Merge branch 'cc/ref-is-hidden-microcleanup' into maint
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-pull.txt
1 git-pull(1)
2 ===========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-pull - Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git pull' [options] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
13
14
15 DESCRIPTION
16 -----------
17
18 Incorporates changes from a remote repository into the current
19 branch. In its default mode, `git pull` is shorthand for
20 `git fetch` followed by `git merge FETCH_HEAD`.
21
22 More precisely, 'git pull' runs 'git fetch' with the given
23 parameters and calls 'git merge' to merge the retrieved branch
24 heads into the current branch.
25 With `--rebase`, it runs 'git rebase' instead of 'git merge'.
26
27 <repository> should be the name of a remote repository as
28 passed to linkgit:git-fetch[1]. <refspec> can name an
29 arbitrary remote ref (for example, the name of a tag) or even
30 a collection of refs with corresponding remote-tracking branches
31 (e.g., refs/heads/{asterisk}:refs/remotes/origin/{asterisk}),
32 but usually it is the name of a branch in the remote repository.
33
34 Default values for <repository> and <branch> are read from the
35 "remote" and "merge" configuration for the current branch
36 as set by linkgit:git-branch[1] `--track`.
37
38 Assume the following history exists and the current branch is
39 "`master`":
40
41 ------------
42 A---B---C master on origin
43 /
44 D---E---F---G master
45 ^
46 origin/master in your repository
47 ------------
48
49 Then "`git pull`" will fetch and replay the changes from the remote
50 `master` branch since it diverged from the local `master` (i.e., `E`)
51 until its current commit (`C`) on top of `master` and record the
52 result in a new commit along with the names of the two parent commits
53 and a log message from the user describing the changes.
54
55 ------------
56 A---B---C origin/master
57 / \
58 D---E---F---G---H master
59 ------------
60
61 See linkgit:git-merge[1] for details, including how conflicts
62 are presented and handled.
63
64 In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use
65 `git reset --merge`. *Warning*: In older versions of Git, running 'git pull'
66 with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you
67 in a state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.
68
69 If any of the remote changes overlap with local uncommitted changes,
70 the merge will be automatically canceled and the work tree untouched.
71 It is generally best to get any local changes in working order before
72 pulling or stash them away with linkgit:git-stash[1].
73
74 OPTIONS
75 -------
76
77 -q::
78 --quiet::
79 This is passed to both underlying git-fetch to squelch reporting of
80 during transfer, and underlying git-merge to squelch output during
81 merging.
82
83 -v::
84 --verbose::
85 Pass --verbose to git-fetch and git-merge.
86
87 --[no-]recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]::
88 This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules should
89 be fetched and updated, too (see linkgit:git-config[1] and
90 linkgit:gitmodules[5]).
91 +
92 If the checkout is done via rebase, local submodule commits are rebased as well.
93 +
94 If the update is done via merge, the submodule conflicts are resolved and checked out.
95
96 Options related to merging
97 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
98
99 :git-pull: 1
100
101 include::merge-options.txt[]
102
103 -r::
104 --rebase[=false|true|preserve|interactive]::
105 When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream
106 branch after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch
107 corresponding to the upstream branch and the upstream branch
108 was rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that information
109 to avoid rebasing non-local changes.
110 +
111 When set to preserve, rebase with the `--preserve-merges` option passed
112 to `git rebase` so that locally created merge commits will not be flattened.
113 +
114 When false, merge the current branch into the upstream branch.
115 +
116 When `interactive`, enable the interactive mode of rebase.
117 +
118 See `pull.rebase`, `branch.<name>.rebase` and `branch.autoSetupRebase` in
119 linkgit:git-config[1] if you want to make `git pull` always use
120 `--rebase` instead of merging.
121 +
122 [NOTE]
123 This is a potentially _dangerous_ mode of operation.
124 It rewrites history, which does not bode well when you
125 published that history already. Do *not* use this option
126 unless you have read linkgit:git-rebase[1] carefully.
127
128 --no-rebase::
129 Override earlier --rebase.
130
131 --autostash::
132 --no-autostash::
133 Before starting rebase, stash local modifications away (see
134 linkgit:git-stash[1]) if needed, and apply the stash entry when
135 done. `--no-autostash` is useful to override the `rebase.autoStash`
136 configuration variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
137 +
138 This option is only valid when "--rebase" is used.
139
140 Options related to fetching
141 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
142
143 include::fetch-options.txt[]
144
145 include::pull-fetch-param.txt[]
146
147 include::urls-remotes.txt[]
148
149 include::merge-strategies.txt[]
150
151 DEFAULT BEHAVIOUR
152 -----------------
153
154 Often people use `git pull` without giving any parameter.
155 Traditionally, this has been equivalent to saying `git pull
156 origin`. However, when configuration `branch.<name>.remote` is
157 present while on branch `<name>`, that value is used instead of
158 `origin`.
159
160 In order to determine what URL to use to fetch from, the value
161 of the configuration `remote.<origin>.url` is consulted
162 and if there is not any such variable, the value on the `URL:` line
163 in `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>` is used.
164
165 In order to determine what remote branches to fetch (and
166 optionally store in the remote-tracking branches) when the command is
167 run without any refspec parameters on the command line, values
168 of the configuration variable `remote.<origin>.fetch` are
169 consulted, and if there aren't any, `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>`
170 is consulted and its `Pull:` lines are used.
171 In addition to the refspec formats described in the OPTIONS
172 section, you can have a globbing refspec that looks like this:
173
174 ------------
175 refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
176 ------------
177
178 A globbing refspec must have a non-empty RHS (i.e. must store
179 what were fetched in remote-tracking branches), and its LHS and RHS
180 must end with `/*`. The above specifies that all remote
181 branches are tracked using remote-tracking branches in
182 `refs/remotes/origin/` hierarchy under the same name.
183
184 The rule to determine which remote branch to merge after
185 fetching is a bit involved, in order not to break backward
186 compatibility.
187
188 If explicit refspecs were given on the command
189 line of `git pull`, they are all merged.
190
191 When no refspec was given on the command line, then `git pull`
192 uses the refspec from the configuration or
193 `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>`. In such cases, the following
194 rules apply:
195
196 . If `branch.<name>.merge` configuration for the current
197 branch `<name>` exists, that is the name of the branch at the
198 remote site that is merged.
199
200 . If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.
201
202 . Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.
203
204
205 EXAMPLES
206 --------
207
208 * Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository
209 you cloned from, then merge one of them into your
210 current branch:
211 +
212 ------------------------------------------------
213 $ git pull
214 $ git pull origin
215 ------------------------------------------------
216 +
217 Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote repository,
218 but the choice is determined by the branch.<name>.remote and
219 branch.<name>.merge options; see linkgit:git-config[1] for details.
220
221 * Merge into the current branch the remote branch `next`:
222 +
223 ------------------------------------------------
224 $ git pull origin next
225 ------------------------------------------------
226 +
227 This leaves a copy of `next` temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, but
228 does not update any remote-tracking branches. Using remote-tracking
229 branches, the same can be done by invoking fetch and merge:
230 +
231 ------------------------------------------------
232 $ git fetch origin
233 $ git merge origin/next
234 ------------------------------------------------
235
236
237 If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and
238 would want to start over, you can recover with 'git reset'.
239
240
241 include::transfer-data-leaks.txt[]
242
243 BUGS
244 ----
245 Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked
246 out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the
247 just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule itself can not be
248 fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without
249 having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git
250 version.
251
252 SEE ALSO
253 --------
254 linkgit:git-fetch[1], linkgit:git-merge[1], linkgit:git-config[1]
255
256 GIT
257 ---
258 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite