Merge branch 'ks/maint-mailinfo-folded'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
1 git-push(1)
2 ===========
5 ----
6 git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git push' [--all | --mirror] [--dry-run] [--tags] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose]
14 [<repository> <refspec>...]
17 -----------
19 Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20 necessary to complete the given refs.
22 You can make interesting things happen to a repository
23 every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
24 documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
28 -------
29 <repository>::
30 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
31 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
32 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
33 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
35 <refspec>...::
36 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
37 `{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
38 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
39 It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
40 in the remote repository is to be updated.
41 +
42 The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
43 it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
44 `HEAD` (see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]).
45 +
46 The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
47 push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
48 be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
49 updated.
50 +
51 The object referenced by <src> is used to fast forward the ref <dst>
52 on the remote side. If the optional leading plus `{plus}` is used, the
53 remote ref is updated even if it does not result in a fast forward
54 update.
55 +
56 `tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
57 +
58 Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
59 the remote repository.
60 +
61 The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast forward updates)
62 directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
63 the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
64 already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
65 if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
66 nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
68 --all::
69 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
70 refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/` be pushed.
72 --mirror::
73 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
74 refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/` (which includes but is not
75 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
76 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
77 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
78 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
79 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
80 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
81 set.
83 --dry-run::
84 Do everything except actually send the updates.
86 --tags::
87 All refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are pushed, in
88 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
89 line.
91 --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
92 --exec=<git-receive-pack>::
93 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
94 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
95 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
96 a directory on the default $PATH.
98 -f::
99 --force::
100 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
101 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
102 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
103 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
105 --repo=<repository>::
106 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
107 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git-push' derives the
108 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
109 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
110 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
111 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
112 the difference between these two commands
113 +
114 --------------------------
115 git push public #1
116 git push --repo=public #2
117 --------------------------
118 +
119 is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
120 only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
121 useful if you write an alias or script around 'git-push'.
123 --thin::
124 --no-thin::
125 These options are passed to 'git-send-pack'. Thin
126 transfer spends extra cycles to minimize the number of
127 objects to be sent and meant to be used on slower connection.
129 -v::
130 --verbose::
131 Run verbosely.
133 include::urls-remotes.txt[]
136 ------
138 The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
139 section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
140 locally or via ssh).
142 The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
143 representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
145 -------------------------------
146 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
147 -------------------------------
149 flag::
150 A single character indicating the status of the ref. This is
151 blank for a successfully pushed ref, `!` for a ref that was
152 rejected or failed to push, and '=' for a ref that was up to
153 date and did not need pushing (note that the status of up to
154 date refs is shown only when `git push` is running verbosely).
156 summary::
157 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
158 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
159 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
160 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast forward updates). For a
161 failed update, more details are given for the failure.
162 The string `rejected` indicates that git did not try to send the
163 ref at all (typically because it is not a fast forward). The
164 string `remote rejected` indicates that the remote end refused
165 the update; this rejection is typically caused by a hook on the
166 remote side. The string `remote failure` indicates that the
167 remote end did not report the successful update of the ref
168 (perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
169 break in the network connection, or other transient error).
171 from::
172 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
173 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
174 name of the local ref is omitted.
176 to::
177 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
178 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
180 reason::
181 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
182 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
183 failure is described.
185 Examples
186 --------
188 git push origin master::
189 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
190 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
191 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
192 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
193 created.
195 git push origin HEAD::
196 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
197 remote.
199 git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev::
200 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
201 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
202 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `origin` repository, then
203 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
205 git push origin HEAD:master::
206 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
207 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
208 branch without thinking about its local name.
210 git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental::
211 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
212 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
213 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
214 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
215 the ref name on its own will work.
217 git push origin :experimental::
218 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
219 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
222 Author
223 ------
224 Written by Junio C Hamano <>, later rewritten in C
225 by Linus Torvalds <>
227 Documentation
228 --------------
229 Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <>.
231 GIT
232 ---
233 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite