Merge branch 'so/glossary-ancestor'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-send-email.txt
1 git-send-email(1)
2 =================
5 ----
6 git-send-email - Send a collection of patches as emails
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git send-email' [options] <file|directory|rev-list options>...
13 'git send-email' --dump-aliases
17 -----------
18 Takes the patches given on the command line and emails them out.
19 Patches can be specified as files, directories (which will send all
20 files in the directory), or directly as a revision list. In the
21 last case, any format accepted by linkgit:git-format-patch[1] can
22 be passed to git send-email.
24 The header of the email is configurable via command-line options. If not
25 specified on the command line, the user will be prompted with a ReadLine
26 enabled interface to provide the necessary information.
28 There are two formats accepted for patch files:
30 1. mbox format files
31 +
32 This is what linkgit:git-format-patch[1] generates. Most headers and MIME
33 formatting are ignored.
35 2. The original format used by Greg Kroah-Hartman's ''
36 script
37 +
38 This format expects the first line of the file to contain the "Cc:" value
39 and the "Subject:" of the message as the second line.
43 -------
45 Composing
46 ~~~~~~~~~
48 --annotate::
49 Review and edit each patch you're about to send. Default is the value
50 of `sendemail.annotate`. See the CONFIGURATION section for
51 `sendemail.multiEdit`.
53 --bcc=<address>,...::
54 Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
55 `sendemail.bcc`.
56 +
57 This option may be specified multiple times.
59 --cc=<address>,...::
60 Specify a starting "Cc:" value for each email.
61 Default is the value of ``.
62 +
63 This option may be specified multiple times.
65 --compose::
66 Invoke a text editor (see GIT_EDITOR in linkgit:git-var[1])
67 to edit an introductory message for the patch series.
68 +
69 When `--compose` is used, git send-email will use the From, Subject, and
70 In-Reply-To headers specified in the message. If the body of the message
71 (what you type after the headers and a blank line) only contains blank
72 (or Git: prefixed) lines, the summary won't be sent, but From, Subject,
73 and In-Reply-To headers will be used unless they are removed.
74 +
75 Missing From or In-Reply-To headers will be prompted for.
76 +
77 See the CONFIGURATION section for `sendemail.multiEdit`.
79 --from=<address>::
80 Specify the sender of the emails. If not specified on the command line,
81 the value of the `sendemail.from` configuration option is used. If
82 neither the command-line option nor `sendemail.from` are set, then the
83 user will be prompted for the value. The default for the prompt will be
84 the value of GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT, or GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT if that is not
85 set, as returned by "git var -l".
87 --reply-to=<address>::
88 Specify the address where replies from recipients should go to.
89 Use this if replies to messages should go to another address than what
90 is specified with the --from parameter.
92 --in-reply-to=<identifier>::
93 Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
94 reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
95 provide a new patch series.
96 The second and subsequent emails will be sent as replies according to
97 the `--[no-]chain-reply-to` setting.
98 +
99 So for example when `--thread` and `--no-chain-reply-to` are specified, the
100 second and subsequent patches will be replies to the first one like in the
101 illustration below where `[PATCH v2 0/3]` is in reply to `[PATCH 0/2]`:
102 +
103 [PATCH 0/2] Here is what I did...
104 [PATCH 1/2] Clean up and tests
105 [PATCH 2/2] Implementation
106 [PATCH v2 0/3] Here is a reroll
107 [PATCH v2 1/3] Clean up
108 [PATCH v2 2/3] New tests
109 [PATCH v2 3/3] Implementation
110 +
111 Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
112 is not set, this will be prompted for.
114 --subject=<string>::
115 Specify the initial subject of the email thread.
116 Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
117 is not set, this will be prompted for.
119 --to=<address>,...::
120 Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated. Generally, this
121 will be the upstream maintainer of the project involved. Default is the
122 value of the `` configuration value; if that is unspecified,
123 and --to-cmd is not specified, this will be prompted for.
124 +
125 This option may be specified multiple times.
127 --8bit-encoding=<encoding>::
128 When encountering a non-ASCII message or subject that does not
129 declare its encoding, add headers/quoting to indicate it is
130 encoded in <encoding>. Default is the value of the
131 'sendemail.assume8bitEncoding'; if that is unspecified, this
132 will be prompted for if any non-ASCII files are encountered.
133 +
134 Note that no attempts whatsoever are made to validate the encoding.
136 --compose-encoding=<encoding>::
137 Specify encoding of compose message. Default is the value of the
138 'sendemail.composeencoding'; if that is unspecified, UTF-8 is assumed.
140 --transfer-encoding=(7bit|8bit|quoted-printable|base64)::
141 Specify the transfer encoding to be used to send the message over SMTP.
142 7bit will fail upon encountering a non-ASCII message. quoted-printable
143 can be useful when the repository contains files that contain carriage
144 returns, but makes the raw patch email file (as saved from a MUA) much
145 harder to inspect manually. base64 is even more fool proof, but also
146 even more opaque. Default is the value of the `sendemail.transferEncoding`
147 configuration value; if that is unspecified, git will use 8bit and not
148 add a Content-Transfer-Encoding header.
150 --xmailer::
151 --no-xmailer::
152 Add (or prevent adding) the "X-Mailer:" header. By default,
153 the header is added, but it can be turned off by setting the
154 `sendemail.xmailer` configuration variable to `false`.
156 Sending
157 ~~~~~~~
159 --envelope-sender=<address>::
160 Specify the envelope sender used to send the emails.
161 This is useful if your default address is not the address that is
162 subscribed to a list. In order to use the 'From' address, set the
163 value to "auto". If you use the sendmail binary, you must have
164 suitable privileges for the -f parameter. Default is the value of the
165 `sendemail.envelopeSender` configuration variable; if that is
166 unspecified, choosing the envelope sender is left to your MTA.
168 --smtp-encryption=<encryption>::
169 Specify the encryption to use, either 'ssl' or 'tls'. Any other
170 value reverts to plain SMTP. Default is the value of
171 `sendemail.smtpEncryption`.
173 --smtp-domain=<FQDN>::
174 Specifies the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) used in the
175 HELO/EHLO command to the SMTP server. Some servers require the
176 FQDN to match your IP address. If not set, git send-email attempts
177 to determine your FQDN automatically. Default is the value of
178 `sendemail.smtpDomain`.
180 --smtp-auth=<mechanisms>::
181 Whitespace-separated list of allowed SMTP-AUTH mechanisms. This setting
182 forces using only the listed mechanisms. Example:
183 +
184 ------
185 $ git send-email --smtp-auth="PLAIN LOGIN GSSAPI" ...
186 ------
187 +
188 If at least one of the specified mechanisms matches the ones advertised by the
189 SMTP server and if it is supported by the utilized SASL library, the mechanism
190 is used for authentication. If neither 'sendemail.smtpAuth' nor `--smtp-auth`
191 is specified, all mechanisms supported by the SASL library can be used.
193 --smtp-pass[=<password>]::
194 Password for SMTP-AUTH. The argument is optional: If no
195 argument is specified, then the empty string is used as
196 the password. Default is the value of `sendemail.smtpPass`,
197 however `--smtp-pass` always overrides this value.
198 +
199 Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration files
200 or on the command line. If a username has been specified (with
201 `--smtp-user` or a `sendemail.smtpUser`), but no password has been
202 specified (with `--smtp-pass` or `sendemail.smtpPass`), then
203 a password is obtained using 'git-credential'.
205 --smtp-server=<host>::
206 If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use (e.g.
207 `` or a raw IP address). Alternatively it can
208 specify a full pathname of a sendmail-like program instead;
209 the program must support the `-i` option. Default value can
210 be specified by the `sendemail.smtpServer` configuration
211 option; the built-in default is to search for `sendmail` in
212 `/usr/sbin`, `/usr/lib` and $PATH if such program is
213 available, falling back to `localhost` otherwise.
215 --smtp-server-port=<port>::
216 Specifies a port different from the default port (SMTP
217 servers typically listen to smtp port 25, but may also listen to
218 submission port 587, or the common SSL smtp port 465);
219 symbolic port names (e.g. "submission" instead of 587)
220 are also accepted. The port can also be set with the
221 `sendemail.smtpServerPort` configuration variable.
223 --smtp-server-option=<option>::
224 If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server option to use.
225 Default value can be specified by the `sendemail.smtpServerOption`
226 configuration option.
227 +
228 The --smtp-server-option option must be repeated for each option you want
229 to pass to the server. Likewise, different lines in the configuration files
230 must be used for each option.
232 --smtp-ssl::
233 Legacy alias for '--smtp-encryption ssl'.
235 --smtp-ssl-cert-path::
236 Path to a store of trusted CA certificates for SMTP SSL/TLS
237 certificate validation (either a directory that has been processed
238 by 'c_rehash', or a single file containing one or more PEM format
239 certificates concatenated together: see verify(1) -CAfile and
240 -CApath for more information on these). Set it to an empty string
241 to disable certificate verification. Defaults to the value of the
242 `sendemail.smtpsslcertpath` configuration variable, if set, or the
243 backing SSL library's compiled-in default otherwise (which should
244 be the best choice on most platforms).
246 --smtp-user=<user>::
247 Username for SMTP-AUTH. Default is the value of `sendemail.smtpUser`;
248 if a username is not specified (with `--smtp-user` or `sendemail.smtpUser`),
249 then authentication is not attempted.
251 --smtp-debug=0|1::
252 Enable (1) or disable (0) debug output. If enabled, SMTP
253 commands and replies will be printed. Useful to debug TLS
254 connection and authentication problems.
256 --batch-size=<num>::
257 Some email servers (e.g. limit the number emails to be
258 sent per session (connection) and this will lead to a failure when
259 sending many messages. With this option, send-email will disconnect after
260 sending $<num> messages and wait for a few seconds (see --relogin-delay)
261 and reconnect, to work around such a limit. You may want to
262 use some form of credential helper to avoid having to retype
263 your password every time this happens. Defaults to the
264 `sendemail.smtpBatchSize` configuration variable.
266 --relogin-delay=<int>::
267 Waiting $<int> seconds before reconnecting to SMTP server. Used together
268 with --batch-size option. Defaults to the `sendemail.smtpReloginDelay`
269 configuration variable.
271 Automating
272 ~~~~~~~~~~
274 --to-cmd=<command>::
275 Specify a command to execute once per patch file which
276 should generate patch file specific "To:" entries.
277 Output of this command must be single email address per line.
278 Default is the value of 'sendemail.tocmd' configuration value.
280 --cc-cmd=<command>::
281 Specify a command to execute once per patch file which
282 should generate patch file specific "Cc:" entries.
283 Output of this command must be single email address per line.
284 Default is the value of `sendemail.ccCmd` configuration value.
286 --[no-]chain-reply-to::
287 If this is set, each email will be sent as a reply to the previous
288 email sent. If disabled with "--no-chain-reply-to", all emails after
289 the first will be sent as replies to the first email sent. When using
290 this, it is recommended that the first file given be an overview of the
291 entire patch series. Disabled by default, but the `sendemail.chainReplyTo`
292 configuration variable can be used to enable it.
294 --identity=<identity>::
295 A configuration identity. When given, causes values in the
296 'sendemail.<identity>' subsection to take precedence over
297 values in the 'sendemail' section. The default identity is
298 the value of `sendemail.identity`.
300 --[no-]signed-off-by-cc::
301 If this is set, add emails found in Signed-off-by: or Cc: lines to the
302 cc list. Default is the value of `sendemail.signedoffbycc` configuration
303 value; if that is unspecified, default to --signed-off-by-cc.
305 --[no-]cc-cover::
306 If this is set, emails found in Cc: headers in the first patch of
307 the series (typically the cover letter) are added to the cc list
308 for each email set. Default is the value of 'sendemail.cccover'
309 configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-cc-cover.
311 --[no-]to-cover::
312 If this is set, emails found in To: headers in the first patch of
313 the series (typically the cover letter) are added to the to list
314 for each email set. Default is the value of 'sendemail.tocover'
315 configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-to-cover.
317 --suppress-cc=<category>::
318 Specify an additional category of recipients to suppress the
319 auto-cc of:
320 +
321 --
322 - 'author' will avoid including the patch author
323 - 'self' will avoid including the sender
324 - 'cc' will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in the patch header
325 except for self (use 'self' for that).
326 - 'bodycc' will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in the
327 patch body (commit message) except for self (use 'self' for that).
328 - 'sob' will avoid including anyone mentioned in Signed-off-by lines except
329 for self (use 'self' for that).
330 - 'cccmd' will avoid running the --cc-cmd.
331 - 'body' is equivalent to 'sob' + 'bodycc'
332 - 'all' will suppress all auto cc values.
333 --
334 +
335 Default is the value of `sendemail.suppresscc` configuration value; if
336 that is unspecified, default to 'self' if --suppress-from is
337 specified, as well as 'body' if --no-signed-off-cc is specified.
339 --[no-]suppress-from::
340 If this is set, do not add the From: address to the cc: list.
341 Default is the value of `sendemail.suppressFrom` configuration
342 value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-suppress-from.
344 --[no-]thread::
345 If this is set, the In-Reply-To and References headers will be
346 added to each email sent. Whether each mail refers to the
347 previous email (`deep` threading per 'git format-patch'
348 wording) or to the first email (`shallow` threading) is
349 governed by "--[no-]chain-reply-to".
350 +
351 If disabled with "--no-thread", those headers will not be added
352 (unless specified with --in-reply-to). Default is the value of the
353 `sendemail.thread` configuration value; if that is unspecified,
354 default to --thread.
355 +
356 It is up to the user to ensure that no In-Reply-To header already
357 exists when 'git send-email' is asked to add it (especially note that
358 'git format-patch' can be configured to do the threading itself).
359 Failure to do so may not produce the expected result in the
360 recipient's MUA.
363 Administering
364 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
366 --confirm=<mode>::
367 Confirm just before sending:
368 +
369 --
370 - 'always' will always confirm before sending
371 - 'never' will never confirm before sending
372 - 'cc' will confirm before sending when send-email has automatically
373 added addresses from the patch to the Cc list
374 - 'compose' will confirm before sending the first message when using --compose.
375 - 'auto' is equivalent to 'cc' + 'compose'
376 --
377 +
378 Default is the value of `sendemail.confirm` configuration value; if that
379 is unspecified, default to 'auto' unless any of the suppress options
380 have been specified, in which case default to 'compose'.
382 --dry-run::
383 Do everything except actually send the emails.
385 --[no-]format-patch::
386 When an argument may be understood either as a reference or as a file name,
387 choose to understand it as a format-patch argument (`--format-patch`)
388 or as a file name (`--no-format-patch`). By default, when such a conflict
389 occurs, git send-email will fail.
391 --quiet::
392 Make git-send-email less verbose. One line per email should be
393 all that is output.
395 --[no-]validate::
396 Perform sanity checks on patches.
397 Currently, validation means the following:
398 +
399 --
400 * Invoke the sendemail-validate hook if present (see linkgit:githooks[5]).
401 * Warn of patches that contain lines longer than 998 characters; this
402 is due to SMTP limits as described by
403 --
404 +
405 Default is the value of `sendemail.validate`; if this is not set,
406 default to `--validate`.
408 --force::
409 Send emails even if safety checks would prevent it.
412 Information
413 ~~~~~~~~~~~
415 --dump-aliases::
416 Instead of the normal operation, dump the shorthand alias names from
417 the configured alias file(s), one per line in alphabetical order. Note,
418 this only includes the alias name and not its expanded email addresses.
419 See 'sendemail.aliasesfile' for more information about aliases.
423 -------------
425 sendemail.aliasesFile::
426 To avoid typing long email addresses, point this to one or more
427 email aliases files. You must also supply `sendemail.aliasFileType`.
429 sendemail.aliasFileType::
430 Format of the file(s) specified in sendemail.aliasesFile. Must be
431 one of 'mutt', 'mailrc', 'pine', 'elm', or 'gnus', or 'sendmail'.
432 +
433 What an alias file in each format looks like can be found in
434 the documentation of the email program of the same name. The
435 differences and limitations from the standard formats are
436 described below:
437 +
438 --
439 sendmail;;
440 * Quoted aliases and quoted addresses are not supported: lines that
441 contain a `"` symbol are ignored.
442 * Redirection to a file (`/path/name`) or pipe (`|command`) is not
443 supported.
444 * File inclusion (`:include: /path/name`) is not supported.
445 * Warnings are printed on the standard error output for any
446 explicitly unsupported constructs, and any other lines that are not
447 recognized by the parser.
448 --
450 sendemail.multiEdit::
451 If true (default), a single editor instance will be spawned to edit
452 files you have to edit (patches when `--annotate` is used, and the
453 summary when `--compose` is used). If false, files will be edited one
454 after the other, spawning a new editor each time.
456 sendemail.confirm::
457 Sets the default for whether to confirm before sending. Must be
458 one of 'always', 'never', 'cc', 'compose', or 'auto'. See `--confirm`
459 in the previous section for the meaning of these values.
462 -------
463 Use gmail as the smtp server
464 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
465 To use 'git send-email' to send your patches through the GMail SMTP server,
466 edit ~/.gitconfig to specify your account settings:
468 [sendemail]
469 smtpEncryption = tls
470 smtpServer =
471 smtpUser =
472 smtpServerPort = 587
474 If you have multifactor authentication setup on your gmail account, you will
475 need to generate an app-specific password for use with 'git send-email'. Visit
476 to create it.
478 Once your commits are ready to be sent to the mailing list, run the
479 following commands:
481 $ git format-patch --cover-letter -M origin/master -o outgoing/
482 $ edit outgoing/0000-*
483 $ git send-email outgoing/*
485 The first time you run it, you will be prompted for your credentials. Enter the
486 app-specific or your regular password as appropriate. If you have credential
487 helper configured (see linkgit:git-credential[1]), the password will be saved in
488 the credential store so you won't have to type it the next time.
490 Note: the following perl modules are required
491 Net::SMTP::SSL, MIME::Base64 and Authen::SASL
494 --------
495 linkgit:git-format-patch[1], linkgit:git-imap-send[1], mbox(5)
497 GIT
498 ---
499 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite