Sync with 1.9.4
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.0.0/git.html[documentation for release 2.0]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
50
51 * link:v1.9.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.4]
52
53 * release notes for
54 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
55 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
56 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
57 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
58 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
59
60 * link:v1.8.5.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.5]
61
62 * release notes for
63 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
64 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
65 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
66 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
67 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
68 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
69
70 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
71
72 * release notes for
73 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
74 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
75 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
76 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
77 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
78 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
79
80 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
81
82 * release notes for
83 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
84 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
85 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
86 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
87 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
88
89 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
90
91 * release notes for
92 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
93 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
94 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
95 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
96
97 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
98
99 * release notes for
100 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
101 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
102 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
103 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
104 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
105 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
106 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
107
108 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
109
110 * release notes for
111 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
112 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
113 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
114 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
115
116 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
117
118 * release notes for
119 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
120 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
121 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
122 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
123 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
124
125 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
126
127 * release notes for
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
129 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
130 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
131 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
132 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
134 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
135 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
136
137 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
138
139 * release notes for
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
141 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
146
147 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
148
149 * release notes for
150 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
151 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
156 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
157 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
158
159 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
160
161 * release notes for
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
165 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
166 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
167 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
168 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
169
170 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
171
172 * release notes for
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
177 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
178 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
179 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
180 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
181
182 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
183
184 * release notes for
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
188 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
189 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
192
193 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
194
195 * release notes for
196 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
197 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
198 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
199 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
200 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
201
202 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
203
204 * release notes for
205 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
206 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
207 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
209 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
210 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
211
212 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
213
214 * release notes for
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
216 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
217 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
218 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
219 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
220 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
221
222 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
223
224 * release notes for
225 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
226 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
227 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
228 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
229 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
230 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
231
232 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
233
234 * release notes for
235 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
236 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
237 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
238 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
239 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
240
241 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
242
243 * release notes for
244 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
245 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
246 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
247 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
249 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
250 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
251 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
252 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
253 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
254
255 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
256
257 * release notes for
258 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
259 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
260 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
261 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
262
263 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
264
265 * release notes for
266 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
267 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
268 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
269 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
270 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
271 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
272 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
273 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
274 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
275 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
276
277 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
278
279 * release notes for
280 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
281 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
282 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
283 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
284 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
285 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
286
287 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
288
289 * release notes for
290 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
291 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
292 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
293 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
294 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
295
296 * release notes for
297 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
298 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
299 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
300 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
301 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
302 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
303
304 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
305
306 * release notes for
307 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
308 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
309 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
310 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
311
312 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
313
314 * release notes for
315 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
316 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
317 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
318 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
319 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
320 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
321 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
322
323 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
324
325 * release notes for
326 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
327 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
328 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
329 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
330 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
331 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
332 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
333
334 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
335
336 * release notes for
337 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
338 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
339 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
340 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
341 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
342 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
343 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
344
345 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
346
347 * release notes for
348 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
349 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
350 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
351 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
352 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
353 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
354 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
355 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
356
357 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
358
359 * release notes for
360 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
361 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
362 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
363 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
364 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
365 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
366 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
367 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
368 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
369
370 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
371
372 * release notes for
373 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
374 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
375 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
376 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
377 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
378 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
379
380 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
381
382 * release notes for
383 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
386 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
387 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
388 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
389 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
390
391 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
392
393 * release notes for
394 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
396 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
397 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
398 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
399 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
400 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
401
402 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
403 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
404 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
405 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
406
407 ============
408
409 endif::stalenotes[]
410
411 OPTIONS
412 -------
413 --version::
414 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
415
416 --help::
417 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
418 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
419 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
420 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
421 +
422 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
423 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
424 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
425 help ...`.
426
427 -C <path>::
428 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
429 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
430 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
431 <path>`.
432 +
433 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
434 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
435 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
436 example the following invocations are equivalent:
437
438 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
439 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
440
441 -c <name>=<value>::
442 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
443 given will override values from configuration files.
444 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
445 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
446
447 --exec-path[=<path>]::
448 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
449 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
450 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
451 the current setting and then exit.
452
453 --html-path::
454 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
455 documentation is installed and exit.
456
457 --man-path::
458 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
459 this version of Git and exit.
460
461 --info-path::
462 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
463 version of Git are installed and exit.
464
465 -p::
466 --paginate::
467 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
468 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
469 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
470 below).
471
472 --no-pager::
473 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
474
475 --git-dir=<path>::
476 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
477 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
478 path or relative path to current working directory.
479
480 --work-tree=<path>::
481 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
482 or a path relative to the current working directory.
483 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
484 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
485 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
486 more detailed discussion).
487
488 --namespace=<path>::
489 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
490 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
491 variable.
492
493 --bare::
494 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
495 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
496 directory.
497
498 --no-replace-objects::
499 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
500 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
501
502 --literal-pathspecs::
503 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
504 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
505 variable to `1`.
506
507 --glob-pathspecs::
508 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
509 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
510 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
511 magic ":(literal)"
512
513 --noglob-pathspecs::
514 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
515 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
516 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
517 magic ":(glob)"
518
519 --icase-pathspecs::
520 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
521 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
522
523 GIT COMMANDS
524 ------------
525
526 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
527 ("plumbing") commands.
528
529 High-level commands (porcelain)
530 -------------------------------
531
532 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
533 ancillary user utilities.
534
535 Main porcelain commands
536 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
537
538 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
539
540 Ancillary Commands
541 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
542 Manipulators:
543
544 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
545
546 Interrogators:
547
548 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
549
550
551 Interacting with Others
552 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
553
554 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
555 people via patch over e-mail.
556
557 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
558
559
560 Low-level commands (plumbing)
561 -----------------------------
562
563 Although Git includes its
564 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
565 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
566 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
567 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
568
569 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
570 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
571 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
572 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
573 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
574 end user experience.
575
576 The following description divides
577 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
578 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
579 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
580 repositories.
581
582
583 Manipulation commands
584 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
585
586 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
587
588
589 Interrogation commands
590 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
591
592 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
593
594 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
595 the working tree.
596
597
598 Synching repositories
599 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
600
601 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
602
603 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
604 typically do not use them directly.
605
606 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
607
608
609 Internal helper commands
610 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
611
612 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
613 users typically do not use them directly.
614
615 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
616
617
618 Configuration Mechanism
619 -----------------------
620
621 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
622 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
623 like this:
624
625 ------------
626 #
627 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
628 #
629
630 ; core variables
631 [core]
632 ; Don't trust file modes
633 filemode = false
634
635 ; user identity
636 [user]
637 name = "Junio C Hamano"
638 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
639
640 ------------
641
642 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
643 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
644 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
645
646
647 Identifier Terminology
648 ----------------------
649 <object>::
650 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
651
652 <blob>::
653 Indicates a blob object name.
654
655 <tree>::
656 Indicates a tree object name.
657
658 <commit>::
659 Indicates a commit object name.
660
661 <tree-ish>::
662 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
663 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
664 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
665 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
666
667 <commit-ish>::
668 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
669 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
670 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
671 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
672
673 <type>::
674 Indicates that an object type is required.
675 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
676
677 <file>::
678 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
679 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
680
681 Symbolic Identifiers
682 --------------------
683 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
684 symbolic notation:
685
686 HEAD::
687 indicates the head of the current branch.
688
689 <tag>::
690 a valid tag 'name'
691 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
692
693 <head>::
694 a valid head 'name'
695 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
696
697 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
698 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
699
700
701 File/Directory Structure
702 ------------------------
703
704 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
705
706 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
707
708 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
709 `$GIT_DIR`.
710
711
712 Terminology
713 -----------
714 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
715
716
717 Environment Variables
718 ---------------------
719 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
720
721 The Git Repository
722 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
723 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
724 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
725 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
726
727 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
728 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
729 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
730 is used.
731
732 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
733 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
734 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
735 files. By default index file version [23] is used.
736
737 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
738 If the object storage directory is specified via this
739 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
740 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
741 directory is used.
742
743 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
744 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
745 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
746 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
747 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
748 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
749
750 'GIT_DIR'::
751 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
752 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
753 for the base of the repository.
754 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
755
756 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
757 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
758 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
759 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
760
761 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
762 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
763 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
764
765 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
766 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
767 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
768 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
769 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
770 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
771 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
772 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
773 might be present in order to compare them with the current
774 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
775 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
776 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
777 e.g.,
778 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
779
780 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
781 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
782 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
783 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
784 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
785 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
786 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
787 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
788 command line.
789
790 Git Commits
791 ~~~~~~~~~~~
792 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
793 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
794 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
795 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
796 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
797 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
798 'EMAIL'::
799 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
800
801 Git Diffs
802 ~~~~~~~~~
803 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
804 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
805 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
806 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
807 value passed on the Git diff command line.
808
809 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
810 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
811 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
812 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
813 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
814
815 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
816 +
817 where:
818
819 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
820 contents of <old|new>,
821 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
822 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
823 +
824 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
825 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
826 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
827 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
828 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
829 +
830 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
831 parameter, <path>.
832 +
833 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
834 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
835
836 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
837 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
838
839 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
840 The total number of paths.
841
842 other
843 ~~~~~
844 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
845 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
846 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
847 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
848
849 'GIT_PAGER'::
850 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
851 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
852 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
853 linkgit:git-config[1].
854
855 'GIT_EDITOR'::
856 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
857 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
858 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
859 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
860
861 'GIT_SSH'::
862 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
863 and 'git push' will use this command instead
864 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
865 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
866 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
867 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
868 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
869 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
870 than the default SSH port.
871 +
872 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
873 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
874 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
875 +
876 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
877 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
878 for further details.
879
880 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
881 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
882 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
883 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
884 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
885 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
886
887 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
888 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
889 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
890 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
891 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
892 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
893 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
894
895 'GIT_FLUSH'::
896 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
897 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
898 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
899 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
900 flushed. If this
901 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
902 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
903 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
904 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
905
906 'GIT_TRACE'::
907 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
908 is case insensitive), Git will print `trace:` messages on
909 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
910 execution and external command execution.
911 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
912 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
913 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
914 trace messages into this file descriptor.
915 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
916 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
917 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
918 into it.
919
920 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
921 If this variable is set to a path, a file will be created at
922 the given path logging all accesses to any packs. For each
923 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
924 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
925 pack-related performance problems.
926
927 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
928 If this variable is set, it shows a trace of all packets
929 coming in or out of a given program. This can help with
930 debugging object negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing
931 is turned off at a packet starting with "PACK".
932
933 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
934 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
935 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
936 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
937 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
938 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
939 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
940 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
941
942 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
943 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
944 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
945
946 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
947 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
948 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
949
950 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
951 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
952 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
953
954 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
955 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
956 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
957 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
958 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
959 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
960 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
961 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
962 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
963
964
965 Discussion[[Discussion]]
966 ------------------------
967
968 More detail on the following is available from the
969 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
970 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
971
972 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
973 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
974 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
975 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
976 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
977 as tags and branch heads.
978
979 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
980 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
981 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
982 and some number of parent commits.
983
984 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
985 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
986 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
987 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
988
989 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
990 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
991 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
992 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
993 purpose.
994
995 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
996 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
997
998 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
999 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1000 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1001 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1002 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1003 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1004
1005 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1006 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1007 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1008 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1009 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1010 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1011 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1012 content stored in the index.
1013
1014 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1015 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1016 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1017
1018 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1019 ---------------------
1020
1021 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1022 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1023 for a first-time user.
1024
1025 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1026 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1027 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1028
1029 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1030
1031 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1032 examples.
1033
1034 The internals are documented in the
1035 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1036
1037 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1038 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1039
1040
1041 Authors
1042 -------
1043 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1044 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1045 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1046 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1047
1048 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1049 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1050 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1051
1052 Reporting Bugs
1053 --------------
1054
1055 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1056 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1057 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1058
1059 SEE ALSO
1060 --------
1061 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1062 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1063 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1064 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1065 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1066
1067 GIT
1068 ---
1069 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite