Merge branch 'jk/1.7.0-status'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-commit.txt
1 git-commit(1)
2 =============
5 ----
6 git-commit - Record changes to the repository
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git commit' [-a | --interactive] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend] [--dry-run]
12 [(-c | -C) <commit>] [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author]
13 [--allow-empty] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
14 [--cleanup=<mode>] [--] [[-i | -o ]<file>...]
17 -----------
18 Stores the current contents of the index in a new commit along
19 with a log message from the user describing the changes.
21 The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
23 1. by using 'git-add' to incrementally "add" changes to the
24 index before using the 'commit' command (Note: even modified
25 files must be "added");
27 2. by using 'git-rm' to remove files from the working tree
28 and the index, again before using the 'commit' command;
30 3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
31 case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
32 record the current content of the listed files (which must already
33 be known to git);
35 4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
36 "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
37 listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index
38 that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the
39 actual commit;
41 5. by using the --interactive switch with the 'commit' command to decide one
42 by one which files should be part of the commit, before finalizing the
43 operation. Currently, this is done by invoking 'git-add --interactive'.
45 The `--dry-run` option can be used to obtain a
46 summary of what is included by any of the above for the next
47 commit by giving the same set of parameters (options and paths).
49 If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after
50 that, you can recover from it with 'git-reset'.
54 -------
55 -a::
56 --all::
57 Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
58 been modified and deleted, but new files you have not
59 told git about are not affected.
61 -C <commit>::
62 --reuse-message=<commit>::
63 Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message
64 and the authorship information (including the timestamp)
65 when creating the commit.
67 -c <commit>::
68 --reedit-message=<commit>::
69 Like '-C', but with '-c' the editor is invoked, so that
70 the user can further edit the commit message.
72 --reset-author::
73 When used with -C/-c/--amend options, declare that the
74 authorship of the resulting commit now belongs of the committer.
75 This also renews the author timestamp.
77 --short::
78 When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See
79 linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies `--dry-run`.
81 --porcelain::
82 When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready
83 format. See linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies
84 `--dry-run`.
86 -z::
87 When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, terminate
88 entries in the status output with NUL, instead of LF. If no
89 format is given, implies the `--porcelain` output format.
91 -F <file>::
92 --file=<file>::
93 Take the commit message from the given file. Use '-' to
94 read the message from the standard input.
96 --author=<author>::
97 Override the author name used in the commit. You can use the
98 standard `A U Thor <>` format. Otherwise,
99 an existing commit that matches the given string and its author
100 name is used.
102 -m <msg>::
103 --message=<msg>::
104 Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
106 -t <file>::
107 --template=<file>::
108 Use the contents of the given file as the initial version
109 of the commit message. The editor is invoked and you can
110 make subsequent changes. If a message is specified using
111 the `-m` or `-F` options, this option has no effect. This
112 overrides the `commit.template` configuration variable.
114 -s::
115 --signoff::
116 Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
117 log message.
119 -n::
120 --no-verify::
121 This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks.
122 See also linkgit:githooks[5].
124 --allow-empty::
125 Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its
126 sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you
127 from making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and
128 is primarily for use by foreign scm interface scripts.
130 --cleanup=<mode>::
131 This option sets how the commit message is cleaned up.
132 The '<mode>' can be one of 'verbatim', 'whitespace', 'strip',
133 and 'default'. The 'default' mode will strip leading and
134 trailing empty lines and #commentary from the commit message
135 only if the message is to be edited. Otherwise only whitespace
136 removed. The 'verbatim' mode does not change message at all,
137 'whitespace' removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines
138 and 'strip' removes both whitespace and commentary.
140 -e::
141 --edit::
142 The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
143 `-m`, and from file with `-C` are usually used as the
144 commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
145 further edit the message taken from these sources.
147 --amend::
148 Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree
149 object you would want to replace the latest commit as usual
150 (this includes the usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the
151 commit log editor is seeded with the commit message from the
152 tip of the current branch. The commit you create replaces the
153 current tip -- if it was a merge, it will have the parents of
154 the current tip as parents -- so the current top commit is
155 discarded.
156 +
157 --
158 It is a rough equivalent for:
159 ------
160 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
161 $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
162 $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
164 ------
165 but can be used to amend a merge commit.
166 --
167 +
168 You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
169 amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING
170 FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
172 -i::
173 --include::
174 Before making a commit out of staged contents so far,
175 stage the contents of paths given on the command line
176 as well. This is usually not what you want unless you
177 are concluding a conflicted merge.
179 -o::
180 --only::
181 Make a commit only from the paths specified on the
182 command line, disregarding any contents that have been
183 staged so far. This is the default mode of operation of
184 'git-commit' if any paths are given on the command line,
185 in which case this option can be omitted.
186 If this option is specified together with '--amend', then
187 no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
188 the last commit without committing changes that have
189 already been staged.
191 -u[<mode>]::
192 --untracked-files[=<mode>]::
193 Show untracked files (Default: 'all').
194 +
195 The mode parameter is optional, and is used to specify
196 the handling of untracked files. The possible options are:
197 +
198 --
199 - 'no' - Show no untracked files
200 - 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
201 - 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
202 --
203 +
204 See linkgit:git-config[1] for configuration variable
205 used to change the default for when the option is not
206 specified.
208 -v::
209 --verbose::
210 Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what
211 would be committed at the bottom of the commit message
212 template. Note that this diff output doesn't have its
213 lines prefixed with '#'.
215 -q::
216 --quiet::
217 Suppress commit summary message.
219 --dry-run::
220 Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are
221 to be committed, paths with local changes that will be left
222 uncommitted and paths that are untracked.
224 \--::
225 Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
227 <file>...::
228 When files are given on the command line, the command
229 commits the contents of the named files, without
230 recording the changes already staged. The contents of
231 these files are also staged for the next commit on top
232 of what have been staged before.
236 --------
237 When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in
238 your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area
239 called the "index" with 'git-add'. A file can be
240 reverted back, only in the index but not in the working tree,
241 to that of the last commit with `git reset HEAD -- <file>`,
242 which effectively reverts 'git-add' and prevents the changes to
243 this file from participating in the next commit. After building
244 the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
245 `git commit` (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
246 has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the
247 command. An example:
249 ------------
250 $ edit hello.c
251 $ git rm goodbye.c
252 $ git add hello.c
253 $ git commit
254 ------------
256 Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can
257 tell `git commit` to notice the changes to the files whose
258 contents are tracked in
259 your working tree and do corresponding `git add` and `git rm`
260 for you. That is, this example does the same as the earlier
261 example if there is no other change in your working tree:
263 ------------
264 $ edit hello.c
265 $ rm goodbye.c
266 $ git commit -a
267 ------------
269 The command `git commit -a` first looks at your working tree,
270 notices that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c,
271 and performs necessary `git add` and `git rm` for you.
273 After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
274 changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to `git commit`.
275 When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that
276 only records the changes made to the named paths:
278 ------------
279 $ edit hello.c hello.h
280 $ git add hello.c hello.h
281 $ edit Makefile
282 $ git commit Makefile
283 ------------
285 This makes a commit that records the modification to `Makefile`.
286 The changes staged for `hello.c` and `hello.h` are not included
287 in the resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost --
288 they are still staged and merely held back. After the above
289 sequence, if you do:
291 ------------
292 $ git commit
293 ------------
295 this second commit would record the changes to `hello.c` and
296 `hello.h` as expected.
298 After a merge (initiated by 'git-merge' or 'git-pull') stops
299 because of conflicts, cleanly merged
300 paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that
301 conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have to first
302 check which paths are conflicting with 'git-status'
303 and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would
304 stage the result as usual with 'git-add':
306 ------------
307 $ git status | grep unmerged
308 unmerged: hello.c
309 $ edit hello.c
310 $ git add hello.c
311 ------------
313 After resolving conflicts and staging the result, `git ls-files -u`
314 would stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done,
315 run `git commit` to finally record the merge:
317 ------------
318 $ git commit
319 ------------
321 As with the case to record your own changes, you can use `-a`
322 option to save typing. One difference is that during a merge
323 resolution, you cannot use `git commit` with pathnames to
324 alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge
325 should be recorded as a single commit. In fact, the command
326 refuses to run when given pathnames (but see `-i` option).
330 ----------
332 Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
333 with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
334 change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
335 Tools that turn commits into email, for example, use the first line
336 on the Subject: line and the rest of the commit in the body.
338 include::i18n.txt[]
341 ---------------------------------------
342 The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
343 GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the
344 VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that
345 order). See linkgit:git-var[1] for details.
348 -----
349 This command can run `commit-msg`, `prepare-commit-msg`, `pre-commit`,
350 and `post-commit` hooks. See linkgit:githooks[5] for more
351 information.
355 --------
356 linkgit:git-add[1],
357 linkgit:git-rm[1],
358 linkgit:git-mv[1],
359 linkgit:git-merge[1],
360 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
362 Author
363 ------
364 Written by Linus Torvalds <> and
365 Junio C Hamano <>
368 GIT
369 ---
370 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite