push: use remote.$name.push as a refmap
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
1 git-push(1)
2 ===========
5 ----
6 git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
14 [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
15 [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
18 -----------
20 Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
21 necessary to complete the given refs.
23 You can make interesting things happen to a repository
24 every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
25 documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
27 When the command line does not specify where to push with the
28 `<repository>` argument, `branch.*.remote` configuration for the
29 current branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the
30 configuration is missing, it defaults to 'origin'.
32 When the command line does not specify what to push with `<refspec>...`
33 arguments or `--all`, `--mirror`, `--tags` options, the command finds
34 the default `<refspec>` by consulting `remote.*.push` configuration,
35 and if it is not found, honors `push.default` configuration to decide
36 what to push (See gitlink:git-config[1] for the meaning of `push.default`).
40 ------------------
41 <repository>::
42 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
43 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
44 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
45 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
47 <refspec>...::
48 Specify what destination ref to update with what source object.
49 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
50 `+`, followed by the source object <src>, followed
51 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
52 +
53 The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
54 it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
55 `HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
56 +
57 The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
58 push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
59 be named.
60 If `git push [<repository>]` without any `<refspec>` argument is set to
61 update some ref at the destination with `<src>` with
62 `remote.<repository>.push` configuration variable, `:<dst>` part can
63 be omitted---such a push will update a ref that `<src>` normally updates
64 without any `<refspec>` on the command line. Otherwise, missing
65 `:<dst>` means to update the same ref as the `<src>`.
66 +
67 The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
68 on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
69 a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it can fast-forward
70 <dst>. By having the optional leading `+`, you can tell Git to update
71 the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by default (e.g., it is not a
72 fast-forward.) This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
73 EXAMPLES below for details.
74 +
75 `tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
76 +
77 Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
78 the remote repository.
79 +
80 The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
81 directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
82 the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
83 already exists on the remote side.
85 --all::
86 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
87 refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
89 --prune::
90 Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
91 a remote branch `tmp` will be removed if a local branch with the same
92 name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.
93 `git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/*` would
94 make sure that remote `refs/tmp/foo` will be removed if `refs/heads/foo`
95 doesn't exist.
97 --mirror::
98 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
99 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
100 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
101 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
102 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
103 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
104 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
105 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
106 set.
108 -n::
109 --dry-run::
110 Do everything except actually send the updates.
112 --porcelain::
113 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
114 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
115 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
117 --delete::
118 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
119 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
121 --tags::
122 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
123 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
124 line.
126 --follow-tags::
127 Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option,
128 and also push annotated tags in `refs/tags` that are missing
129 from the remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are
130 reachable from the refs being pushed.
132 --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
133 --exec=<git-receive-pack>::
134 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
135 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
136 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
137 a directory on the default $PATH.
139 --[no-]force-with-lease::
140 --force-with-lease=<refname>::
141 --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>::
142 Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is
143 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
144 +
145 This option bypasses the check, but instead requires that the
146 current value of the ref to be the expected value. "git push"
147 fails otherwise.
148 +
149 Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
150 You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
151 replace the history you originally published with the rebased history.
152 If somebody else built on top of your original history while you are
153 rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may advance with her
154 commit, and blindly pushing with `--force` will lose her work.
155 +
156 This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
157 updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
158 still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
159 other people did anything to the ref (it is like taking a "lease" on
160 the ref without explicitly locking it, and you update the ref while
161 making sure that your earlier "lease" is still valid).
162 +
163 `--force-with-lease` alone, without specifying the details, will protect
164 all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring their
165 current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we have
166 for them, unless specified with a `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
167 option that explicitly states what the expected value is.
168 +
169 `--force-with-lease=<refname>`, without specifying the expected value, will
170 protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be updated, by
171 requiring its current value to be the same as the remote-tracking
172 branch we have for it.
173 +
174 `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>` will protect the named ref (alone),
175 if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be
176 the same as the specified value <expect> (which is allowed to be
177 different from the remote-tracking branch we have for the refname,
178 or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking branch when
179 this form is used).
180 +
181 Note that all forms other than `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
182 that specifies the expected current value of the ref explicitly are
183 still experimental and their semantics may change as we gain experience
184 with this feature.
185 +
186 "--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous --force-with-lease on the
187 command line.
189 -f::
190 --force::
191 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
192 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
193 Also, when `--force-with-lease` option is used, the command refuses
194 to update a remote ref whose current value does not match
195 what is expected.
196 +
197 This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote repository
198 to lose commits; use it with care.
199 +
200 Note that `--force` applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
201 using it with `push.default` set to `matching` or with multiple push
202 destinations configured with `remote.*.push` may overwrite refs
203 other than the current branch (including local refs that are
204 strictly behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only
205 one branch, use a `+` in front of the refspec to push (e.g `git push
206 origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
207 `<refspec>...` section above for details.
209 --repo=<repository>::
210 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
211 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
212 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
213 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
214 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
215 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
216 the difference between these two commands
217 +
218 --------------------------
219 git push public #1
220 git push --repo=public #2
221 --------------------------
222 +
223 is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
224 only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
225 useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
227 -u::
228 --set-upstream::
229 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
230 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
231 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
232 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
234 --[no-]thin::
235 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
236 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
237 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
238 \--thin.
240 -q::
241 --quiet::
242 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
243 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
244 error stream.
246 -v::
247 --verbose::
248 Run verbosely.
250 --progress::
251 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
252 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
253 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
254 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
256 --recurse-submodules=check|on-demand::
257 Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
258 pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch. If 'check' is
259 used Git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
260 the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote
261 of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
262 aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
263 all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will
264 be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
265 revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
267 --[no-]verify::
268 Toggle the pre-push hook (see linkgit:githooks[5]). The
269 default is \--verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the
270 push. With \--no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.
273 include::urls-remotes.txt[]
276 ------
278 The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
279 section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
280 locally or via ssh).
282 The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
283 representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
285 -------------------------------
286 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
287 -------------------------------
289 If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
291 -------------------------------
292 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
293 -------------------------------
295 The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
296 option is used.
298 flag::
299 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
300 (space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
301 `+`;; for a successful forced update;
302 `-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
303 `*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
304 `!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
305 `=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
307 summary::
308 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
309 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
310 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
311 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
312 +
313 For a failed update, more details are given:
314 +
315 --
316 rejected::
317 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
318 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
320 remote rejected::
321 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
322 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
323 of the following safety options in effect:
324 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
325 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
326 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
327 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
329 remote failure::
330 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
331 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
332 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
333 --
335 from::
336 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
337 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
338 name of the local ref is omitted.
340 to::
341 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
342 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
344 reason::
345 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
346 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
347 failure is described.
349 Note about fast-forwards
350 ------------------------
352 When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
353 point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
354 fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
356 In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
357 commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
358 builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
360 In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
361 suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
362 a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
363 leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
365 ----------------
367 B
368 /
369 ---X---A
371 ----------------
373 Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
374 back to the original repository from which you two obtained the original
375 commit X.
377 The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
378 commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
380 But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
381 now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
382 so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
383 will now start building on top of B.
385 The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
386 to prevent such loss of history.
388 If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
389 the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
390 history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
391 by both parties, and push the result back.
393 You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
394 the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
395 and B.
397 ----------------
399 B---C
400 / /
401 ---X---A
403 ----------------
405 Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
406 push will be accepted.
408 Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
409 with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
410 create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
411 A.
413 ----------------
415 B D
416 / /
417 ---X---A
419 ----------------
421 Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
422 accepted.
424 There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
425 rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
426 pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
427 A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
428 commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
429 forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
430 you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
431 (and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
432 overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
433 a case where you do mean to lose history.
436 Examples
437 --------
439 `git push`::
440 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
441 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
442 configured for the current branch).
444 `git push origin`::
445 Without additional configuration, works like
446 `git push origin :`.
447 +
448 The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
449 configured by setting the `push` option of the remote, or the `push.default`
450 configuration variable.
451 +
452 For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
453 use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
454 the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
455 `git push origin`.
457 `git push origin :`::
458 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
459 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
460 description of "matching" branches.
462 `git push origin master`::
463 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
464 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
465 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
466 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
467 created.
469 `git push origin HEAD`::
470 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
471 remote.
473 `git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
474 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
475 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
476 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `mothership` repository;
477 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
478 +
479 This is to emulate `git fetch` run on the `mothership` using `git
480 push` that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate
481 the work done on `satellite`, and is often necessary when you can
482 only make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into
483 mothership but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite
484 because the latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).
485 +
486 After running this `git push` on the `satellite` machine, you would
487 ssh into the `mothership` and run `git merge` there to complete the
488 emulation of `git pull` that were run on `mothership` to pull changes
489 made on `satellite`.
491 `git push origin HEAD:master`::
492 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
493 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
494 branch without thinking about its local name.
496 `git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
497 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
498 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
499 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
500 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
501 the ref name on its own will work.
503 `git push origin :experimental`::
504 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
505 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
507 `git push origin +dev:master`::
508 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
509 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
510 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
511 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
512 +
513 ----
514 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
515 \
516 X---Y---Z dev
517 ----
518 +
519 The above command would change the origin repository to
520 +
521 ----
522 A---B (unnamed branch)
523 /
524 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
525 ----
526 +
527 Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
528 and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
529 a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
531 GIT
532 ---
533 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite