[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-worktree.txt
1 git-worktree(1)
2 ===============
5 ----
6 git-worktree - Manage multiple working trees
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [--lock] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<branch>]
13 'git worktree list' [--porcelain]
14 'git worktree lock' [--reason <string>] <worktree>
15 'git worktree prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
16 'git worktree unlock' <worktree>
19 -----------
21 Manage multiple working trees attached to the same repository.
23 A git repository can support multiple working trees, allowing you to check
24 out more than one branch at a time. With `git worktree add` a new working
25 tree is associated with the repository. This new working tree is called a
26 "linked working tree" as opposed to the "main working tree" prepared by "git
27 init" or "git clone". A repository has one main working tree (if it's not a
28 bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees.
30 When you are done with a linked working tree you can simply delete it.
31 The working tree's administrative files in the repository (see
32 "DETAILS" below) will eventually be removed automatically (see
33 `gc.worktreePruneExpire` in linkgit:git-config[1]), or you can run
34 `git worktree prune` in the main or any linked working tree to
35 clean up any stale administrative files.
37 If you move a linked working tree, you need to manually update the
38 administrative files so that they do not get pruned automatically. See
39 section "DETAILS" for more information.
41 If a linked working tree is stored on a portable device or network share
42 which is not always mounted, you can prevent its administrative files from
43 being pruned by issuing the `git worktree lock` command, optionally
44 specifying `--reason` to explain why the working tree is locked.
47 --------
48 add <path> [<branch>]::
50 Create `<path>` and checkout `<branch>` into it. The new working directory
51 is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except working
52 directory specific files such as HEAD, index, etc. `-` may also be
53 specified as `<branch>`; it is synonymous with `@{-1}`.
54 +
55 If `<branch>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` used,
56 then, as a convenience, a new branch based at HEAD is created automatically,
57 as if `-b $(basename <path>)` was specified.
59 list::
61 List details of each worktree. The main worktree is listed first, followed by
62 each of the linked worktrees. The output details include if the worktree is
63 bare, the revision currently checked out, and the branch currently checked out
64 (or 'detached HEAD' if none).
66 lock::
68 If a working tree is on a portable device or network share which
69 is not always mounted, lock it to prevent its administrative
70 files from being pruned automatically. This also prevents it from
71 being moved or deleted. Optionally, specify a reason for the lock
72 with `--reason`.
74 prune::
76 Prune working tree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.
78 unlock::
80 Unlock a working tree, allowing it to be pruned, moved or deleted.
83 -------
85 -f::
86 --force::
87 By default, `add` refuses to create a new working tree when `<branch>`
88 is already checked out by another working tree. This option overrides
89 that safeguard.
91 -b <new-branch>::
92 -B <new-branch>::
93 With `add`, create a new branch named `<new-branch>` starting at
94 `<branch>`, and check out `<new-branch>` into the new working tree.
95 If `<branch>` is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.
96 By default, `-b` refuses to create a new branch if it already
97 exists. `-B` overrides this safeguard, resetting `<new-branch>` to
98 `<branch>`.
100 --detach::
101 With `add`, detach HEAD in the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD"
102 in linkgit:git-checkout[1].
104 --[no-]checkout::
105 By default, `add` checks out `<branch>`, however, `--no-checkout` can
106 be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations,
107 such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout"
108 in linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
110 --lock::
111 Keep the working tree locked after creation. This is the
112 equivalent of `git worktree lock` after `git worktree add`,
113 but without race condition.
115 -n::
116 --dry-run::
117 With `prune`, do not remove anything; just report what it would
118 remove.
120 --porcelain::
121 With `list`, output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts.
122 This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user
123 configuration. See below for details.
125 -v::
126 --verbose::
127 With `prune`, report all removals.
129 --expire <time>::
130 With `prune`, only expire unused working trees older than <time>.
132 --reason <string>::
133 With `lock`, an explanation why the working tree is locked.
135 <worktree>::
136 Working trees can be identified by path, either relative or
137 absolute.
138 +
139 If the last path components in the working tree's path is unique among
140 working trees, it can be used to identify worktrees. For example if
141 you only have two working trees, at "/abc/def/ghi" and "/abc/def/ggg",
142 then "ghi" or "def/ghi" is enough to point to the former working tree.
145 -------
146 Each linked working tree has a private sub-directory in the repository's
147 $GIT_DIR/worktrees directory. The private sub-directory's name is usually
148 the base name of the linked working tree's path, possibly appended with a
149 number to make it unique. For example, when `$GIT_DIR=/path/main/.git` the
150 command `git worktree add /path/other/test-next next` creates the linked
151 working tree in `/path/other/test-next` and also creates a
152 `$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next` directory (or `$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next1`
153 if `test-next` is already taken).
155 Within a linked working tree, $GIT_DIR is set to point to this private
156 directory (e.g. `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next` in the example) and
157 $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set to point back to the main working tree's $GIT_DIR
158 (e.g. `/path/main/.git`). These settings are made in a `.git` file located at
159 the top directory of the linked working tree.
161 Path resolution via `git rev-parse --git-path` uses either
162 $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR depending on the path. For example, in the
163 linked working tree `git rev-parse --git-path HEAD` returns
164 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/HEAD` (not
165 `/path/other/test-next/.git/HEAD` or `/path/main/.git/HEAD`) while `git
166 rev-parse --git-path refs/heads/master` uses
167 $GIT_COMMON_DIR and returns `/path/main/.git/refs/heads/master`,
168 since refs are shared across all working trees.
170 See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] for more information. The rule of
171 thumb is do not make any assumption about whether a path belongs to
172 $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something
173 inside $GIT_DIR. Use `git rev-parse --git-path` to get the final path.
175 If you move a linked working tree, you need to update the 'gitdir' file
176 in the entry's directory. For example, if a linked working tree is moved
177 to `/newpath/test-next` and its `.git` file points to
178 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next`, then update
179 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/gitdir` to reference `/newpath/test-next`
180 instead.
182 To prevent a $GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which
183 can be useful in some situations, such as when the
184 entry's working tree is stored on a portable device), use the
185 `git worktree lock` command, which adds a file named
186 'locked' to the entry's directory. The file contains the reason in
187 plain text. For example, if a linked working tree's `.git` file points
188 to `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next` then a file named
189 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/locked` will prevent the
190 `test-next` entry from being pruned. See
191 linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] for details.
194 ------------------
195 The worktree list command has two output formats. The default format shows the
196 details on a single line with columns. For example:
198 ------------
199 S git worktree list
200 /path/to/bare-source (bare)
201 /path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master]
202 /path/to/other-linked-worktree 1234abc (detached HEAD)
203 ------------
205 Porcelain Format
206 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
207 The porcelain format has a line per attribute. Attributes are listed with a
208 label and value separated by a single space. Boolean attributes (like 'bare'
209 and 'detached') are listed as a label only, and are only present if and only
210 if the value is true. An empty line indicates the end of a worktree. For
211 example:
213 ------------
214 S git worktree list --porcelain
215 worktree /path/to/bare-source
216 bare
218 worktree /path/to/linked-worktree
219 HEAD abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234
220 branch refs/heads/master
222 worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree
223 HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a
224 detached
226 ------------
229 --------
230 You are in the middle of a refactoring session and your boss comes in and
231 demands that you fix something immediately. You might typically use
232 linkgit:git-stash[1] to store your changes away temporarily, however, your
233 working tree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed
234 files, and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don't want to risk
235 disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked working tree to
236 make the emergency fix, remove it when done, and then resume your earlier
237 refactoring session.
239 ------------
240 $ git worktree add -b emergency-fix ../temp master
241 $ pushd ../temp
242 # ... hack hack hack ...
243 $ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss'
244 $ popd
245 $ rm -rf ../temp
246 $ git worktree prune
247 ------------
249 BUGS
250 ----
251 Multiple checkout in general is still experimental, and the support
252 for submodules is incomplete. It is NOT recommended to make multiple
253 checkouts of a superproject.
255 git-worktree could provide more automation for tasks currently
256 performed manually, such as:
258 - `remove` to remove a linked working tree and its administrative files (and
259 warn if the working tree is dirty)
260 - `mv` to move or rename a working tree and update its administrative files
262 GIT
263 ---
264 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite