cbf157be43ea50a5a49d66d16ee91ccb4b62e10c
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.6.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.6.4]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.6.4.txt[2.6.4],
50 link:RelNotes/2.6.3.txt[2.6.3],
51 link:RelNotes/2.6.2.txt[2.6.2],
52 link:RelNotes/2.6.1.txt[2.6.1],
53 link:RelNotes/2.6.0.txt[2.6].
54
55 * link:v2.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.5.4]
56
57 * release notes for
58 link:RelNotes/2.5.4.txt[2.5.4],
59 link:RelNotes/2.5.3.txt[2.5.3],
60 link:RelNotes/2.5.2.txt[2.5.2],
61 link:RelNotes/2.5.1.txt[2.5.1],
62 link:RelNotes/2.5.0.txt[2.5].
63
64 * link:v2.4.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.10]
65
66 * release notes for
67 link:RelNotes/2.4.10.txt[2.4.10],
68 link:RelNotes/2.4.9.txt[2.4.9],
69 link:RelNotes/2.4.8.txt[2.4.8],
70 link:RelNotes/2.4.7.txt[2.4.7],
71 link:RelNotes/2.4.6.txt[2.4.6],
72 link:RelNotes/2.4.5.txt[2.4.5],
73 link:RelNotes/2.4.4.txt[2.4.4],
74 link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
75 link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
76 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
77 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
78
79 * link:v2.3.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.10]
80
81 * release notes for
82 link:RelNotes/2.3.10.txt[2.3.10],
83 link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
84 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
85 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
86 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
87 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
88 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
89 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
90 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
91 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
92 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
93
94 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
95
96 * release notes for
97 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
98 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
99 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
100 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
101
102 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
103
104 * release notes for
105 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
106 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
107 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
108 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
109 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
110
111 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
112
113 * release notes for
114 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
115 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
116 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
117 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
118 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
119 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
120
121 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
122
123 * release notes for
124 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
125 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
126 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
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128 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
129 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
130
131 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
132
133 * release notes for
134 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
135 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
136 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
137 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
138 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
139 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
140 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
141
142 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
143
144 * release notes for
145 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
146 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
147 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
148 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
149 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
150 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
151
152 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
153
154 * release notes for
155 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
156 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
157 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
158 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
159 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
160
161 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
162
163 * release notes for
164 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
165 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
166 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
167 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
168
169 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
170
171 * release notes for
172 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
173 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
174 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
175 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
176 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
177 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
178 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
179
180 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
181
182 * release notes for
183 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
184 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
185 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
186 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
187
188 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
189
190 * release notes for
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
193 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
194 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
195 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
196
197 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
198
199 * release notes for
200 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
201 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
202 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
203 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
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206 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
207 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
208
209 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
210
211 * release notes for
212 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
213 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
214 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
216 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
217 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
218
219 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
220
221 * release notes for
222 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
223 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
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228 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
229 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
230
231 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
232
233 * release notes for
234 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
235 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
236 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
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239 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
240 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
241
242 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
243
244 * release notes for
245 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
246 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
247 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
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251 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
252 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
253
254 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
255
256 * release notes for
257 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
258 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
259 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
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262 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
263 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
264
265 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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267 * release notes for
268 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
269 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
270 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
271 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
272 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
273
274 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
275
276 * release notes for
277 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
278 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
279 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
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281 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
282 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
283
284 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
285
286 * release notes for
287 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
288 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
289 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
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292 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
293
294 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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296 * release notes for
297 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
298 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
299 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
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301 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
302 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
303
304 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
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306 * release notes for
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308 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
309 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
310 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
311 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
312
313 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
314
315 * release notes for
316 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
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326
327 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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329 * release notes for
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331 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
332 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
333 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
334
335 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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337 * release notes for
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347 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
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349 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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351 * release notes for
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357 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
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359 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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361 * release notes for
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375
376 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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384 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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386 * release notes for
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395 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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397 * release notes for
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405
406 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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408 * release notes for
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416
417 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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428
429 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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440 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
441
442 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
443
444 * release notes for
445 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
446 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
451
452 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
453
454 * release notes for
455 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
456 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
457 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
458 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
459 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
460 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
461 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
462
463 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
464
465 * release notes for
466 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
467 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
468 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
469 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
470 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
471 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
472 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
473
474 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
475 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
476 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
477 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
478
479 ============
480
481 endif::stalenotes[]
482
483 OPTIONS
484 -------
485 --version::
486 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
487
488 --help::
489 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
490 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
491 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
492 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
493 +
494 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
495 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
496 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
497 help ...`.
498
499 -C <path>::
500 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
501 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
502 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
503 <path>`.
504 +
505 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
506 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
507 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
508 example the following invocations are equivalent:
509
510 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
511 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
512
513 -c <name>=<value>::
514 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
515 given will override values from configuration files.
516 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
517 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
518 +
519 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
520 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
521 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
522 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
523
524 --exec-path[=<path>]::
525 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
526 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
527 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
528 the current setting and then exit.
529
530 --html-path::
531 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
532 documentation is installed and exit.
533
534 --man-path::
535 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
536 this version of Git and exit.
537
538 --info-path::
539 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
540 version of Git are installed and exit.
541
542 -p::
543 --paginate::
544 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
545 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
546 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
547 below).
548
549 --no-pager::
550 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
551
552 --git-dir=<path>::
553 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
554 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
555 path or relative path to current working directory.
556
557 --work-tree=<path>::
558 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
559 or a path relative to the current working directory.
560 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
561 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
562 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
563 more detailed discussion).
564
565 --namespace=<path>::
566 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
567 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
568 variable.
569
570 --bare::
571 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
572 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
573 directory.
574
575 --no-replace-objects::
576 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
577 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
578
579 --literal-pathspecs::
580 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
581 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
582 variable to `1`.
583
584 --glob-pathspecs::
585 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
586 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
587 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
588 magic ":(literal)"
589
590 --noglob-pathspecs::
591 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
592 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
593 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
594 magic ":(glob)"
595
596 --icase-pathspecs::
597 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
598 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
599
600 GIT COMMANDS
601 ------------
602
603 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
604 ("plumbing") commands.
605
606 High-level commands (porcelain)
607 -------------------------------
608
609 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
610 ancillary user utilities.
611
612 Main porcelain commands
613 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
614
615 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
616
617 Ancillary Commands
618 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
619 Manipulators:
620
621 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
622
623 Interrogators:
624
625 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
626
627
628 Interacting with Others
629 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
630
631 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
632 people via patch over e-mail.
633
634 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
635
636
637 Low-level commands (plumbing)
638 -----------------------------
639
640 Although Git includes its
641 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
642 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
643 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
644 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
645
646 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
647 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
648 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
649 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
650 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
651 end user experience.
652
653 The following description divides
654 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
655 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
656 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
657 repositories.
658
659
660 Manipulation commands
661 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
662
663 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
664
665
666 Interrogation commands
667 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
668
669 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
670
671 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
672 the working tree.
673
674
675 Synching repositories
676 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
677
678 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
679
680 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
681 typically do not use them directly.
682
683 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
684
685
686 Internal helper commands
687 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
688
689 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
690 users typically do not use them directly.
691
692 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
693
694
695 Configuration Mechanism
696 -----------------------
697
698 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
699 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
700 like this:
701
702 ------------
703 #
704 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
705 #
706
707 ; core variables
708 [core]
709 ; Don't trust file modes
710 filemode = false
711
712 ; user identity
713 [user]
714 name = "Junio C Hamano"
715 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
716
717 ------------
718
719 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
720 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
721 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
722
723
724 Identifier Terminology
725 ----------------------
726 <object>::
727 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
728
729 <blob>::
730 Indicates a blob object name.
731
732 <tree>::
733 Indicates a tree object name.
734
735 <commit>::
736 Indicates a commit object name.
737
738 <tree-ish>::
739 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
740 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
741 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
742 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
743
744 <commit-ish>::
745 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
746 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
747 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
748 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
749
750 <type>::
751 Indicates that an object type is required.
752 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
753
754 <file>::
755 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
756 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
757
758 Symbolic Identifiers
759 --------------------
760 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
761 symbolic notation:
762
763 HEAD::
764 indicates the head of the current branch.
765
766 <tag>::
767 a valid tag 'name'
768 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
769
770 <head>::
771 a valid head 'name'
772 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
773
774 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
775 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
776
777
778 File/Directory Structure
779 ------------------------
780
781 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
782
783 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
784
785 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
786 `$GIT_DIR`.
787
788
789 Terminology
790 -----------
791 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
792
793
794 Environment Variables
795 ---------------------
796 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
797
798 The Git Repository
799 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
800 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
801 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
802 Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
803
804 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
805 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
806 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
807 is used.
808
809 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
810 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
811 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
812 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
813 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
814
815 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
816 If the object storage directory is specified via this
817 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
818 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
819 directory is used.
820
821 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
822 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
823 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
824 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
825 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
826 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
827
828 'GIT_DIR'::
829 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
830 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
831 for the base of the repository.
832 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
833
834 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
835 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
836 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
837 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
838
839 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
840 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
841 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
842
843 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
844 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
845 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
846 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
847 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
848 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
849 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
850 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
851 might be present in order to compare them with the current
852 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
853 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
854 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
855 e.g.,
856 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
857
858 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
859 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
860 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
861 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
862 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
863 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
864 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
865 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
866 command line.
867
868 'GIT_COMMON_DIR'::
869 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
870 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
871 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
872 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
873 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
874 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
875 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
876
877 Git Commits
878 ~~~~~~~~~~~
879 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
880 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
881 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
882 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
883 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
884 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
885 'EMAIL'::
886 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
887
888 Git Diffs
889 ~~~~~~~~~
890 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
891 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
892 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
893 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
894 value passed on the Git diff command line.
895
896 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
897 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
898 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
899 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
900 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
901
902 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
903 +
904 where:
905
906 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
907 contents of <old|new>,
908 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
909 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
910 +
911 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
912 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
913 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
914 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
915 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
916 +
917 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
918 parameter, <path>.
919 +
920 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
921 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
922
923 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
924 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
925
926 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
927 The total number of paths.
928
929 other
930 ~~~~~
931 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
932 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
933 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
934 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
935
936 'GIT_PAGER'::
937 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
938 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
939 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
940 linkgit:git-config[1].
941
942 'GIT_EDITOR'::
943 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
944 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
945 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
946 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
947
948 'GIT_SSH'::
949 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
950 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
951 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
952 when they need to connect to a remote system.
953 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
954 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
955 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
956 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
957 something other than the default SSH port.
958 +
959 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
960 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
961 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
962 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
963 needed).
964 +
965 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
966 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
967 for further details.
968
969 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
970 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
971 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
972 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
973 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
974 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
975
976 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
977 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
978 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
979
980 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
981 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
982 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
983 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
984 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
985 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
986 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
987
988 'GIT_FLUSH'::
989 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
990 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
991 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
992 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
993 flushed. If this
994 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
995 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
996 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
997 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
998
999 'GIT_TRACE'::
1000 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
1001 command execution and external command execution.
1002 +
1003 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
1004 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
1005 stderr.
1006 +
1007 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
1008 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
1009 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
1010 trace messages into this file descriptor.
1011 +
1012 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
1013 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
1014 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
1015 into it.
1016 +
1017 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
1018 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
1019
1020 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
1021 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
1022 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1023 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1024 pack-related performance problems.
1025 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1026
1027 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
1028 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1029 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1030 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1031 starting with "PACK" (but see 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE' below).
1032 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1033
1034 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE'::
1035 Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
1036 given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
1037 verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
1038 certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
1039 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
1040 the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
1041 +
1042 Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
1043 of clones and fetches.
1044
1045 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1046 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1047 time of each Git command.
1048 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1049
1050 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1051 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1052 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1053 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1054
1055 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1056 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1057 cloning of shallow repositories.
1058 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1059
1060 'GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS'::
1061 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1062 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1063 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1064 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1065 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1066 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1067 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1068
1069 'GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS'::
1070 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1071 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1072
1073 'GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS'::
1074 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1075 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1076
1077 'GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS'::
1078 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1079 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1080
1081 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1082 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1083 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1084 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1085 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1086 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1087 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1088 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1089 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1090
1091 'GIT_REF_PARANOIA'::
1092 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1093 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1094 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1095 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1096 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1097 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1098 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1099 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1100 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1101
1102 'GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL'::
1103 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1104 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1105 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1106 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1107 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1108 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1109 currently used by git are:
1110
1111 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1112 or local paths)
1113
1114 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1115 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1116
1117 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
1118 `git+ssh://`, etc).
1119
1120 - `rsync`: git over rsync
1121
1122 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1123 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1124 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1125
1126 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1127 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
1128
1129
1130 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1131 ------------------------
1132
1133 More detail on the following is available from the
1134 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1135 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1136
1137 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1138 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1139 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1140 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1141 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1142 as tags and branch heads.
1143
1144 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1145 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1146 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1147 and some number of parent commits.
1148
1149 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1150 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1151 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1152 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1153
1154 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1155 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1156 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1157 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1158 purpose.
1159
1160 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1161 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1162
1163 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1164 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1165 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1166 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1167 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1168 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1169
1170 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1171 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1172 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1173 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1174 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1175 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1176 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1177 content stored in the index.
1178
1179 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1180 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1181 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1182
1183 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1184 ---------------------
1185
1186 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1187 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1188 for a first-time user.
1189
1190 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1191 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1192 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1193
1194 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1195
1196 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1197 examples.
1198
1199 The internals are documented in the
1200 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1201
1202 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1203 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1204
1205
1206 Authors
1207 -------
1208 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1209 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1210 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1211 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1212
1213 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1214 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1215 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1216
1217 Reporting Bugs
1218 --------------
1219
1220 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1221 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1222 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1223
1224 SEE ALSO
1225 --------
1226 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1227 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1228 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1229 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1230 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1231
1232 GIT
1233 ---
1234 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite