Merge branch 'ld/p4-unshelve'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-p4.txt
1 git-p4(1)
2 =========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-p4 - Import from and submit to Perforce repositories
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git p4 clone' [<sync options>] [<clone options>] <p4 depot path>...
13 'git p4 sync' [<sync options>] [<p4 depot path>...]
14 'git p4 rebase'
15 'git p4 submit' [<submit options>] [<master branch name>]
16
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 This command provides a way to interact with p4 repositories
21 using Git.
22
23 Create a new Git repository from an existing p4 repository using
24 'git p4 clone', giving it one or more p4 depot paths. Incorporate
25 new commits from p4 changes with 'git p4 sync'. The 'sync' command
26 is also used to include new branches from other p4 depot paths.
27 Submit Git changes back to p4 using 'git p4 submit'. The command
28 'git p4 rebase' does a sync plus rebases the current branch onto
29 the updated p4 remote branch.
30
31
32 EXAMPLES
33 --------
34 * Clone a repository:
35 +
36 ------------
37 $ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
38 ------------
39
40 * Do some work in the newly created Git repository:
41 +
42 ------------
43 $ cd project
44 $ vi foo.h
45 $ git commit -a -m "edited foo.h"
46 ------------
47
48 * Update the Git repository with recent changes from p4, rebasing your
49 work on top:
50 +
51 ------------
52 $ git p4 rebase
53 ------------
54
55 * Submit your commits back to p4:
56 +
57 ------------
58 $ git p4 submit
59 ------------
60
61
62 COMMANDS
63 --------
64
65 Clone
66 ~~~~~
67 Generally, 'git p4 clone' is used to create a new Git directory
68 from an existing p4 repository:
69 ------------
70 $ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
71 ------------
72 This:
73
74 1. Creates an empty Git repository in a subdirectory called 'project'.
75 +
76 2. Imports the full contents of the head revision from the given p4
77 depot path into a single commit in the Git branch 'refs/remotes/p4/master'.
78 +
79 3. Creates a local branch, 'master' from this remote and checks it out.
80
81 To reproduce the entire p4 history in Git, use the '@all' modifier on
82 the depot path:
83 ------------
84 $ git p4 clone //depot/path/project@all
85 ------------
86
87
88 Sync
89 ~~~~
90 As development continues in the p4 repository, those changes can
91 be included in the Git repository using:
92 ------------
93 $ git p4 sync
94 ------------
95 This command finds new changes in p4 and imports them as Git commits.
96
97 P4 repositories can be added to an existing Git repository using
98 'git p4 sync' too:
99 ------------
100 $ mkdir repo-git
101 $ cd repo-git
102 $ git init
103 $ git p4 sync //path/in/your/perforce/depot
104 ------------
105 This imports the specified depot into
106 'refs/remotes/p4/master' in an existing Git repository. The
107 `--branch` option can be used to specify a different branch to
108 be used for the p4 content.
109
110 If a Git repository includes branches 'refs/remotes/origin/p4', these
111 will be fetched and consulted first during a 'git p4 sync'. Since
112 importing directly from p4 is considerably slower than pulling changes
113 from a Git remote, this can be useful in a multi-developer environment.
114
115 If there are multiple branches, doing 'git p4 sync' will automatically
116 use the "BRANCH DETECTION" algorithm to try to partition new changes
117 into the right branch. This can be overridden with the `--branch`
118 option to specify just a single branch to update.
119
120
121 Rebase
122 ~~~~~~
123 A common working pattern is to fetch the latest changes from the p4 depot
124 and merge them with local uncommitted changes. Often, the p4 repository
125 is the ultimate location for all code, thus a rebase workflow makes
126 sense. This command does 'git p4 sync' followed by 'git rebase' to move
127 local commits on top of updated p4 changes.
128 ------------
129 $ git p4 rebase
130 ------------
131
132
133 Submit
134 ~~~~~~
135 Submitting changes from a Git repository back to the p4 repository
136 requires a separate p4 client workspace. This should be specified
137 using the `P4CLIENT` environment variable or the Git configuration
138 variable 'git-p4.client'. The p4 client must exist, but the client root
139 will be created and populated if it does not already exist.
140
141 To submit all changes that are in the current Git branch but not in
142 the 'p4/master' branch, use:
143 ------------
144 $ git p4 submit
145 ------------
146
147 To specify a branch other than the current one, use:
148 ------------
149 $ git p4 submit topicbranch
150 ------------
151
152 The upstream reference is generally 'refs/remotes/p4/master', but can
153 be overridden using the `--origin=` command-line option.
154
155 The p4 changes will be created as the user invoking 'git p4 submit'. The
156 `--preserve-user` option will cause ownership to be modified
157 according to the author of the Git commit. This option requires admin
158 privileges in p4, which can be granted using 'p4 protect'.
159
160 To shelve changes instead of submitting, use `--shelve` and `--update-shelve`:
161
162 ----
163 $ git p4 submit --shelve
164 $ git p4 submit --update-shelve 1234 --update-shelve 2345
165 ----
166
167
168 Unshelve
169 ~~~~~~~~
170 Unshelving will take a shelved P4 changelist, and produce the equivalent git commit
171 in the branch refs/remotes/p4/unshelved/<changelist>.
172
173 The git commit is created relative to the current origin revision (HEAD by default).
174 If the shelved changelist's parent revisions differ, git-p4 will refuse to unshelve;
175 you need to be unshelving onto an equivalent tree.
176
177 The origin revision can be changed with the "--origin" option.
178
179 If the target branch in refs/remotes/p4/unshelved already exists, the old one will
180 be renamed.
181
182 ----
183 $ git p4 sync
184 $ git p4 unshelve 12345
185 $ git show refs/remotes/p4/unshelved/12345
186 <submit more changes via p4 to the same files>
187 $ git p4 unshelve 12345
188 <refuses to unshelve until git is in sync with p4 again>
189
190 ----
191
192 OPTIONS
193 -------
194
195 General options
196 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
197 All commands except clone accept these options.
198
199 --git-dir <dir>::
200 Set the `GIT_DIR` environment variable. See linkgit:git[1].
201
202 -v::
203 --verbose::
204 Provide more progress information.
205
206 Sync options
207 ~~~~~~~~~~~~
208 These options can be used in the initial 'clone' as well as in
209 subsequent 'sync' operations.
210
211 --branch <ref>::
212 Import changes into <ref> instead of refs/remotes/p4/master.
213 If <ref> starts with refs/, it is used as is. Otherwise, if
214 it does not start with p4/, that prefix is added.
215 +
216 By default a <ref> not starting with refs/ is treated as the
217 name of a remote-tracking branch (under refs/remotes/). This
218 behavior can be modified using the --import-local option.
219 +
220 The default <ref> is "master".
221 +
222 This example imports a new remote "p4/proj2" into an existing
223 Git repository:
224 +
225 ----
226 $ git init
227 $ git p4 sync --branch=refs/remotes/p4/proj2 //depot/proj2
228 ----
229
230 --detect-branches::
231 Use the branch detection algorithm to find new paths in p4. It is
232 documented below in "BRANCH DETECTION".
233
234 --changesfile <file>::
235 Import exactly the p4 change numbers listed in 'file', one per
236 line. Normally, 'git p4' inspects the current p4 repository
237 state and detects the changes it should import.
238
239 --silent::
240 Do not print any progress information.
241
242 --detect-labels::
243 Query p4 for labels associated with the depot paths, and add
244 them as tags in Git. Limited usefulness as only imports labels
245 associated with new changelists. Deprecated.
246
247 --import-labels::
248 Import labels from p4 into Git.
249
250 --import-local::
251 By default, p4 branches are stored in 'refs/remotes/p4/',
252 where they will be treated as remote-tracking branches by
253 linkgit:git-branch[1] and other commands. This option instead
254 puts p4 branches in 'refs/heads/p4/'. Note that future
255 sync operations must specify `--import-local` as well so that
256 they can find the p4 branches in refs/heads.
257
258 --max-changes <n>::
259 Import at most 'n' changes, rather than the entire range of
260 changes included in the given revision specifier. A typical
261 usage would be use '@all' as the revision specifier, but then
262 to use '--max-changes 1000' to import only the last 1000
263 revisions rather than the entire revision history.
264
265 --changes-block-size <n>::
266 The internal block size to use when converting a revision
267 specifier such as '@all' into a list of specific change
268 numbers. Instead of using a single call to 'p4 changes' to
269 find the full list of changes for the conversion, there are a
270 sequence of calls to 'p4 changes -m', each of which requests
271 one block of changes of the given size. The default block size
272 is 500, which should usually be suitable.
273
274 --keep-path::
275 The mapping of file names from the p4 depot path to Git, by
276 default, involves removing the entire depot path. With this
277 option, the full p4 depot path is retained in Git. For example,
278 path '//depot/main/foo/bar.c', when imported from
279 '//depot/main/', becomes 'foo/bar.c'. With `--keep-path`, the
280 Git path is instead 'depot/main/foo/bar.c'.
281
282 --use-client-spec::
283 Use a client spec to find the list of interesting files in p4.
284 See the "CLIENT SPEC" section below.
285
286 -/ <path>::
287 Exclude selected depot paths when cloning or syncing.
288
289 Clone options
290 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
291 These options can be used in an initial 'clone', along with the 'sync'
292 options described above.
293
294 --destination <directory>::
295 Where to create the Git repository. If not provided, the last
296 component in the p4 depot path is used to create a new
297 directory.
298
299 --bare::
300 Perform a bare clone. See linkgit:git-clone[1].
301
302 Submit options
303 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
304 These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
305
306 --origin <commit>::
307 Upstream location from which commits are identified to submit to
308 p4. By default, this is the most recent p4 commit reachable
309 from `HEAD`.
310
311 -M::
312 Detect renames. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. Renames will be
313 represented in p4 using explicit 'move' operations. There
314 is no corresponding option to detect copies, but there are
315 variables for both moves and copies.
316
317 --preserve-user::
318 Re-author p4 changes before submitting to p4. This option
319 requires p4 admin privileges.
320
321 --export-labels::
322 Export tags from Git as p4 labels. Tags found in Git are applied
323 to the perforce working directory.
324
325 -n::
326 --dry-run::
327 Show just what commits would be submitted to p4; do not change
328 state in Git or p4.
329
330 --prepare-p4-only::
331 Apply a commit to the p4 workspace, opening, adding and deleting
332 files in p4 as for a normal submit operation. Do not issue the
333 final "p4 submit", but instead print a message about how to
334 submit manually or revert. This option always stops after the
335 first (oldest) commit. Git tags are not exported to p4.
336
337 --shelve::
338 Instead of submitting create a series of shelved changelists.
339 After creating each shelve, the relevant files are reverted/deleted.
340 If you have multiple commits pending multiple shelves will be created.
341
342 --update-shelve CHANGELIST::
343 Update an existing shelved changelist with this commit. Implies
344 --shelve. Repeat for multiple shelved changelists.
345
346 --conflict=(ask|skip|quit)::
347 Conflicts can occur when applying a commit to p4. When this
348 happens, the default behavior ("ask") is to prompt whether to
349 skip this commit and continue, or quit. This option can be used
350 to bypass the prompt, causing conflicting commits to be automatically
351 skipped, or to quit trying to apply commits, without prompting.
352
353 --branch <branch>::
354 After submitting, sync this named branch instead of the default
355 p4/master. See the "Sync options" section above for more
356 information.
357
358 Rebase options
359 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
360 These options can be used to modify 'git p4 rebase' behavior.
361
362 --import-labels::
363 Import p4 labels.
364
365 Unshelve options
366 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
367
368 --origin::
369 Sets the git refspec against which the shelved P4 changelist is compared.
370 Defaults to p4/master.
371
372 DEPOT PATH SYNTAX
373 -----------------
374 The p4 depot path argument to 'git p4 sync' and 'git p4 clone' can
375 be one or more space-separated p4 depot paths, with an optional
376 p4 revision specifier on the end:
377
378 "//depot/my/project"::
379 Import one commit with all files in the '#head' change under that tree.
380
381 "//depot/my/project@all"::
382 Import one commit for each change in the history of that depot path.
383
384 "//depot/my/project@1,6"::
385 Import only changes 1 through 6.
386
387 "//depot/proj1@all //depot/proj2@all"::
388 Import all changes from both named depot paths into a single
389 repository. Only files below these directories are included.
390 There is not a subdirectory in Git for each "proj1" and "proj2".
391 You must use the `--destination` option when specifying more
392 than one depot path. The revision specifier must be specified
393 identically on each depot path. If there are files in the
394 depot paths with the same name, the path with the most recently
395 updated version of the file is the one that appears in Git.
396
397 See 'p4 help revisions' for the full syntax of p4 revision specifiers.
398
399
400 CLIENT SPEC
401 -----------
402 The p4 client specification is maintained with the 'p4 client' command
403 and contains among other fields, a View that specifies how the depot
404 is mapped into the client repository. The 'clone' and 'sync' commands
405 can consult the client spec when given the `--use-client-spec` option or
406 when the useClientSpec variable is true. After 'git p4 clone', the
407 useClientSpec variable is automatically set in the repository
408 configuration file. This allows future 'git p4 submit' commands to
409 work properly; the submit command looks only at the variable and does
410 not have a command-line option.
411
412 The full syntax for a p4 view is documented in 'p4 help views'. 'git p4'
413 knows only a subset of the view syntax. It understands multi-line
414 mappings, overlays with '+', exclusions with '-' and double-quotes
415 around whitespace. Of the possible wildcards, 'git p4' only handles
416 '...', and only when it is at the end of the path. 'git p4' will complain
417 if it encounters an unhandled wildcard.
418
419 Bugs in the implementation of overlap mappings exist. If multiple depot
420 paths map through overlays to the same location in the repository,
421 'git p4' can choose the wrong one. This is hard to solve without
422 dedicating a client spec just for 'git p4'.
423
424 The name of the client can be given to 'git p4' in multiple ways. The
425 variable 'git-p4.client' takes precedence if it exists. Otherwise,
426 normal p4 mechanisms of determining the client are used: environment
427 variable P4CLIENT, a file referenced by P4CONFIG, or the local host name.
428
429
430 BRANCH DETECTION
431 ----------------
432 P4 does not have the same concept of a branch as Git. Instead,
433 p4 organizes its content as a directory tree, where by convention
434 different logical branches are in different locations in the tree.
435 The 'p4 branch' command is used to maintain mappings between
436 different areas in the tree, and indicate related content. 'git p4'
437 can use these mappings to determine branch relationships.
438
439 If you have a repository where all the branches of interest exist as
440 subdirectories of a single depot path, you can use `--detect-branches`
441 when cloning or syncing to have 'git p4' automatically find
442 subdirectories in p4, and to generate these as branches in Git.
443
444 For example, if the P4 repository structure is:
445 ----
446 //depot/main/...
447 //depot/branch1/...
448 ----
449
450 And "p4 branch -o branch1" shows a View line that looks like:
451 ----
452 //depot/main/... //depot/branch1/...
453 ----
454
455 Then this 'git p4 clone' command:
456 ----
457 git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all
458 ----
459 produces a separate branch in 'refs/remotes/p4/' for //depot/main,
460 called 'master', and one for //depot/branch1 called 'depot/branch1'.
461
462 However, it is not necessary to create branches in p4 to be able to use
463 them like branches. Because it is difficult to infer branch
464 relationships automatically, a Git configuration setting
465 'git-p4.branchList' can be used to explicitly identify branch
466 relationships. It is a list of "source:destination" pairs, like a
467 simple p4 branch specification, where the "source" and "destination" are
468 the path elements in the p4 repository. The example above relied on the
469 presence of the p4 branch. Without p4 branches, the same result will
470 occur with:
471 ----
472 git init depot
473 cd depot
474 git config git-p4.branchList main:branch1
475 git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all .
476 ----
477
478
479 PERFORMANCE
480 -----------
481 The fast-import mechanism used by 'git p4' creates one pack file for
482 each invocation of 'git p4 sync'. Normally, Git garbage compression
483 (linkgit:git-gc[1]) automatically compresses these to fewer pack files,
484 but explicit invocation of 'git repack -adf' may improve performance.
485
486
487 CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
488 -----------------------
489 The following config settings can be used to modify 'git p4' behavior.
490 They all are in the 'git-p4' section.
491
492 General variables
493 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
494 git-p4.user::
495 User specified as an option to all p4 commands, with '-u <user>'.
496 The environment variable 'P4USER' can be used instead.
497
498 git-p4.password::
499 Password specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
500 '-P <password>'.
501 The environment variable 'P4PASS' can be used instead.
502
503 git-p4.port::
504 Port specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
505 '-p <port>'.
506 The environment variable 'P4PORT' can be used instead.
507
508 git-p4.host::
509 Host specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
510 '-h <host>'.
511 The environment variable 'P4HOST' can be used instead.
512
513 git-p4.client::
514 Client specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
515 '-c <client>', including the client spec.
516
517 git-p4.retries::
518 Specifies the number of times to retry a p4 command (notably,
519 'p4 sync') if the network times out. The default value is 3.
520 Set the value to 0 to disable retries or if your p4 version
521 does not support retries (pre 2012.2).
522
523 Clone and sync variables
524 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
525 git-p4.syncFromOrigin::
526 Because importing commits from other Git repositories is much faster
527 than importing them from p4, a mechanism exists to find p4 changes
528 first in Git remotes. If branches exist under 'refs/remote/origin/p4',
529 those will be fetched and used when syncing from p4. This
530 variable can be set to 'false' to disable this behavior.
531
532 git-p4.branchUser::
533 One phase in branch detection involves looking at p4 branches
534 to find new ones to import. By default, all branches are
535 inspected. This option limits the search to just those owned
536 by the single user named in the variable.
537
538 git-p4.branchList::
539 List of branches to be imported when branch detection is
540 enabled. Each entry should be a pair of branch names separated
541 by a colon (:). This example declares that both branchA and
542 branchB were created from main:
543 +
544 -------------
545 git config git-p4.branchList main:branchA
546 git config --add git-p4.branchList main:branchB
547 -------------
548
549 git-p4.ignoredP4Labels::
550 List of p4 labels to ignore. This is built automatically as
551 unimportable labels are discovered.
552
553 git-p4.importLabels::
554 Import p4 labels into git, as per --import-labels.
555
556 git-p4.labelImportRegexp::
557 Only p4 labels matching this regular expression will be imported. The
558 default value is '[a-zA-Z0-9_\-.]+$'.
559
560 git-p4.useClientSpec::
561 Specify that the p4 client spec should be used to identify p4
562 depot paths of interest. This is equivalent to specifying the
563 option `--use-client-spec`. See the "CLIENT SPEC" section above.
564 This variable is a boolean, not the name of a p4 client.
565
566 git-p4.pathEncoding::
567 Perforce keeps the encoding of a path as given by the originating OS.
568 Git expects paths encoded as UTF-8. Use this config to tell git-p4
569 what encoding Perforce had used for the paths. This encoding is used
570 to transcode the paths to UTF-8. As an example, Perforce on Windows
571 often uses "cp1252" to encode path names.
572
573 git-p4.largeFileSystem::
574 Specify the system that is used for large (binary) files. Please note
575 that large file systems do not support the 'git p4 submit' command.
576 Only Git LFS is implemented right now (see https://git-lfs.github.com/
577 for more information). Download and install the Git LFS command line
578 extension to use this option and configure it like this:
579 +
580 -------------
581 git config git-p4.largeFileSystem GitLFS
582 -------------
583
584 git-p4.largeFileExtensions::
585 All files matching a file extension in the list will be processed
586 by the large file system. Do not prefix the extensions with '.'.
587
588 git-p4.largeFileThreshold::
589 All files with an uncompressed size exceeding the threshold will be
590 processed by the large file system. By default the threshold is
591 defined in bytes. Add the suffix k, m, or g to change the unit.
592
593 git-p4.largeFileCompressedThreshold::
594 All files with a compressed size exceeding the threshold will be
595 processed by the large file system. This option might slow down
596 your clone/sync process. By default the threshold is defined in
597 bytes. Add the suffix k, m, or g to change the unit.
598
599 git-p4.largeFilePush::
600 Boolean variable which defines if large files are automatically
601 pushed to a server.
602
603 git-p4.keepEmptyCommits::
604 A changelist that contains only excluded files will be imported
605 as an empty commit if this boolean option is set to true.
606
607 git-p4.mapUser::
608 Map a P4 user to a name and email address in Git. Use a string
609 with the following format to create a mapping:
610 +
611 -------------
612 git config --add git-p4.mapUser "p4user = First Last <mail@address.com>"
613 -------------
614 +
615 A mapping will override any user information from P4. Mappings for
616 multiple P4 user can be defined.
617
618 Submit variables
619 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
620 git-p4.detectRenames::
621 Detect renames. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. This can be true,
622 false, or a score as expected by 'git diff -M'.
623
624 git-p4.detectCopies::
625 Detect copies. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. This can be true,
626 false, or a score as expected by 'git diff -C'.
627
628 git-p4.detectCopiesHarder::
629 Detect copies harder. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. A boolean.
630
631 git-p4.preserveUser::
632 On submit, re-author changes to reflect the Git author,
633 regardless of who invokes 'git p4 submit'.
634
635 git-p4.allowMissingP4Users::
636 When 'preserveUser' is true, 'git p4' normally dies if it
637 cannot find an author in the p4 user map. This setting
638 submits the change regardless.
639
640 git-p4.skipSubmitEdit::
641 The submit process invokes the editor before each p4 change
642 is submitted. If this setting is true, though, the editing
643 step is skipped.
644
645 git-p4.skipSubmitEditCheck::
646 After editing the p4 change message, 'git p4' makes sure that
647 the description really was changed by looking at the file
648 modification time. This option disables that test.
649
650 git-p4.allowSubmit::
651 By default, any branch can be used as the source for a 'git p4
652 submit' operation. This configuration variable, if set, permits only
653 the named branches to be used as submit sources. Branch names
654 must be the short names (no "refs/heads/"), and should be
655 separated by commas (","), with no spaces.
656
657 git-p4.skipUserNameCheck::
658 If the user running 'git p4 submit' does not exist in the p4
659 user map, 'git p4' exits. This option can be used to force
660 submission regardless.
661
662 git-p4.attemptRCSCleanup::
663 If enabled, 'git p4 submit' will attempt to cleanup RCS keywords
664 ($Header$, etc). These would otherwise cause merge conflicts and prevent
665 the submit going ahead. This option should be considered experimental at
666 present.
667
668 git-p4.exportLabels::
669 Export Git tags to p4 labels, as per --export-labels.
670
671 git-p4.labelExportRegexp::
672 Only p4 labels matching this regular expression will be exported. The
673 default value is '[a-zA-Z0-9_\-.]+$'.
674
675 git-p4.conflict::
676 Specify submit behavior when a conflict with p4 is found, as per
677 --conflict. The default behavior is 'ask'.
678
679 IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS
680 ----------------------
681 * Changesets from p4 are imported using Git fast-import.
682 * Cloning or syncing does not require a p4 client; file contents are
683 collected using 'p4 print'.
684 * Submitting requires a p4 client, which is not in the same location
685 as the Git repository. Patches are applied, one at a time, to
686 this p4 client and submitted from there.
687 * Each commit imported by 'git p4' has a line at the end of the log
688 message indicating the p4 depot location and change number. This
689 line is used by later 'git p4 sync' operations to know which p4
690 changes are new.