Merge branch 'nd/versioncmp-prereleases'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-tag.txt
1 git-tag(1)
2 ==========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-tag - Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git tag' [-a | -s | -u <key-id>] [-f] [-m <msg> | -F <file>]
13 <tagname> [<commit> | <object>]
14 'git tag' -d <tagname>...
15 'git tag' [-n[<num>]] -l [--contains <commit>] [--points-at <object>]
16 [--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [<pattern>...]
17 [<pattern>...]
18 'git tag' -v <tagname>...
19
20 DESCRIPTION
21 -----------
22
23 Add a tag reference in `refs/tags/`, unless `-d/-l/-v` is given
24 to delete, list or verify tags.
25
26 Unless `-f` is given, the named tag must not yet exist.
27
28 If one of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <key-id>` is passed, the command
29 creates a 'tag' object, and requires a tag message. Unless
30 `-m <msg>` or `-F <file>` is given, an editor is started for the user to type
31 in the tag message.
32
33 If `-m <msg>` or `-F <file>` is given and `-a`, `-s`, and `-u <key-id>`
34 are absent, `-a` is implied.
35
36 Otherwise just a tag reference for the SHA-1 object name of the commit object is
37 created (i.e. a lightweight tag).
38
39 A GnuPG signed tag object will be created when `-s` or `-u
40 <key-id>` is used. When `-u <key-id>` is not used, the
41 committer identity for the current user is used to find the
42 GnuPG key for signing. The configuration variable `gpg.program`
43 is used to specify custom GnuPG binary.
44
45 Tag objects (created with `-a`, `-s`, or `-u`) are called "annotated"
46 tags; they contain a creation date, the tagger name and e-mail, a
47 tagging message, and an optional GnuPG signature. Whereas a
48 "lightweight" tag is simply a name for an object (usually a commit
49 object).
50
51 Annotated tags are meant for release while lightweight tags are meant
52 for private or temporary object labels. For this reason, some git
53 commands for naming objects (like `git describe`) will ignore
54 lightweight tags by default.
55
56
57 OPTIONS
58 -------
59 -a::
60 --annotate::
61 Make an unsigned, annotated tag object
62
63 -s::
64 --sign::
65 Make a GPG-signed tag, using the default e-mail address's key.
66
67 -u <key-id>::
68 --local-user=<key-id>::
69 Make a GPG-signed tag, using the given key.
70
71 -f::
72 --force::
73 Replace an existing tag with the given name (instead of failing)
74
75 -d::
76 --delete::
77 Delete existing tags with the given names.
78
79 -v::
80 --verify::
81 Verify the gpg signature of the given tag names.
82
83 -n<num>::
84 <num> specifies how many lines from the annotation, if any,
85 are printed when using -l.
86 The default is not to print any annotation lines.
87 If no number is given to `-n`, only the first line is printed.
88 If the tag is not annotated, the commit message is displayed instead.
89
90 -l <pattern>::
91 --list <pattern>::
92 List tags with names that match the given pattern (or all if no
93 pattern is given). Running "git tag" without arguments also
94 lists all tags. The pattern is a shell wildcard (i.e., matched
95 using fnmatch(3)). Multiple patterns may be given; if any of
96 them matches, the tag is shown.
97
98 --sort=<type>::
99 Sort in a specific order. Supported type is "refname"
100 (lexicographic order), "version:refname" or "v:refname" (tag
101 names are treated as versions). The "version:refname" sort
102 order can also be affected by the
103 "versionsort.prereleaseSuffix" configuration variable. Prepend
104 "-" to reverse sort order. When this option is not given, the
105 sort order defaults to the value configured for the 'tag.sort'
106 variable if it exists, or lexicographic order otherwise. See
107 linkgit:git-config[1].
108
109 --column[=<options>]::
110 --no-column::
111 Display tag listing in columns. See configuration variable
112 column.tag for option syntax.`--column` and `--no-column`
113 without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never' respectively.
114 +
115 This option is only applicable when listing tags without annotation lines.
116
117 --contains [<commit>]::
118 Only list tags which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
119 specified).
120
121 --points-at <object>::
122 Only list tags of the given object.
123
124 -m <msg>::
125 --message=<msg>::
126 Use the given tag message (instead of prompting).
127 If multiple `-m` options are given, their values are
128 concatenated as separate paragraphs.
129 Implies `-a` if none of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <key-id>`
130 is given.
131
132 -F <file>::
133 --file=<file>::
134 Take the tag message from the given file. Use '-' to
135 read the message from the standard input.
136 Implies `-a` if none of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <key-id>`
137 is given.
138
139 --cleanup=<mode>::
140 This option sets how the tag message is cleaned up.
141 The '<mode>' can be one of 'verbatim', 'whitespace' and 'strip'. The
142 'strip' mode is default. The 'verbatim' mode does not change message at
143 all, 'whitespace' removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines and
144 'strip' removes both whitespace and commentary.
145
146 <tagname>::
147 The name of the tag to create, delete, or describe.
148 The new tag name must pass all checks defined by
149 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
150 may restrict the characters allowed in a tag name.
151
152 <commit>::
153 <object>::
154 The object that the new tag will refer to, usually a commit.
155 Defaults to HEAD.
156
157
158 CONFIGURATION
159 -------------
160 By default, 'git tag' in sign-with-default mode (-s) will use your
161 committer identity (of the form "Your Name <\your@email.address>") to
162 find a key. If you want to use a different default key, you can specify
163 it in the repository configuration as follows:
164
165 -------------------------------------
166 [user]
167 signingKey = <gpg-key-id>
168 -------------------------------------
169
170
171 DISCUSSION
172 ----------
173
174 On Re-tagging
175 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
176
177 What should you do when you tag a wrong commit and you would
178 want to re-tag?
179
180 If you never pushed anything out, just re-tag it. Use "-f" to
181 replace the old one. And you're done.
182
183 But if you have pushed things out (or others could just read
184 your repository directly), then others will have already seen
185 the old tag. In that case you can do one of two things:
186
187 . The sane thing.
188 Just admit you screwed up, and use a different name. Others have
189 already seen one tag-name, and if you keep the same name, you
190 may be in the situation that two people both have "version X",
191 but they actually have 'different' "X"'s. So just call it "X.1"
192 and be done with it.
193
194 . The insane thing.
195 You really want to call the new version "X" too, 'even though'
196 others have already seen the old one. So just use 'git tag -f'
197 again, as if you hadn't already published the old one.
198
199 However, Git does *not* (and it should not) change tags behind
200 users back. So if somebody already got the old tag, doing a
201 'git pull' on your tree shouldn't just make them overwrite the old
202 one.
203
204 If somebody got a release tag from you, you cannot just change
205 the tag for them by updating your own one. This is a big
206 security issue, in that people MUST be able to trust their
207 tag-names. If you really want to do the insane thing, you need
208 to just fess up to it, and tell people that you messed up. You
209 can do that by making a very public announcement saying:
210
211 ------------
212 Ok, I messed up, and I pushed out an earlier version tagged as X. I
213 then fixed something, and retagged the *fixed* tree as X again.
214
215 If you got the wrong tag, and want the new one, please delete
216 the old one and fetch the new one by doing:
217
218 git tag -d X
219 git fetch origin tag X
220
221 to get my updated tag.
222
223 You can test which tag you have by doing
224
225 git rev-parse X
226
227 which should return 0123456789abcdef.. if you have the new version.
228
229 Sorry for the inconvenience.
230 ------------
231
232 Does this seem a bit complicated? It *should* be. There is no
233 way that it would be correct to just "fix" it automatically.
234 People need to know that their tags might have been changed.
235
236
237 On Automatic following
238 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
239
240 If you are following somebody else's tree, you are most likely
241 using remote-tracking branches (`refs/heads/origin` in traditional
242 layout, or `refs/remotes/origin/master` in the separate-remote
243 layout). You usually want the tags from the other end.
244
245 On the other hand, if you are fetching because you would want a
246 one-shot merge from somebody else, you typically do not want to
247 get tags from there. This happens more often for people near
248 the toplevel but not limited to them. Mere mortals when pulling
249 from each other do not necessarily want to automatically get
250 private anchor point tags from the other person.
251
252 Often, "please pull" messages on the mailing list just provide
253 two pieces of information: a repo URL and a branch name; this
254 is designed to be easily cut&pasted at the end of a 'git fetch'
255 command line:
256
257 ------------
258 Linus, please pull from
259
260 git://git..../proj.git master
261
262 to get the following updates...
263 ------------
264
265 becomes:
266
267 ------------
268 $ git pull git://git..../proj.git master
269 ------------
270
271 In such a case, you do not want to automatically follow the other
272 person's tags.
273
274 One important aspect of Git is its distributed nature, which
275 largely means there is no inherent "upstream" or
276 "downstream" in the system. On the face of it, the above
277 example might seem to indicate that the tag namespace is owned
278 by the upper echelon of people and that tags only flow downwards, but
279 that is not the case. It only shows that the usage pattern
280 determines who are interested in whose tags.
281
282 A one-shot pull is a sign that a commit history is now crossing
283 the boundary between one circle of people (e.g. "people who are
284 primarily interested in the networking part of the kernel") who may
285 have their own set of tags (e.g. "this is the third release
286 candidate from the networking group to be proposed for general
287 consumption with 2.6.21 release") to another circle of people
288 (e.g. "people who integrate various subsystem improvements").
289 The latter are usually not interested in the detailed tags used
290 internally in the former group (that is what "internal" means).
291 That is why it is desirable not to follow tags automatically in
292 this case.
293
294 It may well be that among networking people, they may want to
295 exchange the tags internal to their group, but in that workflow
296 they are most likely tracking each other's progress by
297 having remote-tracking branches. Again, the heuristic to automatically
298 follow such tags is a good thing.
299
300
301 On Backdating Tags
302 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
303
304 If you have imported some changes from another VCS and would like
305 to add tags for major releases of your work, it is useful to be able
306 to specify the date to embed inside of the tag object; such data in
307 the tag object affects, for example, the ordering of tags in the
308 gitweb interface.
309
310 To set the date used in future tag objects, set the environment
311 variable GIT_COMMITTER_DATE (see the later discussion of possible
312 values; the most common form is "YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM").
313
314 For example:
315
316 ------------
317 $ GIT_COMMITTER_DATE="2006-10-02 10:31" git tag -s v1.0.1
318 ------------
319
320 include::date-formats.txt[]
321
322 SEE ALSO
323 --------
324 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1].
325 linkgit:git-config[1].
326
327 GIT
328 ---
329 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite