Merge branch 'maint-1.8.1' into maint
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-commit.txt
1 git-commit(1)
2 =============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-commit - Record changes to the repository
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git commit' [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
12 [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
13 [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
14 [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
15 [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--status | --no-status]
16 [-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Stores the current contents of the index in a new commit along
21 with a log message from the user describing the changes.
22
23 The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
24
25 1. by using 'git add' to incrementally "add" changes to the
26 index before using the 'commit' command (Note: even modified
27 files must be "added");
28
29 2. by using 'git rm' to remove files from the working tree
30 and the index, again before using the 'commit' command;
31
32 3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
33 case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
34 record the current content of the listed files (which must already
35 be known to Git);
36
37 4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
38 "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
39 listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index
40 that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the
41 actual commit;
42
43 5. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the 'commit' command
44 to decide one by one which files or hunks should be part of the commit,
45 before finalizing the operation. See the ``Interactive Mode'' section of
46 linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate these modes.
47
48 The `--dry-run` option can be used to obtain a
49 summary of what is included by any of the above for the next
50 commit by giving the same set of parameters (options and paths).
51
52 If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after
53 that, you can recover from it with 'git reset'.
54
55
56 OPTIONS
57 -------
58 -a::
59 --all::
60 Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
61 been modified and deleted, but new files you have not
62 told Git about are not affected.
63
64 -p::
65 --patch::
66 Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose
67 which changes to commit. See linkgit:git-add[1] for
68 details.
69
70 -C <commit>::
71 --reuse-message=<commit>::
72 Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message
73 and the authorship information (including the timestamp)
74 when creating the commit.
75
76 -c <commit>::
77 --reedit-message=<commit>::
78 Like '-C', but with '-c' the editor is invoked, so that
79 the user can further edit the commit message.
80
81 --fixup=<commit>::
82 Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
83 The commit message will be the subject line from the specified
84 commit with a prefix of "fixup! ". See linkgit:git-rebase[1]
85 for details.
86
87 --squash=<commit>::
88 Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
89 The commit message subject line is taken from the specified
90 commit with a prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional
91 commit message options (`-m`/`-c`/`-C`/`-F`). See
92 linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details.
93
94 --reset-author::
95 When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a
96 a conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the
97 resulting commit now belongs of the committer. This also renews
98 the author timestamp.
99
100 --short::
101 When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See
102 linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies `--dry-run`.
103
104 --branch::
105 Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.
106
107 --porcelain::
108 When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready
109 format. See linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies
110 `--dry-run`.
111
112 --long::
113 When doing a dry-run, give the output in a the long-format.
114 Implies `--dry-run`.
115
116 -z::
117 --null::
118 When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, terminate
119 entries in the status output with NUL, instead of LF. If no
120 format is given, implies the `--porcelain` output format.
121
122 -F <file>::
123 --file=<file>::
124 Take the commit message from the given file. Use '-' to
125 read the message from the standard input.
126
127 --author=<author>::
128 Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the
129 standard `A U Thor <author@example.com>` format. Otherwise <author>
130 is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing
131 commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>);
132 the commit author is then copied from the first such commit found.
133
134 --date=<date>::
135 Override the author date used in the commit.
136
137 -m <msg>::
138 --message=<msg>::
139 Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
140 If multiple `-m` options are given, their values are
141 concatenated as separate paragraphs.
142
143 -t <file>::
144 --template=<file>::
145 When editing the commit message, start the editor with the
146 contents in the given file. The `commit.template` configuration
147 variable is often used to give this option implicitly to the
148 command. This mechanism can be used by projects that want to
149 guide participants with some hints on what to write in the message
150 in what order. If the user exits the editor without editing the
151 message, the commit is aborted. This has no effect when a message
152 is given by other means, e.g. with the `-m` or `-F` options.
153
154 -s::
155 --signoff::
156 Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
157 log message.
158
159 -n::
160 --no-verify::
161 This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks.
162 See also linkgit:githooks[5].
163
164 --allow-empty::
165 Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its
166 sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you
167 from making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and
168 is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.
169
170 --allow-empty-message::
171 Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign
172 SCM interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an
173 empty commit message without using plumbing commands like
174 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
175
176 --cleanup=<mode>::
177 This option sets how the commit message is cleaned up.
178 The '<mode>' can be one of 'verbatim', 'whitespace', 'strip',
179 and 'default'. The 'default' mode will strip leading and
180 trailing empty lines and #commentary from the commit message
181 only if the message is to be edited. Otherwise only whitespace
182 removed. The 'verbatim' mode does not change message at all,
183 'whitespace' removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines
184 and 'strip' removes both whitespace and commentary. The default
185 can be changed by the 'commit.cleanup' configuration variable
186 (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
187
188 -e::
189 --edit::
190 The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
191 `-m`, and from file with `-C` are usually used as the
192 commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
193 further edit the message taken from these sources.
194
195 --no-edit::
196 Use the selected commit message without launching an editor.
197 For example, `git commit --amend --no-edit` amends a commit
198 without changing its commit message.
199
200 --amend::
201 Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree
202 object you would want to replace the latest commit as usual
203 (this includes the usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the
204 commit log editor is seeded with the commit message from the
205 tip of the current branch. The commit you create replaces the
206 current tip -- if it was a merge, it will have the parents of
207 the current tip as parents -- so the current top commit is
208 discarded.
209 +
210 --
211 It is a rough equivalent for:
212 ------
213 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
214 $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
215 $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
216
217 ------
218 but can be used to amend a merge commit.
219 --
220 +
221 You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
222 amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING
223 FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
224
225 --no-post-rewrite::
226 Bypass the post-rewrite hook.
227
228 -i::
229 --include::
230 Before making a commit out of staged contents so far,
231 stage the contents of paths given on the command line
232 as well. This is usually not what you want unless you
233 are concluding a conflicted merge.
234
235 -o::
236 --only::
237 Make a commit only from the paths specified on the
238 command line, disregarding any contents that have been
239 staged so far. This is the default mode of operation of
240 'git commit' if any paths are given on the command line,
241 in which case this option can be omitted.
242 If this option is specified together with '--amend', then
243 no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
244 the last commit without committing changes that have
245 already been staged.
246
247 -u[<mode>]::
248 --untracked-files[=<mode>]::
249 Show untracked files.
250 +
251 The mode parameter is optional (defaults to 'all'), and is used to
252 specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
253 default is 'normal', i.e. show untracked files and directories.
254 +
255 The possible options are:
256 +
257 - 'no' - Show no untracked files
258 - 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
259 - 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
260 +
261 The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
262 configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
263
264 -v::
265 --verbose::
266 Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what
267 would be committed at the bottom of the commit message
268 template. Note that this diff output doesn't have its
269 lines prefixed with '#'.
270
271 -q::
272 --quiet::
273 Suppress commit summary message.
274
275 --dry-run::
276 Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are
277 to be committed, paths with local changes that will be left
278 uncommitted and paths that are untracked.
279
280 --status::
281 Include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the commit
282 message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
283 message. Defaults to on, but can be used to override
284 configuration variable commit.status.
285
286 --no-status::
287 Do not include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the
288 commit message template when using an editor to prepare the
289 default commit message.
290
291 -S[<keyid>]::
292 --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
293 GPG-sign commit.
294
295 \--::
296 Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
297
298 <file>...::
299 When files are given on the command line, the command
300 commits the contents of the named files, without
301 recording the changes already staged. The contents of
302 these files are also staged for the next commit on top
303 of what have been staged before.
304
305 :git-commit: 1
306 include::date-formats.txt[]
307
308 EXAMPLES
309 --------
310 When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in
311 your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area
312 called the "index" with 'git add'. A file can be
313 reverted back, only in the index but not in the working tree,
314 to that of the last commit with `git reset HEAD -- <file>`,
315 which effectively reverts 'git add' and prevents the changes to
316 this file from participating in the next commit. After building
317 the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
318 `git commit` (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
319 has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the
320 command. An example:
321
322 ------------
323 $ edit hello.c
324 $ git rm goodbye.c
325 $ git add hello.c
326 $ git commit
327 ------------
328
329 Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can
330 tell `git commit` to notice the changes to the files whose
331 contents are tracked in
332 your working tree and do corresponding `git add` and `git rm`
333 for you. That is, this example does the same as the earlier
334 example if there is no other change in your working tree:
335
336 ------------
337 $ edit hello.c
338 $ rm goodbye.c
339 $ git commit -a
340 ------------
341
342 The command `git commit -a` first looks at your working tree,
343 notices that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c,
344 and performs necessary `git add` and `git rm` for you.
345
346 After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
347 changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to `git commit`.
348 When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that
349 only records the changes made to the named paths:
350
351 ------------
352 $ edit hello.c hello.h
353 $ git add hello.c hello.h
354 $ edit Makefile
355 $ git commit Makefile
356 ------------
357
358 This makes a commit that records the modification to `Makefile`.
359 The changes staged for `hello.c` and `hello.h` are not included
360 in the resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost --
361 they are still staged and merely held back. After the above
362 sequence, if you do:
363
364 ------------
365 $ git commit
366 ------------
367
368 this second commit would record the changes to `hello.c` and
369 `hello.h` as expected.
370
371 After a merge (initiated by 'git merge' or 'git pull') stops
372 because of conflicts, cleanly merged
373 paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that
374 conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have to first
375 check which paths are conflicting with 'git status'
376 and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would
377 stage the result as usual with 'git add':
378
379 ------------
380 $ git status | grep unmerged
381 unmerged: hello.c
382 $ edit hello.c
383 $ git add hello.c
384 ------------
385
386 After resolving conflicts and staging the result, `git ls-files -u`
387 would stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done,
388 run `git commit` to finally record the merge:
389
390 ------------
391 $ git commit
392 ------------
393
394 As with the case to record your own changes, you can use `-a`
395 option to save typing. One difference is that during a merge
396 resolution, you cannot use `git commit` with pathnames to
397 alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge
398 should be recorded as a single commit. In fact, the command
399 refuses to run when given pathnames (but see `-i` option).
400
401
402 DISCUSSION
403 ----------
404
405 Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
406 with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
407 change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
408 The text up to the first blank line in a commit message is treated
409 as the commit title, and that title is used throughout Git.
410 For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a commit into email, and it uses
411 the title on the Subject line and the rest of the commit in the body.
412
413 include::i18n.txt[]
414
415 ENVIRONMENT AND CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
416 ---------------------------------------
417 The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
418 GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the
419 VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that
420 order). See linkgit:git-var[1] for details.
421
422 HOOKS
423 -----
424 This command can run `commit-msg`, `prepare-commit-msg`, `pre-commit`,
425 and `post-commit` hooks. See linkgit:githooks[5] for more
426 information.
427
428 FILES
429 -----
430
431 `$GIT_DIR/COMMIT_EDITMSG`::
432 This file contains the commit message of a commit in progress.
433 If `git commit` exits due to an error before creating a commit,
434 any commit message that has been provided by the user (e.g., in
435 an editor session) will be available in this file, but will be
436 overwritten by the next invocation of `git commit`.
437
438 SEE ALSO
439 --------
440 linkgit:git-add[1],
441 linkgit:git-rm[1],
442 linkgit:git-mv[1],
443 linkgit:git-merge[1],
444 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
445
446 GIT
447 ---
448 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite