES`::
881 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
882 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
883 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
884 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
885 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
886 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
887 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
888 might be present in order to compare them with the current
889 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
890 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
891 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
892 e.g.,
893 `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink`.
894
895 `GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM`::
896 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
897 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
898 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
899 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
900 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
901 boundaries. Like `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES`, this will not affect
902 an explicit repository directory set via `GIT_DIR` or on the
903 command line.
904
905 `GIT_COMMON_DIR`::
906 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
907 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
908 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
909 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
910 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
911 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
912 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
913
914 Git Commits
915 ~~~~~~~~~~~
916 `GIT_AUTHOR_NAME`::
917 `GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL`::
918 `GIT_AUTHOR_DATE`::
919 `GIT_COMMITTER_NAME`::
920 `GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL`::
921 `GIT_COMMITTER_DATE`::
922 'EMAIL'::
923 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
924
925 Git Diffs
926 ~~~~~~~~~
927 `GIT_DIFF_OPTS`::
928 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
929 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
930 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
931 value passed on the Git diff command line.
932
933 `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF`::
934 When the environment variable `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is set, the
935 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
936 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
937 `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called with 7 parameters:
938
939 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
940 +
941 where:
942
943 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
944 contents of <old|new>,
945 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
946 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
947 +
948 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
949 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
950 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
951 index). `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` should not worry about unlinking the
952 temporary file --- it is removed when `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` exits.
953 +
954 For a path that is unmerged, `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called with 1
955 parameter, <path>.
956 +
957 For each path `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called, two environment variables,
958 `GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER` and `GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL` are set.
959
960 `GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER`::
961 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
962
963 `GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL`::
964 The total number of paths.
965
966 other
967 ~~~~~
968 `GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY`::
969 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
970 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
971 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
972
973 `GIT_PAGER`::
974 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
975 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
976 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
977 linkgit:git-config[1].
978
979 `GIT_EDITOR`::
980 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
981 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
982 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
983 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
984
985 `GIT_SSH`::
986 `GIT_SSH_COMMAND`::
987 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
988 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
989 when they need to connect to a remote system.
990 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
991 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
992 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
993 `-p` (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
994 something other than the default SSH port.
995 +
996 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
997 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
998 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
999 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
1000 needed).
1001 +
1002 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
1003 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
1004 for further details.
1005
1006 `GIT_ASKPASS`::
1007 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
1008 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
1009 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
1010 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the `core.askPass`
1011 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
1012
1013 `GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT`::
1014 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
1015 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
1016
1017 `GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM`::
1018 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
1019 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
1020 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
1021 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
1022 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
1023 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
1024
1025 `GIT_FLUSH`::
1026 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
1027 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
1028 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
1029 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
1030 flushed. If this
1031 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
1032 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
1033 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
1034 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
1035
1036 `GIT_TRACE`::
1037 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
1038 command execution and external command execution.
1039 +
1040 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
1041 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
1042 stderr.
1043 +
1044 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
1045 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
1046 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
1047 trace messages into this file descriptor.
1048 +
1049 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
1050 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
1051 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
1052 into it.
1053 +
1054 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
1055 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
1056
1057 `GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS`::
1058 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
1059 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1060 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1061 pack-related performance problems.
1062 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1063
1064 `GIT_TRACE_PACKET`::
1065 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1066 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1067 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1068 starting with "PACK" (but see `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE` below).
1069 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1070
1071 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE`::
1072 Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
1073 given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
1074 verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
1075 certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
1076 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
1077 the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
1078 +
1079 Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
1080 of clones and fetches.
1081
1082 `GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE`::
1083 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1084 time of each Git command.
1085 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1086
1087 `GIT_TRACE_SETUP`::
1088 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1089 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1090 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1091
1092 `GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW`::
1093 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1094 cloning of shallow repositories.
1095 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1096
1097 `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS`::
1098 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1099 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1100 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1101 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1102 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1103 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1104 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1105
1106 `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS`::
1107 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1108 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1109
1110 `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS`::
1111 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1112 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1113
1114 `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS`::
1115 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1116 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1117
1118 `GIT_REFLOG_ACTION`::
1119 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1120 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1121 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1122 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1123 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1124 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1125 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1126 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1127
1128 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1129 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1130 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1131 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1132 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1133 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1134 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1135 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1136 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1137 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1138
1139 `GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL`::
1140 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1141 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1142 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1143 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1144 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1145 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1146 currently used by git are:
1147
1148 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1149 or local paths)
1150
1151 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1152 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1153
1154 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
1155 `ssh://`, etc).
1156
1157 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1158 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1159 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1160
1161 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1162 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
1163
1164
1165 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1166 ------------------------
1167
1168 More detail on the following is available from the
1169 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1170 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1171
1172 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1173 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1174 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1175 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1176 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1177 as tags and branch heads.
1178
1179 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1180 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1181 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1182 and some number of parent commits.
1183
1184 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1185 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1186 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1187 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1188
1189 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1190 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1191 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1192 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1193 purpose.
1194
1195 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1196 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1197
1198 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1199 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1200 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1201 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1202 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1203 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1204
1205 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1206 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1207 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1208 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1209 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1210 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1211 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1212 content stored in the index.
1213
1214 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1215 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1216 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1217
1218 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1219 ---------------------
1220
1221 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1222 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1223 for a first-time user.
1224
1225 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1226 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1227 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1228
1229 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1230
1231 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1232 examples.
1233
1234 The internals are documented in the
1235 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1236
1237 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1238 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1239
1240
1241 Authors
1242 -------
1243 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1244 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1245 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1246 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1247
1248 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1249 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1250 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1251
1252 Reporting Bugs
1253 --------------
1254
1255 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1256 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1257 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1258
1259 SEE ALSO
1260 --------
1261 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1262 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1263 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1264 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1265 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1266
1267 GIT
1268 ---
1269 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite