Git 1.7.9.7
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
26 "man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
27 also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
28 the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
29 introduction.
30
31 The '<command>' is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
32 as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
35 documentation can be viewed at
36 `http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
37
38 ifdef::stalenotes[]
39 [NOTE]
40 ============
41
42 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
43 unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
44 branch of the `git.git` repository.
45 Documentation for older releases are available here:
46
47 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
48
49 * release notes for
50 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
51 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
52 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
53 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
54 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
55 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
56 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
57 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
58
59 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
60
61 * release notes for
62 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
63 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
64 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
65 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
66 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
67 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
68 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
69
70 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
71
72 * release notes for
73 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
74 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
75 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
76 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
77 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
78 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
79 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
80 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
81
82 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
83
84 * release notes for
85 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
86 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
87 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
88 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
89 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
90 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
91 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
92
93 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
94
95 * release notes for
96 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
97 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
98 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
99 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
100 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
101
102 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
103
104 * release notes for
105 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
106 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
107 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
108 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
109 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
110 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
111
112 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
113
114 * release notes for
115 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
116 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
117 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
118 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
119 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
120 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
121
122 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
123
124 * release notes for
125 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
126 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
127 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
129 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
130 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
131
132 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
133
134 * release notes for
135 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
136 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
137 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
138 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
139 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
140
141 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
142
143 * release notes for
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
146 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
147 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
148 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
149 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
150 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
151 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
154
155 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
156
157 * release notes for
158 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
159 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
160 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
161 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
162
163 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
164
165 * release notes for
166 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
167 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
168 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
169 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
170 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
171 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
172 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
173 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
174 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
175 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
176
177 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
178
179 * release notes for
180 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
181 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
182 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
183 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
184 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
185 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
186
187 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
188
189 * release notes for
190 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
191 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
192 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
193 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
194 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
195
196 * release notes for
197 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
198 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
199 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
200 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
201 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
202 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
203
204 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
205
206 * release notes for
207 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
208 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
211
212 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
213
214 * release notes for
215 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
216 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
217 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
218 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
219 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
220 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
221 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
222
223 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
224
225 * release notes for
226 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
227 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
228 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
229 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
230 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
231 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
232 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
233
234 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
235
236 * release notes for
237 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
238 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
239 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
240 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
241 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
242 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
243 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
244
245 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
246
247 * release notes for
248 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
249 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
250 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
251 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
252 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
253 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
254 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
255 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
256
257 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
258
259 * release notes for
260 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
261 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
262 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
263 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
264 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
265 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
266 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
267 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
268 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
269
270 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
271
272 * release notes for
273 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
274 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
275 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
276 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
277 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
278 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
279
280 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
281
282 * release notes for
283 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
284 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
285 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
286 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
287 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
288 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
289 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
290
291 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
292
293 * release notes for
294 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
295 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
296 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
297 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
298 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
299 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
300 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
301
302 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
303 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
304 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
305 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
306
307 ============
308
309 endif::stalenotes[]
310
311 OPTIONS
312 -------
313 --version::
314 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
315
316 --help::
317 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
318 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
319 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
320 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
321 +
322 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
323 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
324 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
325 help ...`.
326
327 -c <name>=<value>::
328 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
329 given will override values from configuration files.
330 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
331 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
332
333 --exec-path[=<path>]::
334 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
335 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
336 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
337 the current setting and then exit.
338
339 --html-path::
340 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
341 documentation is installed and exit.
342
343 --man-path::
344 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
345 this version of git and exit.
346
347 --info-path::
348 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
349 version of git are installed and exit.
350
351 -p::
352 --paginate::
353 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
354 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
355 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
356 below).
357
358 --no-pager::
359 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
360
361 --git-dir=<path>::
362 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
363 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
364 path or relative path to current working directory.
365
366 --work-tree=<path>::
367 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
368 or a path relative to the current working directory.
369 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
370 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
371 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
372 more detailed discussion).
373
374 --namespace=<path>::
375 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
376 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
377 variable.
378
379 --bare::
380 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
381 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
382 directory.
383
384 --no-replace-objects::
385 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
386 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
387
388
389 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
390 ---------------------
391
392 See the references above to get started using git. The following is
393 probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
394
395 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
396 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
397 introductions to the underlying git architecture.
398
399 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
400
401 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
402 examples.
403
404 The internals are documented in the
405 link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
406
407 GIT COMMANDS
408 ------------
409
410 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
411 ("plumbing") commands.
412
413 High-level commands (porcelain)
414 -------------------------------
415
416 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
417 ancillary user utilities.
418
419 Main porcelain commands
420 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
421
422 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
423
424 Ancillary Commands
425 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
426 Manipulators:
427
428 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
429
430 Interrogators:
431
432 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
433
434
435 Interacting with Others
436 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
437
438 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
439 people via patch over e-mail.
440
441 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
442
443
444 Low-level commands (plumbing)
445 -----------------------------
446
447 Although git includes its
448 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
449 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
450 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
451 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
452
453 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
454 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
455 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
456 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
457 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
458 end user experience.
459
460 The following description divides
461 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
462 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
463 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
464 repositories.
465
466
467 Manipulation commands
468 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
469
470 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
471
472
473 Interrogation commands
474 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
475
476 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
477
478 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
479 the working tree.
480
481
482 Synching repositories
483 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
484
485 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
486
487 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
488 typically do not use them directly.
489
490 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
491
492
493 Internal helper commands
494 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
495
496 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
497 users typically do not use them directly.
498
499 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
500
501
502 Configuration Mechanism
503 -----------------------
504
505 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
506 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
507 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
508 people. Here is an example:
509
510 ------------
511 #
512 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
513 #
514
515 ; core variables
516 [core]
517 ; Don't trust file modes
518 filemode = false
519
520 ; user identity
521 [user]
522 name = "Junio C Hamano"
523 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
524
525 ------------
526
527 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
528 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
529 list.
530
531
532 Identifier Terminology
533 ----------------------
534 <object>::
535 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
536
537 <blob>::
538 Indicates a blob object name.
539
540 <tree>::
541 Indicates a tree object name.
542
543 <commit>::
544 Indicates a commit object name.
545
546 <tree-ish>::
547 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
548 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
549 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
550 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
551
552 <commit-ish>::
553 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
554 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
555 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
556 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
557
558 <type>::
559 Indicates that an object type is required.
560 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
561
562 <file>::
563 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
564 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
565
566 Symbolic Identifiers
567 --------------------
568 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
569 symbolic notation:
570
571 HEAD::
572 indicates the head of the current branch.
573
574 <tag>::
575 a valid tag 'name'
576 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
577
578 <head>::
579 a valid head 'name'
580 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
581
582 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
583 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
584
585
586 File/Directory Structure
587 ------------------------
588
589 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
590
591 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
592
593 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
594 `$GIT_DIR`.
595
596
597 Terminology
598 -----------
599 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
600
601
602 Environment Variables
603 ---------------------
604 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
605
606 The git Repository
607 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
608 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
609 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
610 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
611
612 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
613 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
614 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
615 is used.
616
617 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
618 If the object storage directory is specified via this
619 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
620 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
621 directory is used.
622
623 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
624 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
625 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
626 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
627 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
628 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
629
630 'GIT_DIR'::
631 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
632 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
633 for the base of the repository.
634
635 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
636 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
637 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
638 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
639 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
640 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
641
642 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
643 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
644 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
645
646 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
647 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
648 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
649 up into while looking for a repository directory.
650 It will not exclude the current working directory or
651 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
652 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
653
654 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
655 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
656 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
657 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
658 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
659 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
660 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
661 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
662 command line.
663
664 git Commits
665 ~~~~~~~~~~~
666 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
667 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
668 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
669 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
670 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
671 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
672 'EMAIL'::
673 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
674
675 git Diffs
676 ~~~~~~~~~
677 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
678 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
679 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
680 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
681 value passed on the git diff command line.
682
683 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
684 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
685 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
686 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
687 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
688
689 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
690 +
691 where:
692
693 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
694 contents of <old|new>,
695 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
696 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
697 +
698 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
699 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
700 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
701 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
702 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
703 +
704 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
705 parameter, <path>.
706
707 other
708 ~~~~~
709 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
710 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
711 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
712 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
713
714 'GIT_PAGER'::
715 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
716 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
717 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
718 linkgit:git-config[1].
719
720 'GIT_EDITOR'::
721 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
722 It is used by several git comands when, on interactive mode,
723 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
724 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
725
726 'GIT_SSH'::
727 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
728 and 'git push' will use this command instead
729 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
730 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
731 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
732 shell command to execute on that remote system.
733 +
734 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
735 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
736 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
737 +
738 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
739 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
740 for further details.
741
742 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
743 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
744 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
745 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
746 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
747 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
748
749 'GIT_FLUSH'::
750 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
751 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
752 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
753 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
754 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
755 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
756 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
757 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
758
759 'GIT_TRACE'::
760 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
761 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
762 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
763 execution and external command execution.
764 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
765 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
766 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
767 trace messages into this file descriptor.
768 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
769 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
770 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
771 into it.
772
773 Discussion[[Discussion]]
774 ------------------------
775
776 More detail on the following is available from the
777 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
778 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
779
780 A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
781 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
782 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
783 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
784 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
785 as tags and branch heads.
786
787 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
788 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
789 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
790 and some number of parent commits.
791
792 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
793 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
794 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
795 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
796
797 All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
798 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
799 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
800 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
801 purpose.
802
803 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
804 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
805
806 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
807 may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
808 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
809 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
810 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
811 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
812
813 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
814 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
815 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
816 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
817 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
818 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
819 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
820 content stored in the index.
821
822 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
823 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
824 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
825
826 Authors
827 -------
828 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
829 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
830 <git@vger.kernel.org>. For a more complete list of contributors, see
831 http://git-scm.com/about. If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
832 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
833 the authors for specific parts of the project.
834
835 Reporting Bugs
836 --------------
837
838 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
839 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
840 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
841
842 SEE ALSO
843 --------
844 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
845 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
846 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
847 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
848 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
849
850 GIT
851 ---
852 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite