rev-parse --glob
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
1 Commit Formatting
2 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
5 Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
6 more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
7 linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
8 endif::git-rev-list[]
9
10 include::pretty-options.txt[]
11
12 --relative-date::
13
14 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
15
16 --date={relative,local,default,iso,rfc,short,raw}::
17
18 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
19 as when using "--pretty". `log.date` config variable sets a default
20 value for log command's --date option.
21 +
22 `--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
23 e.g. "2 hours ago".
24 +
25 `--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local timezone.
26 +
27 `--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
28 +
29 `--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
30 format, often found in E-mail messages.
31 +
32 `--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
33 +
34 `--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw git format `%s %z` format.
35 +
36 `--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
37 (either committer's or author's).
38
39 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
40 --header::
41
42 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
43 separated with a NUL character.
44 endif::git-rev-list[]
45
46 --parents::
47
48 Print the parents of the commit. Also enables parent
49 rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
50
51 --children::
52
53 Print the children of the commit. Also enables parent
54 rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
55
56 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
57 --timestamp::
58 Print the raw commit timestamp.
59 endif::git-rev-list[]
60
61 --left-right::
62
63 Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
64 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
65 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
66 commits are prefixed with `-`.
67 +
68 For example, if you have this topology:
69 +
70 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
71 y---b---b branch B
72 / \ /
73 / .
74 / / \
75 o---x---a---a branch A
76 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
77 +
78 you would get an output like this:
79 +
80 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
81 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
82
83 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
84 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
85 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
86 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
87 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
88 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
89 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
90
91 --graph::
92
93 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
94 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
95 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
96 to be drawn properly.
97 +
98 This implies the '--topo-order' option by default, but the
99 '--date-order' option may also be specified.
100
101 ifndef::git-rev-list[]
102 Diff Formatting
103 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
104
105 Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
106 Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
107 options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
108
109 -c::
110
111 This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed. It shows
112 the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
113 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
114 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
115 which were modified from all parents.
116
117 --cc::
118
119 This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
120 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
121 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
122 one of them without modification.
123
124 -r::
125
126 Show recursive diffs.
127
128 -t::
129
130 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
131 endif::git-rev-list[]
132
133 Commit Limiting
134 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
135
136 Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
137 special notations explained in the description, additional commit
138 limiting may be applied.
139
140 --
141
142 -n 'number'::
143 --max-count=<number>::
144
145 Limit the number of commits output.
146
147 --skip=<number>::
148
149 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
150
151 --since=<date>::
152 --after=<date>::
153
154 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
155
156 --until=<date>::
157 --before=<date>::
158
159 Show commits older than a specific date.
160
161 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
162 --max-age=<timestamp>::
163 --min-age=<timestamp>::
164
165 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
166 endif::git-rev-list[]
167
168 --author=<pattern>::
169 --committer=<pattern>::
170
171 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
172 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
173
174 --grep=<pattern>::
175
176 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
177 matches the specified pattern (regular expression).
178
179 --all-match::
180 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
181 --author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one.
182
183 -i::
184 --regexp-ignore-case::
185
186 Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.
187
188 -E::
189 --extended-regexp::
190
191 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
192 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
193
194 -F::
195 --fixed-strings::
196
197 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
198 pattern as a regular expression).
199
200 --remove-empty::
201
202 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
203
204 --merges::
205
206 Print only merge commits.
207
208 --no-merges::
209
210 Do not print commits with more than one parent.
211
212 --first-parent::
213 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
214 commit. This option can give a better overview when
215 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
216 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
217 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
218 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
219 brought in to your history by such a merge.
220
221 --not::
222
223 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
224 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
225
226 --all::
227
228 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/` are listed on the
229 command line as '<commit>'.
230
231 --branches::
232
233 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` are listed
234 on the command line as '<commit>'.
235
236 --tags::
237
238 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are listed
239 on the command line as '<commit>'.
240
241 --remotes::
242
243 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes` are listed
244 on the command line as '<commit>'.
245
246 --glob=glob-pattern::
247 Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob `glob-pattern`
248 are listed on the command line as '<commit>'. Leading 'refs/',
249 is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '*',
250 or '[', '/*' at the end is impiled.
251
252
253 ifndef::git-rev-list[]
254 --bisect::
255
256 Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/bad`
257 was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
258 bisection refs `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
259 line.
260 endif::git-rev-list[]
261
262 --stdin::
263
264 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
265 line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
266 seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
267 result.
268
269 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
270 --quiet::
271
272 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
273 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
274 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
275 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
276 to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.
277 endif::git-rev-list[]
278
279 --cherry-pick::
280
281 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
282 another commit on the "other side" when the set of
283 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
284 +
285 For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
286 to list all commits on only one side of them is with
287 `--left-right`, like the example above in the description of
288 that option. It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked
289 from the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked
290 from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
291 excluded from the output.
292
293 -g::
294 --walk-reflogs::
295
296 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
297 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
298 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
299 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
300 nor 'commit1...commit2' notations cannot be used).
301 +
302 With '\--pretty' format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
303 this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
304 taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
305 used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
306 'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
307 instead. Under '\--pretty=oneline', the commit message is
308 prefixed with this information on the same line.
309 This option cannot be combined with '\--reverse'.
310 See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
311
312 --merge::
313
314 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
315 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
316
317 --boundary::
318
319 Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
320 not shown.
321
322 --
323
324 History Simplification
325 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
326
327 Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
328 commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
329 'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
330 is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
331
332 The following options select the commits to be shown:
333
334 <paths>::
335
336 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
337
338 --simplify-by-decoration::
339
340 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
341
342 Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
343
344 The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
345
346 Default mode::
347
348 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
349 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
350 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
351 with the same content)
352
353 --full-history::
354
355 As the default mode but does not prune some history.
356
357 --dense::
358
359 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
360 meaningful history.
361
362 --sparse::
363
364 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
365
366 --simplify-merges::
367
368 Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
369 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
370 commits contributing to this merge.
371
372 A more detailed explanation follows.
373
374 Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
375 that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
376 filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
377
378 In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
379 illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
380 that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
381 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
382 .-A---M---N---O---P
383 / / / / /
384 I B C D E
385 \ / / / /
386 `-------------'
387 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
388 The horizontal line of history A--P is taken to be the first parent of
389 each merge. The commits are:
390
391 * `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
392 "asdf", and a file `quux` exists with contents "quux". Initial
393 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
394
395 * In `A`, `foo` contains just "foo".
396
397 * `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
398 hence TREESAME to all parents.
399
400 * `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to "foobar",
401 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
402
403 * `D` sets `foo` to "baz". Its merge `O` combines the strings from
404 `N` and `D` to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
405
406 * `E` changes `quux` to "xyzzy", and its merge `P` combines the
407 strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting, `P` is
408 TREESAME to all parents.
409
410 'rev-list' walks backwards through history, including or excluding
411 commits based on whether '\--full-history' and/or parent rewriting
412 (via '\--parents' or '\--children') are used. The following settings
413 are available.
414
415 Default mode::
416
417 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
418 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below). If the
419 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
420 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
421 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
422 parents.
423 +
424 This results in:
425 +
426 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
427 .-A---N---O
428 / /
429 I---------D
430 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
431 +
432 Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
433 available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
434 considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
435 empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
436 +
437 Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
438 not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
439 parent lines.
440
441 --full-history without parent rewriting::
442
443 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
444 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
445 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
446 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
447 the example, we get
448 +
449 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
450 I A B N D O
451 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
452 +
453 `P` and `M` were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent. `E`,
454 `C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
455 do not appear.
456 +
457 Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
458 about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
459 them disconnected.
460
461 --full-history with parent rewriting::
462
463 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
464 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below).
465 +
466 Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
467 Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
468 themselves. This results in
469 +
470 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
471 .-A---M---N---O---P
472 / / / / /
473 I B / D /
474 \ / / / /
475 `-------------'
476 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
477 +
478 Compare to '\--full-history' without rewriting above. Note that `E`
479 was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
480 rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
481 `N`. Note also that `P` was included despite being TREESAME.
482
483 In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
484 affects inclusion:
485
486 --dense::
487
488 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
489 to any parent.
490
491 --sparse::
492
493 All commits that are walked are included.
494 +
495 Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
496 one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
497 sides of the merge are never walked.
498
499 Finally, there is a fourth simplification mode available:
500
501 --simplify-merges::
502
503 First, build a history graph in the same way that
504 '\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
505 +
506 Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
507 history according to the following rules:
508 +
509 --
510 * Set `C'` to `C`.
511 +
512 * Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
513 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
514 remove duplicates.
515 +
516 * If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
517 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
518 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
519 --
520 +
521 The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
522 '\--full-history' with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
523 +
524 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
525 .-A---M---N---O
526 / / /
527 I B D
528 \ / /
529 `---------'
530 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
531 +
532 Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '\--full-history':
533 +
534 --
535 * `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
536 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
537 +
538 * `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
539 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
540 --
541
542 The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
543 big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
544 that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
545 (in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
546 above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
547 contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
548 commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
549
550 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
551 Bisection Helpers
552 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
553
554 --bisect::
555
556 Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
557 included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
558 `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
559 exists) and the good bisection refs `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/good-*` are
560 added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
561 are no refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/`, if
562
563 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
564 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
565 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
566
567 outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
568
569 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
570 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
571 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
572 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
573
574 would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
575 introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
576 generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
577 one.
578
579 --bisect-vars::
580
581 This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
582 `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
583 text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
584 name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
585 expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
586 to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
587 `bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
588 number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
589 `bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
590 `bisect_all`.
591
592 --bisect-all::
593
594 This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
595 commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
596 commits. Refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
597 from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
598 `--bisect`.)
599 +
600 This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
601 test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
602 may not compile for example).
603 +
604 This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
605 after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
606 `--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
607 endif::git-rev-list[]
608
609
610 Commit Ordering
611 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
612
613 By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
614
615 --topo-order::
616
617 This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
618 descendant commits are shown before their parents).
619
620 --date-order::
621
622 This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
623 parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
624 are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
625
626 --reverse::
627
628 Output the commits in reverse order.
629 Cannot be combined with '\--walk-reflogs'.
630
631 Object Traversal
632 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
633
634 These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
635
636 --objects::
637
638 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
639 commits. '--objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
640 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
641 object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
642
643 --objects-edge::
644
645 Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
646 commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
647 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
648 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
649 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
650
651 --unpacked::
652
653 Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
654 in packs.
655
656 --no-walk::
657
658 Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.
659
660 --do-walk::
661
662 Overrides a previous --no-walk.