Git 2.2
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.2.0/git.html[documentation for release 2.2]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
50
51 * link:v2.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.3]
52
53 * release notes for
54 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
55 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
56 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
57 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
58
59 * link:v2.0.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.4]
60
61 * release notes for
62 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
63 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
64 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
65 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
66 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
67
68 * link:v1.9.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.4]
69
70 * release notes for
71 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
72 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
73 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
74 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
75 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
76
77 * link:v1.8.5.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.5]
78
79 * release notes for
80 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
81 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
82 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
83 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
84 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
85 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
86
87 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
88
89 * release notes for
90 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
91 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
92 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
93 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
94 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
95 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
96
97 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
98
99 * release notes for
100 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
101 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
102 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
103 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
104 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
105
106 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
107
108 * release notes for
109 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
110 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
111 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
112 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
113
114 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
115
116 * release notes for
117 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
118 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
119 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
120 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
121 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
122 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
123 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
124
125 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
126
127 * release notes for
128 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
129 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
130 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
131 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
132
133 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
134
135 * release notes for
136 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
137 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
138 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
139 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
141
142 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
143
144 * release notes for
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
146 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
147 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
148 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
149 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
150 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
151 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
153
154 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
155
156 * release notes for
157 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
158 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
159 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
160 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
163
164 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
165
166 * release notes for
167 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
168 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
169 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
170 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
171 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
175
176 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
177
178 * release notes for
179 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
180 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
181 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
182 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
183 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
186
187 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
188
189 * release notes for
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
193 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
194 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
195 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
196 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
197 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
198
199 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
200
201 * release notes for
202 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
203 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
204 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
205 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
206 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
207 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
209
210 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
211
212 * release notes for
213 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
214 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
216 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
217 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
218
219 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
220
221 * release notes for
222 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
223 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
224 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
225 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
226 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
227 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
228
229 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
230
231 * release notes for
232 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
233 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
234 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
235 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
236 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
237 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
238
239 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
240
241 * release notes for
242 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
243 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
244 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
245 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
246 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
247 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
248
249 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
250
251 * release notes for
252 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
253 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
254 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
255 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
256 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
257
258 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
259
260 * release notes for
261 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
262 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
263 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
264 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
265 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
266 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
267 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
268 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
269 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
270 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
271
272 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
273
274 * release notes for
275 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
276 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
277 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
278 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
279
280 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
281
282 * release notes for
283 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
284 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
285 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
286 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
287 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
288 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
289 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
290 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
291 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
292 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
293
294 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
295
296 * release notes for
297 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
298 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
299 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
300 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
301 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
302 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
303
304 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
305
306 * release notes for
307 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
308 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
309 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
310 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
311 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
312
313 * release notes for
314 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
315 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
316 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
317 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
318 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
319 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
320
321 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
322
323 * release notes for
324 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
325 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
326 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
327 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
328
329 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
330
331 * release notes for
332 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
333 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
334 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
335 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
336 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
337 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
338 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
339
340 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
341
342 * release notes for
343 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
344 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
345 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
346 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
347 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
348 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
349 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
350
351 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
352
353 * release notes for
354 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
355 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
356 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
357 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
358 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
359 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
360 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
361
362 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
363
364 * release notes for
365 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
366 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
367 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
368 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
369 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
370 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
371 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
372 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
373
374 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
375
376 * release notes for
377 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
378 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
379 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
380 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
381 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
382 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
383 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
386
387 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
388
389 * release notes for
390 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
391 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
392 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
393 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
394 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
396
397 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
398
399 * release notes for
400 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
401 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
402 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
403 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
404 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
405 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
406 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
407
408 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
409
410 * release notes for
411 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
412 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
413 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
414 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
415 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
416 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
417 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
418
419 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
420 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
421 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
422 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
423
424 ============
425
426 endif::stalenotes[]
427
428 OPTIONS
429 -------
430 --version::
431 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
432
433 --help::
434 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
435 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
436 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
437 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
438 +
439 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
440 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
441 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
442 help ...`.
443
444 -C <path>::
445 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
446 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
447 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
448 <path>`.
449 +
450 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
451 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
452 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
453 example the following invocations are equivalent:
454
455 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
456 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
457
458 -c <name>=<value>::
459 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
460 given will override values from configuration files.
461 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
462 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
463 +
464 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
465 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
466 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
467 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
468
469 --exec-path[=<path>]::
470 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
471 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
472 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
473 the current setting and then exit.
474
475 --html-path::
476 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
477 documentation is installed and exit.
478
479 --man-path::
480 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
481 this version of Git and exit.
482
483 --info-path::
484 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
485 version of Git are installed and exit.
486
487 -p::
488 --paginate::
489 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
490 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
491 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
492 below).
493
494 --no-pager::
495 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
496
497 --git-dir=<path>::
498 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
499 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
500 path or relative path to current working directory.
501
502 --work-tree=<path>::
503 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
504 or a path relative to the current working directory.
505 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
506 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
507 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
508 more detailed discussion).
509
510 --namespace=<path>::
511 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
512 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
513 variable.
514
515 --bare::
516 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
517 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
518 directory.
519
520 --no-replace-objects::
521 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
522 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
523
524 --literal-pathspecs::
525 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
526 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
527 variable to `1`.
528
529 --glob-pathspecs::
530 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
531 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
532 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
533 magic ":(literal)"
534
535 --noglob-pathspecs::
536 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
537 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
538 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
539 magic ":(glob)"
540
541 --icase-pathspecs::
542 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
543 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
544
545 GIT COMMANDS
546 ------------
547
548 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
549 ("plumbing") commands.
550
551 High-level commands (porcelain)
552 -------------------------------
553
554 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
555 ancillary user utilities.
556
557 Main porcelain commands
558 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
559
560 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
561
562 Ancillary Commands
563 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
564 Manipulators:
565
566 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
567
568 Interrogators:
569
570 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
571
572
573 Interacting with Others
574 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
575
576 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
577 people via patch over e-mail.
578
579 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
580
581
582 Low-level commands (plumbing)
583 -----------------------------
584
585 Although Git includes its
586 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
587 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
588 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
589 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
590
591 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
592 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
593 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
594 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
595 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
596 end user experience.
597
598 The following description divides
599 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
600 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
601 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
602 repositories.
603
604
605 Manipulation commands
606 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
607
608 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
609
610
611 Interrogation commands
612 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
613
614 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
615
616 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
617 the working tree.
618
619
620 Synching repositories
621 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
622
623 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
624
625 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
626 typically do not use them directly.
627
628 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
629
630
631 Internal helper commands
632 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
633
634 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
635 users typically do not use them directly.
636
637 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
638
639
640 Configuration Mechanism
641 -----------------------
642
643 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
644 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
645 like this:
646
647 ------------
648 #
649 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
650 #
651
652 ; core variables
653 [core]
654 ; Don't trust file modes
655 filemode = false
656
657 ; user identity
658 [user]
659 name = "Junio C Hamano"
660 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
661
662 ------------
663
664 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
665 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
666 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
667
668
669 Identifier Terminology
670 ----------------------
671 <object>::
672 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
673
674 <blob>::
675 Indicates a blob object name.
676
677 <tree>::
678 Indicates a tree object name.
679
680 <commit>::
681 Indicates a commit object name.
682
683 <tree-ish>::
684 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
685 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
686 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
687 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
688
689 <commit-ish>::
690 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
691 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
692 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
693 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
694
695 <type>::
696 Indicates that an object type is required.
697 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
698
699 <file>::
700 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
701 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
702
703 Symbolic Identifiers
704 --------------------
705 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
706 symbolic notation:
707
708 HEAD::
709 indicates the head of the current branch.
710
711 <tag>::
712 a valid tag 'name'
713 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
714
715 <head>::
716 a valid head 'name'
717 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
718
719 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
720 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
721
722
723 File/Directory Structure
724 ------------------------
725
726 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
727
728 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
729
730 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
731 `$GIT_DIR`.
732
733
734 Terminology
735 -----------
736 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
737
738
739 Environment Variables
740 ---------------------
741 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
742
743 The Git Repository
744 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
745 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
746 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
747 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
748
749 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
750 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
751 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
752 is used.
753
754 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
755 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
756 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
757 files. By default index file version [23] is used.
758
759 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
760 If the object storage directory is specified via this
761 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
762 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
763 directory is used.
764
765 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
766 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
767 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
768 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
769 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
770 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
771
772 'GIT_DIR'::
773 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
774 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
775 for the base of the repository.
776 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
777
778 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
779 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
780 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
781 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
782
783 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
784 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
785 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
786
787 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
788 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
789 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
790 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
791 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
792 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
793 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
794 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
795 might be present in order to compare them with the current
796 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
797 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
798 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
799 e.g.,
800 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
801
802 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
803 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
804 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
805 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
806 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
807 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
808 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
809 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
810 command line.
811
812 Git Commits
813 ~~~~~~~~~~~
814 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
815 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
816 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
817 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
818 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
819 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
820 'EMAIL'::
821 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
822
823 Git Diffs
824 ~~~~~~~~~
825 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
826 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
827 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
828 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
829 value passed on the Git diff command line.
830
831 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
832 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
833 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
834 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
835 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
836
837 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
838 +
839 where:
840
841 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
842 contents of <old|new>,
843 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
844 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
845 +
846 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
847 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
848 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
849 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
850 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
851 +
852 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
853 parameter, <path>.
854 +
855 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
856 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
857
858 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
859 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
860
861 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
862 The total number of paths.
863
864 other
865 ~~~~~
866 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
867 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
868 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
869 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
870
871 'GIT_PAGER'::
872 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
873 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
874 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
875 linkgit:git-config[1].
876
877 'GIT_EDITOR'::
878 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
879 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
880 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
881 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
882
883 'GIT_SSH'::
884 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
885 and 'git push' will use this command instead
886 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
887 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
888 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
889 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
890 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
891 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
892 than the default SSH port.
893 +
894 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
895 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
896 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
897 +
898 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
899 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
900 for further details.
901
902 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
903 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
904 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
905 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
906 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
907 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
908
909 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
910 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
911 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
912 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
913 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
914 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
915 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
916
917 'GIT_FLUSH'::
918 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
919 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
920 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
921 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
922 flushed. If this
923 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
924 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
925 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
926 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
927
928 'GIT_TRACE'::
929 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
930 command execution and external command execution.
931 +
932 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
933 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
934 stderr.
935 +
936 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
937 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
938 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
939 trace messages into this file descriptor.
940 +
941 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
942 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
943 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
944 into it.
945 +
946 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
947 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
948
949 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
950 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
951 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
952 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
953 pack-related performance problems.
954 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
955
956 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
957 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
958 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
959 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
960 starting with "PACK".
961 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
962
963 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
964 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
965 time of each Git command.
966 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
967
968 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
969 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
970 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
971 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
972
973 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
974 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
975 cloning of shallow repositories.
976 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
977
978 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
979 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
980 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
981 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
982 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
983 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
984 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
985 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
986
987 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
988 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
989 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
990
991 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
992 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
993 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
994
995 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
996 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
997 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
998
999 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1000 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1001 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1002 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1003 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1004 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1005 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1006 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1007 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1008
1009
1010 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1011 ------------------------
1012
1013 More detail on the following is available from the
1014 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1015 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1016
1017 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1018 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1019 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1020 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1021 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1022 as tags and branch heads.
1023
1024 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1025 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1026 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1027 and some number of parent commits.
1028
1029 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1030 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1031 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1032 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1033
1034 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1035 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1036 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1037 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1038 purpose.
1039
1040 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1041 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1042
1043 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1044 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1045 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1046 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1047 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1048 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1049
1050 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1051 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1052 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1053 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1054 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1055 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1056 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1057 content stored in the index.
1058
1059 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1060 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1061 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1062
1063 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1064 ---------------------
1065
1066 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1067 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1068 for a first-time user.
1069
1070 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1071 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1072 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1073
1074 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1075
1076 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1077 examples.
1078
1079 The internals are documented in the
1080 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1081
1082 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1083 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1084
1085
1086 Authors
1087 -------
1088 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1089 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1090 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1091 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1092
1093 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1094 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1095 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1096
1097 Reporting Bugs
1098 --------------
1099
1100 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1101 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1102 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1103
1104 SEE ALSO
1105 --------
1106 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1107 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1108 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1109 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1110 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1111
1112 GIT
1113 ---
1114 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite