manpages: italicize git command names (which were in teletype font)
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-update-index.txt
1 git-update-index(1)
2 ===================
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-update-index - Register file contents in the working tree to the index
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git update-index'
13 [--add] [--remove | --force-remove] [--replace]
14 [--refresh] [-q] [--unmerged] [--ignore-missing]
15 [--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <file>]\*
16 [--chmod=(+|-)x]
17 [--assume-unchanged | --no-assume-unchanged]
18 [--ignore-submodules]
19 [--really-refresh] [--unresolve] [--again | -g]
20 [--info-only] [--index-info]
21 [-z] [--stdin]
22 [--verbose]
23 [--] [<file>]\*
24
25 DESCRIPTION
26 -----------
27 Modifies the index or directory cache. Each file mentioned is updated
28 into the index and any 'unmerged' or 'needs updating' state is
29 cleared.
30
31 See also linkgit:git-add[1] for a more user-friendly way to do some of
32 the most common operations on the index.
33
34 The way 'git-update-index' handles files it is told about can be modified
35 using the various options:
36
37 OPTIONS
38 -------
39 --add::
40 If a specified file isn't in the index already then it's
41 added.
42 Default behaviour is to ignore new files.
43
44 --remove::
45 If a specified file is in the index but is missing then it's
46 removed.
47 Default behavior is to ignore removed file.
48
49 --refresh::
50 Looks at the current index and checks to see if merges or
51 updates are needed by checking stat() information.
52
53 -q::
54 Quiet. If --refresh finds that the index needs an update, the
55 default behavior is to error out. This option makes
56 'git-update-index' continue anyway.
57
58 --ignore-submodules:
59 Do not try to update submodules. This option is only respected
60 when passed before --refresh.
61
62 --unmerged::
63 If --refresh finds unmerged changes in the index, the default
64 behavior is to error out. This option makes 'git-update-index'
65 continue anyway.
66
67 --ignore-missing::
68 Ignores missing files during a --refresh
69
70 --cacheinfo <mode> <object> <path>::
71 Directly insert the specified info into the index.
72
73 --index-info::
74 Read index information from stdin.
75
76 --chmod=(+|-)x::
77 Set the execute permissions on the updated files.
78
79 --assume-unchanged::
80 --no-assume-unchanged::
81 When these flags are specified, the object name recorded
82 for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
83 sets and unsets the "assume unchanged" bit for the
84 paths. When the "assume unchanged" bit is on, git stops
85 checking the working tree files for possible
86 modifications, so you need to manually unset the bit to
87 tell git when you change the working tree file. This is
88 sometimes helpful when working with a big project on a
89 filesystem that has very slow lstat(2) system call
90 (e.g. cifs).
91
92 -g::
93 --again::
94 Runs 'git-update-index' itself on the paths whose index
95 entries are different from those from the `HEAD` commit.
96
97 --unresolve::
98 Restores the 'unmerged' or 'needs updating' state of a
99 file during a merge if it was cleared by accident.
100
101 --info-only::
102 Do not create objects in the object database for all
103 <file> arguments that follow this flag; just insert
104 their object IDs into the index.
105
106 --force-remove::
107 Remove the file from the index even when the working directory
108 still has such a file. (Implies --remove.)
109
110 --replace::
111 By default, when a file `path` exists in the index,
112 'git-update-index' refuses an attempt to add `path/file`.
113 Similarly if a file `path/file` exists, a file `path`
114 cannot be added. With --replace flag, existing entries
115 that conflicts with the entry being added are
116 automatically removed with warning messages.
117
118 --stdin::
119 Instead of taking list of paths from the command line,
120 read list of paths from the standard input. Paths are
121 separated by LF (i.e. one path per line) by default.
122
123 --verbose::
124 Report what is being added and removed from index.
125
126 -z::
127 Only meaningful with `--stdin`; paths are separated with
128 NUL character instead of LF.
129
130 \--::
131 Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
132
133 <file>::
134 Files to act on.
135 Note that files beginning with '.' are discarded. This includes
136 `./file` and `dir/./file`. If you don't want this, then use
137 cleaner names.
138 The same applies to directories ending '/' and paths with '//'
139
140 Using --refresh
141 ---------------
142 '--refresh' does not calculate a new sha1 file or bring the index
143 up-to-date for mode/content changes. But what it *does* do is to
144 "re-match" the stat information of a file with the index, so that you
145 can refresh the index for a file that hasn't been changed but where
146 the stat entry is out of date.
147
148 For example, you'd want to do this after doing a 'git-read-tree', to link
149 up the stat index details with the proper files.
150
151 Using --cacheinfo or --info-only
152 --------------------------------
153 '--cacheinfo' is used to register a file that is not in the
154 current working directory. This is useful for minimum-checkout
155 merging.
156
157 To pretend you have a file with mode and sha1 at path, say:
158
159 ----------------
160 $ git update-index --cacheinfo mode sha1 path
161 ----------------
162
163 '--info-only' is used to register files without placing them in the object
164 database. This is useful for status-only repositories.
165
166 Both '--cacheinfo' and '--info-only' behave similarly: the index is updated
167 but the object database isn't. '--cacheinfo' is useful when the object is
168 in the database but the file isn't available locally. '--info-only' is
169 useful when the file is available, but you do not wish to update the
170 object database.
171
172
173 Using --index-info
174 ------------------
175
176 `--index-info` is a more powerful mechanism that lets you feed
177 multiple entry definitions from the standard input, and designed
178 specifically for scripts. It can take inputs of three formats:
179
180 . mode SP sha1 TAB path
181 +
182 The first format is what "git-apply --index-info"
183 reports, and used to reconstruct a partial tree
184 that is used for phony merge base tree when falling
185 back on 3-way merge.
186
187 . mode SP type SP sha1 TAB path
188 +
189 The second format is to stuff 'git-ls-tree' output
190 into the index file.
191
192 . mode SP sha1 SP stage TAB path
193 +
194 This format is to put higher order stages into the
195 index file and matches 'git-ls-files --stage' output.
196
197 To place a higher stage entry to the index, the path should
198 first be removed by feeding a mode=0 entry for the path, and
199 then feeding necessary input lines in the third format.
200
201 For example, starting with this index:
202
203 ------------
204 $ git ls-files -s
205 100644 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 0 frotz
206 ------------
207
208 you can feed the following input to `--index-info`:
209
210 ------------
211 $ git update-index --index-info
212 0 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 frotz
213 100644 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 1 frotz
214 100755 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 2 frotz
215 ------------
216
217 The first line of the input feeds 0 as the mode to remove the
218 path; the SHA1 does not matter as long as it is well formatted.
219 Then the second and third line feeds stage 1 and stage 2 entries
220 for that path. After the above, we would end up with this:
221
222 ------------
223 $ git ls-files -s
224 100644 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 1 frotz
225 100755 8a1218a1024a212bb3db30becd860315f9f3ac52 2 frotz
226 ------------
227
228
229 Using ``assume unchanged'' bit
230 ------------------------------
231
232 Many operations in git depend on your filesystem to have an
233 efficient `lstat(2)` implementation, so that `st_mtime`
234 information for working tree files can be cheaply checked to see
235 if the file contents have changed from the version recorded in
236 the index file. Unfortunately, some filesystems have
237 inefficient `lstat(2)`. If your filesystem is one of them, you
238 can set "assume unchanged" bit to paths you have not changed to
239 cause git not to do this check. Note that setting this bit on a
240 path does not mean git will check the contents of the file to
241 see if it has changed -- it makes git to omit any checking and
242 assume it has *not* changed. When you make changes to working
243 tree files, you have to explicitly tell git about it by dropping
244 "assume unchanged" bit, either before or after you modify them.
245
246 In order to set "assume unchanged" bit, use `--assume-unchanged`
247 option. To unset, use `--no-assume-unchanged`.
248
249 The command looks at `core.ignorestat` configuration variable. When
250 this is true, paths updated with `git update-index paths...` and
251 paths updated with other git commands that update both index and
252 working tree (e.g. 'git-apply --index', 'git-checkout-index -u',
253 and 'git-read-tree -u') are automatically marked as "assume
254 unchanged". Note that "assume unchanged" bit is *not* set if
255 `git update-index --refresh` finds the working tree file matches
256 the index (use `git update-index --really-refresh` if you want
257 to mark them as "assume unchanged").
258
259
260 Examples
261 --------
262 To update and refresh only the files already checked out:
263
264 ----------------
265 $ git checkout-index -n -f -a && git update-index --ignore-missing --refresh
266 ----------------
267
268 On an inefficient filesystem with `core.ignorestat` set::
269 +
270 ------------
271 $ git update-index --really-refresh <1>
272 $ git update-index --no-assume-unchanged foo.c <2>
273 $ git diff --name-only <3>
274 $ edit foo.c
275 $ git diff --name-only <4>
276 M foo.c
277 $ git update-index foo.c <5>
278 $ git diff --name-only <6>
279 $ edit foo.c
280 $ git diff --name-only <7>
281 $ git update-index --no-assume-unchanged foo.c <8>
282 $ git diff --name-only <9>
283 M foo.c
284 ------------
285 +
286 <1> forces lstat(2) to set "assume unchanged" bits for paths that match index.
287 <2> mark the path to be edited.
288 <3> this does lstat(2) and finds index matches the path.
289 <4> this does lstat(2) and finds index does *not* match the path.
290 <5> registering the new version to index sets "assume unchanged" bit.
291 <6> and it is assumed unchanged.
292 <7> even after you edit it.
293 <8> you can tell about the change after the fact.
294 <9> now it checks with lstat(2) and finds it has been changed.
295
296
297 Configuration
298 -------------
299
300 The command honors `core.filemode` configuration variable. If
301 your repository is on an filesystem whose executable bits are
302 unreliable, this should be set to 'false' (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
303 This causes the command to ignore differences in file modes recorded
304 in the index and the file mode on the filesystem if they differ only on
305 executable bit. On such an unfortunate filesystem, you may
306 need to use 'git-update-index --chmod='.
307
308 Quite similarly, if `core.symlinks` configuration variable is set
309 to 'false' (see linkgit:git-config[1]), symbolic links are checked out
310 as plain files, and this command does not modify a recorded file mode
311 from symbolic link to regular file.
312
313 The command looks at `core.ignorestat` configuration variable. See
314 'Using "assume unchanged" bit' section above.
315
316
317 SEE ALSO
318 --------
319 linkgit:git-config[1],
320 linkgit:git-add[1]
321
322
323 Author
324 ------
325 Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
326
327 Documentation
328 --------------
329 Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
330
331 GIT
332 ---
333 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite