Merge branch 'cc/ref-is-hidden-microcleanup' into maint
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-for-each-ref.txt
1 git-for-each-ref(1)
2 ===================
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-for-each-ref - Output information on each ref
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git for-each-ref' [--count=<count>] [--shell|--perl|--python|--tcl]
12 [(--sort=<key>)...] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
13 [--points-at <object>] [(--merged | --no-merged) [<object>]]
14 [--contains [<object>]] [--no-contains [<object>]]
15
16 DESCRIPTION
17 -----------
18
19 Iterate over all refs that match `<pattern>` and show them
20 according to the given `<format>`, after sorting them according
21 to the given set of `<key>`. If `<count>` is given, stop after
22 showing that many refs. The interpolated values in `<format>`
23 can optionally be quoted as string literals in the specified
24 host language allowing their direct evaluation in that language.
25
26 OPTIONS
27 -------
28 <count>::
29 By default the command shows all refs that match
30 `<pattern>`. This option makes it stop after showing
31 that many refs.
32
33 <key>::
34 A field name to sort on. Prefix `-` to sort in
35 descending order of the value. When unspecified,
36 `refname` is used. You may use the --sort=<key> option
37 multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
38 key.
39
40 <format>::
41 A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from the
42 object pointed at by a ref being shown. If `fieldname`
43 is prefixed with an asterisk (`*`) and the ref points
44 at a tag object, the value for the field in the object
45 tag refers is used. When unspecified, defaults to
46 `%(objectname) SPC %(objecttype) TAB %(refname)`.
47 It also interpolates `%%` to `%`, and `%xx` where `xx`
48 are hex digits interpolates to character with hex code
49 `xx`; for example `%00` interpolates to `\0` (NUL),
50 `%09` to `\t` (TAB) and `%0a` to `\n` (LF).
51
52 <pattern>...::
53 If one or more patterns are given, only refs are shown that
54 match against at least one pattern, either using fnmatch(3) or
55 literally, in the latter case matching completely or from the
56 beginning up to a slash.
57
58 --shell::
59 --perl::
60 --python::
61 --tcl::
62 If given, strings that substitute `%(fieldname)`
63 placeholders are quoted as string literals suitable for
64 the specified host language. This is meant to produce
65 a scriptlet that can directly be `eval`ed.
66
67 --points-at <object>::
68 Only list refs which points at the given object.
69
70 --merged [<object>]::
71 Only list refs whose tips are reachable from the
72 specified commit (HEAD if not specified),
73 incompatible with `--no-merged`.
74
75 --no-merged [<object>]::
76 Only list refs whose tips are not reachable from the
77 specified commit (HEAD if not specified),
78 incompatible with `--merged`.
79
80 --contains [<object>]::
81 Only list refs which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
82 specified).
83
84 --no-contains [<object>]::
85 Only list refs which don't contain the specified commit (HEAD
86 if not specified).
87
88 --ignore-case::
89 Sorting and filtering refs are case insensitive.
90
91 FIELD NAMES
92 -----------
93
94 Various values from structured fields in referenced objects can
95 be used to interpolate into the resulting output, or as sort
96 keys.
97
98 For all objects, the following names can be used:
99
100 refname::
101 The name of the ref (the part after $GIT_DIR/).
102 For a non-ambiguous short name of the ref append `:short`.
103 The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
104 abbreviation mode. If `lstrip=<N>` (`rstrip=<N>`) is appended, strips `<N>`
105 slash-separated path components from the front (back) of the refname
106 (e.g. `%(refname:lstrip=2)` turns `refs/tags/foo` into `foo` and
107 `%(refname:rstrip=2)` turns `refs/tags/foo` into `refs`).
108 If `<N>` is a negative number, strip as many path components as
109 necessary from the specified end to leave `-<N>` path components
110 (e.g. `%(refname:lstrip=-2)` turns
111 `refs/tags/foo` into `tags/foo` and `%(refname:rstrip=-1)`
112 turns `refs/tags/foo` into `refs`). When the ref does not have
113 enough components, the result becomes an empty string if
114 stripping with positive <N>, or it becomes the full refname if
115 stripping with negative <N>. Neither is an error.
116 +
117 `strip` can be used as a synomym to `lstrip`.
118
119 objecttype::
120 The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
121
122 objectsize::
123 The size of the object (the same as 'git cat-file -s' reports).
124
125 objectname::
126 The object name (aka SHA-1).
127 For a non-ambiguous abbreviation of the object name append `:short`.
128 For an abbreviation of the object name with desired length append
129 `:short=<length>`, where the minimum length is MINIMUM_ABBREV. The
130 length may be exceeded to ensure unique object names.
131
132 upstream::
133 The name of a local ref which can be considered ``upstream''
134 from the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:lstrip` and
135 `:rstrip` in the same way as `refname` above. Additionally
136 respects `:track` to show "[ahead N, behind M]" and
137 `:trackshort` to show the terse version: ">" (ahead), "<"
138 (behind), "<>" (ahead and behind), or "=" (in sync). `:track`
139 also prints "[gone]" whenever unknown upstream ref is
140 encountered. Append `:track,nobracket` to show tracking
141 information without brackets (i.e "ahead N, behind M"). Has
142 no effect if the ref does not have tracking information
143 associated with it. All the options apart from `nobracket`
144 are mutually exclusive, but if used together the last option
145 is selected.
146
147 push::
148 The name of a local ref which represents the `@{push}`
149 location for the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:lstrip`,
150 `:rstrip`, `:track`, and `:trackshort` options as `upstream`
151 does. Produces an empty string if no `@{push}` ref is
152 configured.
153
154 HEAD::
155 '*' if HEAD matches current ref (the checked out branch), ' '
156 otherwise.
157
158 color::
159 Change output color. Followed by `:<colorname>`, where color
160 names are described under Values in the "CONFIGURATION FILE"
161 section of linkgit:git-config[1]. For example,
162 `%(color:bold red)`.
163
164 align::
165 Left-, middle-, or right-align the content between
166 %(align:...) and %(end). The "align:" is followed by
167 `width=<width>` and `position=<position>` in any order
168 separated by a comma, where the `<position>` is either left,
169 right or middle, default being left and `<width>` is the total
170 length of the content with alignment. For brevity, the
171 "width=" and/or "position=" prefixes may be omitted, and bare
172 <width> and <position> used instead. For instance,
173 `%(align:<width>,<position>)`. If the contents length is more
174 than the width then no alignment is performed. If used with
175 `--quote` everything in between %(align:...) and %(end) is
176 quoted, but if nested then only the topmost level performs
177 quoting.
178
179 if::
180 Used as %(if)...%(then)...%(end) or
181 %(if)...%(then)...%(else)...%(end). If there is an atom with
182 value or string literal after the %(if) then everything after
183 the %(then) is printed, else if the %(else) atom is used, then
184 everything after %(else) is printed. We ignore space when
185 evaluating the string before %(then), this is useful when we
186 use the %(HEAD) atom which prints either "*" or " " and we
187 want to apply the 'if' condition only on the 'HEAD' ref.
188 Append ":equals=<string>" or ":notequals=<string>" to compare
189 the value between the %(if:...) and %(then) atoms with the
190 given string.
191
192 symref::
193 The ref which the given symbolic ref refers to. If not a
194 symbolic ref, nothing is printed. Respects the `:short`,
195 `:lstrip` and `:rstrip` options in the same way as `refname`
196 above.
197
198 In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header
199 field names (`tree`, `parent`, `object`, `type`, and `tag`) can
200 be used to specify the value in the header field.
201
202 For commit and tag objects, the special `creatordate` and `creator`
203 fields will correspond to the appropriate date or name-email-date tuple
204 from the `committer` or `tagger` fields depending on the object type.
205 These are intended for working on a mix of annotated and lightweight tags.
206
207 Fields that have name-email-date tuple as its value (`author`,
208 `committer`, and `tagger`) can be suffixed with `name`, `email`,
209 and `date` to extract the named component.
210
211 The complete message in a commit and tag object is `contents`.
212 Its first line is `contents:subject`, where subject is the concatenation
213 of all lines of the commit message up to the first blank line. The next
214 line is 'contents:body', where body is all of the lines after the first
215 blank line. The optional GPG signature is `contents:signature`. The
216 first `N` lines of the message is obtained using `contents:lines=N`.
217 Additionally, the trailers as interpreted by linkgit:git-interpret-trailers[1]
218 are obtained as 'contents:trailers'.
219
220 For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric order
221 (`objectsize`, `authordate`, `committerdate`, `creatordate`, `taggerdate`).
222 All other fields are used to sort in their byte-value order.
223
224 There is also an option to sort by versions, this can be done by using
225 the fieldname `version:refname` or its alias `v:refname`.
226
227 In any case, a field name that refers to a field inapplicable to
228 the object referred by the ref does not cause an error. It
229 returns an empty string instead.
230
231 As a special case for the date-type fields, you may specify a format for
232 the date by adding `:` followed by date format name (see the
233 values the `--date` option to linkgit:git-rev-list[1] takes).
234
235 Some atoms like %(align) and %(if) always require a matching %(end).
236 We call them "opening atoms" and sometimes denote them as %($open).
237
238 When a scripting language specific quoting is in effect, everything
239 between a top-level opening atom and its matching %(end) is evaluated
240 according to the semantics of the opening atom and only its result
241 from the top-level is quoted.
242
243
244 EXAMPLES
245 --------
246
247 An example directly producing formatted text. Show the most recent
248 3 tagged commits:
249
250 ------------
251 #!/bin/sh
252
253 git for-each-ref --count=3 --sort='-*authordate' \
254 --format='From: %(*authorname) %(*authoremail)
255 Subject: %(*subject)
256 Date: %(*authordate)
257 Ref: %(*refname)
258
259 %(*body)
260 ' 'refs/tags'
261 ------------
262
263
264 A simple example showing the use of shell eval on the output,
265 demonstrating the use of --shell. List the prefixes of all heads:
266 ------------
267 #!/bin/sh
268
269 git for-each-ref --shell --format="ref=%(refname)" refs/heads | \
270 while read entry
271 do
272 eval "$entry"
273 echo `dirname $ref`
274 done
275 ------------
276
277
278 A bit more elaborate report on tags, demonstrating that the format
279 may be an entire script:
280 ------------
281 #!/bin/sh
282
283 fmt='
284 r=%(refname)
285 t=%(*objecttype)
286 T=${r#refs/tags/}
287
288 o=%(*objectname)
289 n=%(*authorname)
290 e=%(*authoremail)
291 s=%(*subject)
292 d=%(*authordate)
293 b=%(*body)
294
295 kind=Tag
296 if test "z$t" = z
297 then
298 # could be a lightweight tag
299 t=%(objecttype)
300 kind="Lightweight tag"
301 o=%(objectname)
302 n=%(authorname)
303 e=%(authoremail)
304 s=%(subject)
305 d=%(authordate)
306 b=%(body)
307 fi
308 echo "$kind $T points at a $t object $o"
309 if test "z$t" = zcommit
310 then
311 echo "The commit was authored by $n $e
312 at $d, and titled
313
314 $s
315
316 Its message reads as:
317 "
318 echo "$b" | sed -e "s/^/ /"
319 echo
320 fi
321 '
322
323 eval=`git for-each-ref --shell --format="$fmt" \
324 --sort='*objecttype' \
325 --sort=-taggerdate \
326 refs/tags`
327 eval "$eval"
328 ------------
329
330
331 An example to show the usage of %(if)...%(then)...%(else)...%(end).
332 This prefixes the current branch with a star.
333
334 ------------
335 git for-each-ref --format="%(if)%(HEAD)%(then)* %(else) %(end)%(refname:short)" refs/heads/
336 ------------
337
338
339 An example to show the usage of %(if)...%(then)...%(end).
340 This prints the authorname, if present.
341
342 ------------
343 git for-each-ref --format="%(refname)%(if)%(authorname)%(then) Authored by: %(authorname)%(end)"
344 ------------
345
346 SEE ALSO
347 --------
348 linkgit:git-show-ref[1]
349
350 GIT
351 ---
352 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite