mailinfo: tests for RFC2047 examples
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-reset.txt
1 git-reset(1)
2 ============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-reset - Reset current HEAD to the specified state
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git reset' [--mixed | --soft | --hard] [-q] [<commit>]
12 'git reset' [-q] [<commit>] [--] <paths>...
13
14 DESCRIPTION
15 -----------
16 Sets the current head to the specified commit and optionally resets the
17 index and working tree to match.
18
19 This command is useful if you notice some small error in a recent
20 commit (or set of commits) and want to redo that part without showing
21 the undo in the history.
22
23 If you want to undo a commit other than the latest on a branch,
24 linkgit:git-revert[1] is your friend.
25
26 The second form with 'paths' is used to revert selected paths in
27 the index from a given commit, without moving HEAD.
28
29
30 OPTIONS
31 -------
32 --mixed::
33 Resets the index but not the working tree (i.e., the changed files
34 are preserved but not marked for commit) and reports what has not
35 been updated. This is the default action.
36
37 --soft::
38 Does not touch the index file nor the working tree at all, but
39 requires them to be in a good order. This leaves all your changed
40 files "Changes to be committed", as 'git-status' would
41 put it.
42
43 --hard::
44 Matches the working tree and index to that of the tree being
45 switched to. Any changes to tracked files in the working tree
46 since <commit> are lost.
47
48 -q::
49 Be quiet, only report errors.
50
51 <commit>::
52 Commit to make the current HEAD. If not given defaults to HEAD.
53
54 Examples
55 --------
56
57 Undo a commit and redo::
58 +
59 ------------
60 $ git commit ...
61 $ git reset --soft HEAD^ <1>
62 $ edit <2>
63 $ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD <3>
64 ------------
65 +
66 <1> This is most often done when you remembered what you
67 just committed is incomplete, or you misspelled your commit
68 message, or both. Leaves working tree as it was before "reset".
69 <2> Make corrections to working tree files.
70 <3> "reset" copies the old head to .git/ORIG_HEAD; redo the
71 commit by starting with its log message. If you do not need to
72 edit the message further, you can give -C option instead.
73 +
74 See also the --amend option to linkgit:git-commit[1].
75
76 Undo commits permanently::
77 +
78 ------------
79 $ git commit ...
80 $ git reset --hard HEAD~3 <1>
81 ------------
82 +
83 <1> The last three commits (HEAD, HEAD^, and HEAD~2) were bad
84 and you do not want to ever see them again. Do *not* do this if
85 you have already given these commits to somebody else.
86
87 Undo a commit, making it a topic branch::
88 +
89 ------------
90 $ git branch topic/wip <1>
91 $ git reset --hard HEAD~3 <2>
92 $ git checkout topic/wip <3>
93 ------------
94 +
95 <1> You have made some commits, but realize they were premature
96 to be in the "master" branch. You want to continue polishing
97 them in a topic branch, so create "topic/wip" branch off of the
98 current HEAD.
99 <2> Rewind the master branch to get rid of those three commits.
100 <3> Switch to "topic/wip" branch and keep working.
101
102 Undo add::
103 +
104 ------------
105 $ edit <1>
106 $ git add frotz.c filfre.c
107 $ mailx <2>
108 $ git reset <3>
109 $ git pull git://info.example.com/ nitfol <4>
110 ------------
111 +
112 <1> You are happily working on something, and find the changes
113 in these files are in good order. You do not want to see them
114 when you run "git diff", because you plan to work on other files
115 and changes with these files are distracting.
116 <2> Somebody asks you to pull, and the changes sounds worthy of merging.
117 <3> However, you already dirtied the index (i.e. your index does
118 not match the HEAD commit). But you know the pull you are going
119 to make does not affect frotz.c nor filfre.c, so you revert the
120 index changes for these two files. Your changes in working tree
121 remain there.
122 <4> Then you can pull and merge, leaving frotz.c and filfre.c
123 changes still in the working tree.
124
125 Undo a merge or pull::
126 +
127 ------------
128 $ git pull <1>
129 Auto-merging nitfol
130 CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in nitfol
131 Automatic merge failed/prevented; fix up by hand
132 $ git reset --hard <2>
133 $ git pull . topic/branch <3>
134 Updating from 41223... to 13134...
135 Fast forward
136 $ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <4>
137 ------------
138 +
139 <1> Try to update from the upstream resulted in a lot of
140 conflicts; you were not ready to spend a lot of time merging
141 right now, so you decide to do that later.
142 <2> "pull" has not made merge commit, so "git reset --hard"
143 which is a synonym for "git reset --hard HEAD" clears the mess
144 from the index file and the working tree.
145 <3> Merge a topic branch into the current branch, which resulted
146 in a fast forward.
147 <4> But you decided that the topic branch is not ready for public
148 consumption yet. "pull" or "merge" always leaves the original
149 tip of the current branch in ORIG_HEAD, so resetting hard to it
150 brings your index file and the working tree back to that state,
151 and resets the tip of the branch to that commit.
152
153 Interrupted workflow::
154 +
155 Suppose you are interrupted by an urgent fix request while you
156 are in the middle of a large change. The files in your
157 working tree are not in any shape to be committed yet, but you
158 need to get to the other branch for a quick bugfix.
159 +
160 ------------
161 $ git checkout feature ;# you were working in "feature" branch and
162 $ work work work ;# got interrupted
163 $ git commit -a -m "snapshot WIP" <1>
164 $ git checkout master
165 $ fix fix fix
166 $ git commit ;# commit with real log
167 $ git checkout feature
168 $ git reset --soft HEAD^ ;# go back to WIP state <2>
169 $ git reset <3>
170 ------------
171 +
172 <1> This commit will get blown away so a throw-away log message is OK.
173 <2> This removes the 'WIP' commit from the commit history, and sets
174 your working tree to the state just before you made that snapshot.
175 <3> At this point the index file still has all the WIP changes you
176 committed as 'snapshot WIP'. This updates the index to show your
177 WIP files as uncommitted.
178
179 Reset a single file in the index::
180 +
181 Suppose you have added a file to your index, but later decide you do not
182 want to add it to your commit. You can remove the file from the index
183 while keeping your changes with git reset.
184 +
185 ------------
186 $ git reset -- frotz.c <1>
187 $ git commit -m "Commit files in index" <2>
188 $ git add frotz.c <3>
189 ------------
190 +
191 <1> This removes the file from the index while keeping it in the working
192 directory.
193 <2> This commits all other changes in the index.
194 <3> Adds the file to the index again.
195
196 Author
197 ------
198 Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> and Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
199
200 Documentation
201 --------------
202 Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
203
204 GIT
205 ---
206 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite