Merge master.kernel.org:/pub/scm/gitk/gitk
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(7)
2 ======
3 May 2005
4
5 NAME
6 ----
7 git - the stupid content tracker
8
9
10 SYNOPSIS
11 --------
12 'git-<command>' <args>
13
14 DESCRIPTION
15 -----------
16
17 This is reference information for the core git commands.
18
19 The Discussion section below contains much useful definition and
20 clarification info - read that first. And of the commands, I suggest
21 reading link:git-update-cache.html[git-update-cache] and
22 link:git-read-tree.html[git-read-tree] first - I wish I had!
23
24 David Greaves <david@dgreaves.com>
25 08/05/05
26
27 Updated by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> on 2005-05-05 to
28 reflect recent changes.
29
30 Commands Overview
31 -----------------
32 The git commands can helpfully be split into those that manipulate
33 the repository, the cache and the working fileset and those that
34 interrogate and compare them.
35
36 There are also some ancilliary programs that can be viewed as useful
37 aids for using the core commands but which are unlikely to be used by
38 SCMs layered over git.
39
40 Manipulation commands
41 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
42 link:git-checkout-cache.html[git-checkout-cache]::
43 Copy files from the cache to the working directory
44
45 link:git-commit-tree.html[git-commit-tree]::
46 Creates a new commit object
47
48 link:git-init-db.html[git-init-db]::
49 Creates an empty git object database
50
51 link:git-merge-base.html[git-merge-base]::
52 Finds as good a common ancestor as possible for a merge
53
54 link:git-mktag.html[git-mktag]::
55 Creates a tag object
56
57 link:git-read-tree.html[git-read-tree]::
58 Reads tree information into the directory cache
59
60 link:git-update-cache.html[git-update-cache]::
61 Modifies the index or directory cache
62
63 link:git-write-blob.html[git-write-blob]::
64 Creates a blob from a file
65
66 link:git-write-tree.html[git-write-tree]::
67 Creates a tree from the current cache
68
69 Interrogation commands
70 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
71 link:git-cat-file.html[git-cat-file]::
72 Provide content or type information for repository objects
73
74 link:git-check-files.html[git-check-files]::
75 Verify a list of files are up-to-date
76
77 link:git-diff-cache.html[git-diff-cache]::
78 Compares content and mode of blobs between the cache and repository
79
80 link:git-diff-files.html[git-diff-files]::
81 Compares files in the working tree and the cache
82
83 link:git-diff-tree.html[git-diff-tree]::
84 Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects
85
86 link:git-export.html[git-export]::
87 Exports each commit and a diff against each of its parents
88
89 link:git-fsck-cache.html[git-fsck-cache]::
90 Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database
91
92 link:git-ls-files.html[git-ls-files]::
93 Information about files in the cache/working directory
94
95 link:git-ls-tree.html[git-ls-tree]::
96 Displays a tree object in human readable form
97
98 link:git-merge-cache.html[git-merge-cache]::
99 Runs a merge for files needing merging
100
101 link:git-rev-list.html[git-rev-list]::
102 Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order
103
104 link:git-rev-tree.html[git-rev-tree]::
105 Provides the revision tree for one or more commits
106
107 link:git-tar-tree.html[git-tar-tree]::
108 Creates a tar archive of the files in the named tree
109
110 link:git-unpack-file.html[git-unpack-file]::
111 Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents
112
113 link:git-verify-pack.html[git-verify-pack]::
114 Validates packed GIT archive files
115
116 The interrogate commands may create files - and you can force them to
117 touch the working file set - but in general they don't
118
119
120 Ancilliary Commands
121 -------------------
122 Manipulators:
123
124 link:git-apply-patch-script.html[git-apply-patch-script]::
125 Sample script to apply the diffs from git-diff-*
126
127 link:git-convert-cache.html[git-convert-cache]::
128 Converts old-style GIT repository
129
130 link:git-http-pull.html[git-http-pull]::
131 Downloads a remote GIT repository via HTTP
132
133 link:git-local-pull.html[git-local-pull]::
134 Duplicates another GIT repository on a local system
135
136 link:git-merge-one-file-script.html[git-merge-one-file-script]::
137 The standard helper program to use with "git-merge-cache"
138
139 link:git-pull-script.html[git-pull-script]::
140 Script used by Linus to pull and merge a remote repository
141
142 link:git-prune-script.html[git-prune-script]::
143 Prunes all unreachable objects from the object database
144
145 link:git-resolve-script.html[git-resolve-script]::
146 Script used to merge two trees
147
148 link:git-tag-script.html[git-tag-script]::
149 An example script to create a tag object signed with GPG
150
151 link:git-ssh-pull.html[git-ssh-pull]::
152 Pulls from a remote repository over ssh connection
153
154 Interogators:
155
156 link:git-diff-helper.html[git-diff-helper]::
157 Generates patch format output for git-diff-*
158
159 link:git-ssh-push.html[git-ssh-push]::
160 Helper "server-side" program used by git-ssh-pull
161
162
163
164 Identifier Terminology
165 ----------------------
166 <object>::
167 Indicates the sha1 identifier for any type of object
168
169 <blob>::
170 Indicates a blob object sha1 identifier
171
172 <tree>::
173 Indicates a tree object sha1 identifier
174
175 <commit>::
176 Indicates a commit object sha1 identifier
177
178 <tree-ish>::
179 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object sha1 identifier. A
180 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
181 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
182 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
183
184 <type>::
185 Indicates that an object type is required.
186 Currently one of: blob/tree/commit/tag
187
188 <file>::
189 Indicates a filename - always relative to the root of
190 the tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.
191
192 Symbolic Identifiers
193 --------------------
194 Any git comand accepting any <object> can also use the following
195 symbolic notation:
196
197 HEAD::
198 indicates the head of the repository (ie the contents of
199 `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`)
200 <tag>::
201 a valid tag 'name'+
202 (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`)
203 <head>::
204 a valid head 'name'+
205 (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`)
206 <snap>::
207 a valid snapshot 'name'+
208 (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/snap/<snap>`)
209
210
211 File/Directory Structure
212 ------------------------
213 The git-core manipulates the following areas in the directory:
214
215 .git/ The base (overridden with $GIT_DIR)
216 objects/ The object base (overridden with $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY)
217 ??/ 'First 2 chars of object' directories
218
219 It can interrogate (but never updates) the following areas:
220
221 refs/ Directories containing symbolic names for objects
222 (each file contains the hex SHA1 + newline)
223 heads/ Commits which are heads of various sorts
224 tags/ Tags, by the tag name (or some local renaming of it)
225 snap/ ????
226 ... Everything else isn't shared
227 HEAD Symlink to refs/heads/<something>
228
229 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
230 GIT_DIR.
231
232 Terminology
233 -----------
234 Each line contains terms which you may see used interchangeably
235
236 object database, .git directory
237 directory cache, index
238 id, sha1, sha1-id, sha1 hash
239 type, tag
240
241
242 Environment Variables
243 ---------------------
244 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
245
246 The git Repository
247 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
248 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
249 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
250 git so take care if using Cogito etc
251
252 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
253 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
254 cache/index file. If not specified, the default of
255 `$GIT_DIR/index` is used.
256
257 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
258 If the object storage directory is specified via this
259 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
260 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
261 directory is used.
262
263 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
264 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
265 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
266 specifies a ":" seperated list of git object directories which
267 can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
268 written to these directories.
269
270 'GIT_DIR'::
271 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it specifies
272 a path to use instead of `./.git` for the base of the
273 repository.
274
275 git Commits
276 ~~~~~~~~~~~
277 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
278 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
279 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
280 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
281 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
282 see link:git-commit-tree.html[git-commit-tree]
283
284 git Diffs
285 ~~~~~~~~~
286 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
287 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
288 see the "generating patches" section in :
289 link:git-diff-cache.html[git-diff-cache];
290 link:git-diff-files.html[git-diff-files];
291 link:git-diff-tree.html[git-diff-tree]
292
293 Discussion
294 ----------
295 include::../README[]
296
297 Author
298 ------
299 Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
300
301 Documentation
302 --------------
303 Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
304
305 GIT
306 ---
307 Part of the link:git.html[git] suite
308