bf5316ffa929a88aa98f5b3c7a892ee43638a098
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-branch.txt
1 git-branch(1)
2 =============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-branch - List, create, or delete branches
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git branch' [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [-r | -a]
12 [--list] [-v [--abbrev=<length> | --no-abbrev]]
13 [--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [--sort=<key>]
14 [(--merged | --no-merged) [<commit>]]
15 [--contains [<commit]] [--no-contains [<commit>]]
16 [--points-at <object>] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
17 'git branch' [--track | --no-track] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
18 'git branch' (--set-upstream-to=<upstream> | -u <upstream>) [<branchname>]
19 'git branch' --unset-upstream [<branchname>]
20 'git branch' (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
21 'git branch' (-c | -C) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
22 'git branch' (-d | -D) [-r] <branchname>...
23 'git branch' --edit-description [<branchname>]
24
25 DESCRIPTION
26 -----------
27
28 If `--list` is given, or if there are no non-option arguments, existing
29 branches are listed; the current branch will be highlighted with an
30 asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking branches to be listed,
31 and option `-a` shows both local and remote branches. If a `<pattern>`
32 is given, it is used as a shell wildcard to restrict the output to
33 matching branches. If multiple patterns are given, a branch is shown if
34 it matches any of the patterns. Note that when providing a
35 `<pattern>`, you must use `--list`; otherwise the command is interpreted
36 as branch creation.
37
38 With `--contains`, shows only the branches that contain the named commit
39 (in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the
40 named commit), `--no-contains` inverts it. With `--merged`, only branches
41 merged into the named commit (i.e. the branches whose tip commits are
42 reachable from the named commit) will be listed. With `--no-merged` only
43 branches not merged into the named commit will be listed. If the <commit>
44 argument is missing it defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the tip of the current
45 branch).
46
47 The command's second form creates a new branch head named <branchname>
48 which points to the current `HEAD`, or <start-point> if given.
49
50 Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
51 working tree to it; use "git checkout <newbranch>" to switch to the
52 new branch.
53
54 When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, Git sets up the
55 branch (specifically the `branch.<name>.remote` and `branch.<name>.merge`
56 configuration entries) so that 'git pull' will appropriately merge from
57 the remote-tracking branch. This behavior may be changed via the global
58 `branch.autoSetupMerge` configuration flag. That setting can be
59 overridden by using the `--track` and `--no-track` options, and
60 changed later using `git branch --set-upstream-to`.
61
62 With a `-m` or `-M` option, <oldbranch> will be renamed to <newbranch>.
63 If <oldbranch> had a corresponding reflog, it is renamed to match
64 <newbranch>, and a reflog entry is created to remember the branch
65 renaming. If <newbranch> exists, -M must be used to force the rename
66 to happen.
67
68 The `-c` and `-C` options have the exact same semantics as `-m` and
69 `-M`, except instead of the branch being renamed it along with its
70 config and reflog will be copied to a new name.
71
72 With a `-d` or `-D` option, `<branchname>` will be deleted. You may
73 specify more than one branch for deletion. If the branch currently
74 has a reflog then the reflog will also be deleted.
75
76 Use `-r` together with `-d` to delete remote-tracking branches. Note, that it
77 only makes sense to delete remote-tracking branches if they no longer exist
78 in the remote repository or if 'git fetch' was configured not to fetch
79 them again. See also the 'prune' subcommand of linkgit:git-remote[1] for a
80 way to clean up all obsolete remote-tracking branches.
81
82
83 OPTIONS
84 -------
85 -d::
86 --delete::
87 Delete a branch. The branch must be fully merged in its
88 upstream branch, or in `HEAD` if no upstream was set with
89 `--track` or `--set-upstream-to`.
90
91 -D::
92 Shortcut for `--delete --force`.
93
94 --create-reflog::
95 Create the branch's reflog. This activates recording of
96 all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
97 based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
98 Note that in non-bare repositories, reflogs are usually
99 enabled by default by the `core.logAllRefUpdates` config option.
100 The negated form `--no-create-reflog` only overrides an earlier
101 `--create-reflog`, but currently does not negate the setting of
102 `core.logAllRefUpdates`.
103
104 -f::
105 --force::
106 Reset <branchname> to <startpoint>, even if <branchname> exists
107 already. Without `-f`, 'git branch' refuses to change an existing branch.
108 In combination with `-d` (or `--delete`), allow deleting the
109 branch irrespective of its merged status. In combination with
110 `-m` (or `--move`), allow renaming the branch even if the new
111 branch name already exists, the same applies for `-c` (or `--copy`).
112
113 -m::
114 --move::
115 Move/rename a branch and the corresponding reflog.
116
117 -M::
118 Shortcut for `--move --force`.
119
120 -c::
121 --copy::
122 Copy a branch and the corresponding reflog.
123
124 -C::
125 Shortcut for `--copy --force`.
126
127 --color[=<when>]::
128 Color branches to highlight current, local, and
129 remote-tracking branches.
130 The value must be always (the default), never, or auto.
131
132 --no-color::
133 Turn off branch colors, even when the configuration file gives the
134 default to color output.
135 Same as `--color=never`.
136
137 -i::
138 --ignore-case::
139 Sorting and filtering branches are case insensitive.
140
141 --column[=<options>]::
142 --no-column::
143 Display branch listing in columns. See configuration variable
144 column.branch for option syntax.`--column` and `--no-column`
145 without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never' respectively.
146 +
147 This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
148
149 -r::
150 --remotes::
151 List or delete (if used with -d) the remote-tracking branches.
152
153 -a::
154 --all::
155 List both remote-tracking branches and local branches.
156
157 -l::
158 --list::
159 List branches. With optional `<pattern>...`, e.g. `git
160 branch --list 'maint-*'`, list only the branches that match
161 the pattern(s).
162
163 -v::
164 -vv::
165 --verbose::
166 When in list mode,
167 show sha1 and commit subject line for each head, along with
168 relationship to upstream branch (if any). If given twice, print
169 the name of the upstream branch, as well (see also `git remote
170 show <remote>`).
171
172 -q::
173 --quiet::
174 Be more quiet when creating or deleting a branch, suppressing
175 non-error messages.
176
177 --abbrev=<length>::
178 Alter the sha1's minimum display length in the output listing.
179 The default value is 7 and can be overridden by the `core.abbrev`
180 config option.
181
182 --no-abbrev::
183 Display the full sha1s in the output listing rather than abbreviating them.
184
185 -t::
186 --track::
187 When creating a new branch, set up `branch.<name>.remote` and
188 `branch.<name>.merge` configuration entries to mark the
189 start-point branch as "upstream" from the new branch. This
190 configuration will tell git to show the relationship between the
191 two branches in `git status` and `git branch -v`. Furthermore,
192 it directs `git pull` without arguments to pull from the
193 upstream when the new branch is checked out.
194 +
195 This behavior is the default when the start point is a remote-tracking branch.
196 Set the branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable to `false` if you
197 want `git checkout` and `git branch` to always behave as if `--no-track`
198 were given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
199 start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
200
201 --no-track::
202 Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
203 branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable is true.
204
205 --set-upstream::
206 As this option had confusing syntax, it is no longer supported.
207 Please use `--track` or `--set-upstream-to` instead.
208
209 -u <upstream>::
210 --set-upstream-to=<upstream>::
211 Set up <branchname>'s tracking information so <upstream> is
212 considered <branchname>'s upstream branch. If no <branchname>
213 is specified, then it defaults to the current branch.
214
215 --unset-upstream::
216 Remove the upstream information for <branchname>. If no branch
217 is specified it defaults to the current branch.
218
219 --edit-description::
220 Open an editor and edit the text to explain what the branch is
221 for, to be used by various other commands (e.g. `format-patch`,
222 `request-pull`, and `merge` (if enabled)). Multi-line explanations
223 may be used.
224
225 --contains [<commit>]::
226 Only list branches which contain the specified commit (HEAD
227 if not specified). Implies `--list`.
228
229 --no-contains [<commit>]::
230 Only list branches which don't contain the specified commit
231 (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
232
233 --merged [<commit>]::
234 Only list branches whose tips are reachable from the
235 specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`,
236 incompatible with `--no-merged`.
237
238 --no-merged [<commit>]::
239 Only list branches whose tips are not reachable from the
240 specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`,
241 incompatible with `--merged`.
242
243 <branchname>::
244 The name of the branch to create or delete.
245 The new branch name must pass all checks defined by
246 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
247 may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.
248
249 <start-point>::
250 The new branch head will point to this commit. It may be
251 given as a branch name, a commit-id, or a tag. If this
252 option is omitted, the current HEAD will be used instead.
253
254 <oldbranch>::
255 The name of an existing branch to rename.
256
257 <newbranch>::
258 The new name for an existing branch. The same restrictions as for
259 <branchname> apply.
260
261 --sort=<key>::
262 Sort based on the key given. Prefix `-` to sort in descending
263 order of the value. You may use the --sort=<key> option
264 multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
265 key. The keys supported are the same as those in `git
266 for-each-ref`. Sort order defaults to the value configured for the
267 `branch.sort` variable if exists, or to sorting based on the
268 full refname (including `refs/...` prefix). This lists
269 detached HEAD (if present) first, then local branches and
270 finally remote-tracking branches. See linkgit:git-config[1].
271
272
273 --points-at <object>::
274 Only list branches of the given object.
275
276 --format <format>::
277 A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from a branch ref being shown
278 and the object it points at. The format is the same as
279 that of linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1].
280
281 CONFIGURATION
282 -------------
283 `pager.branch` is only respected when listing branches, i.e., when
284 `--list` is used or implied. The default is to use a pager.
285 See linkgit:git-config[1].
286
287 EXAMPLES
288 --------
289
290 Start development from a known tag::
291 +
292 ------------
293 $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
294 $ cd my2.6
295 $ git branch my2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
296 $ git checkout my2.6.14
297 ------------
298 +
299 <1> This step and the next one could be combined into a single step with
300 "checkout -b my2.6.14 v2.6.14".
301
302 Delete an unneeded branch::
303 +
304 ------------
305 $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/.../git.git my.git
306 $ cd my.git
307 $ git branch -d -r origin/todo origin/html origin/man <1>
308 $ git branch -D test <2>
309 ------------
310 +
311 <1> Delete the remote-tracking branches "todo", "html" and "man". The next
312 'fetch' or 'pull' will create them again unless you configure them not to.
313 See linkgit:git-fetch[1].
314 <2> Delete the "test" branch even if the "master" branch (or whichever branch
315 is currently checked out) does not have all commits from the test branch.
316
317
318 NOTES
319 -----
320
321 If you are creating a branch that you want to checkout immediately, it is
322 easier to use the git checkout command with its `-b` option to create
323 a branch and check it out with a single command.
324
325 The options `--contains`, `--no-contains`, `--merged` and `--no-merged`
326 serve four related but different purposes:
327
328 - `--contains <commit>` is used to find all branches which will need
329 special attention if <commit> were to be rebased or amended, since those
330 branches contain the specified <commit>.
331
332 - `--no-contains <commit>` is the inverse of that, i.e. branches that don't
333 contain the specified <commit>.
334
335 - `--merged` is used to find all branches which can be safely deleted,
336 since those branches are fully contained by HEAD.
337
338 - `--no-merged` is used to find branches which are candidates for merging
339 into HEAD, since those branches are not fully contained by HEAD.
340
341 SEE ALSO
342 --------
343 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1],
344 linkgit:git-fetch[1],
345 linkgit:git-remote[1],
346 link:user-manual.html#what-is-a-branch[``Understanding history: What is
347 a branch?''] in the Git User's Manual.
348
349 GIT
350 ---
351 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite