rev-parse --branches/--tags/--remotes=pattern
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
1 Commit Formatting
2 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
5 Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
6 more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
7 linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
8 endif::git-rev-list[]
9
10 include::pretty-options.txt[]
11
12 --relative-date::
13
14 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
15
16 --date={relative,local,default,iso,rfc,short,raw}::
17
18 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
19 as when using "--pretty". `log.date` config variable sets a default
20 value for log command's --date option.
21 +
22 `--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
23 e.g. "2 hours ago".
24 +
25 `--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local timezone.
26 +
27 `--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
28 +
29 `--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
30 format, often found in E-mail messages.
31 +
32 `--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
33 +
34 `--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw git format `%s %z` format.
35 +
36 `--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
37 (either committer's or author's).
38
39 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
40 --header::
41
42 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
43 separated with a NUL character.
44 endif::git-rev-list[]
45
46 --parents::
47
48 Print the parents of the commit. Also enables parent
49 rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
50
51 --children::
52
53 Print the children of the commit. Also enables parent
54 rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
55
56 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
57 --timestamp::
58 Print the raw commit timestamp.
59 endif::git-rev-list[]
60
61 --left-right::
62
63 Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
64 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
65 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
66 commits are prefixed with `-`.
67 +
68 For example, if you have this topology:
69 +
70 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
71 y---b---b branch B
72 / \ /
73 / .
74 / / \
75 o---x---a---a branch A
76 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
77 +
78 you would get an output like this:
79 +
80 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
81 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
82
83 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
84 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
85 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
86 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
87 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
88 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
89 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
90
91 --graph::
92
93 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
94 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
95 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
96 to be drawn properly.
97 +
98 This implies the '--topo-order' option by default, but the
99 '--date-order' option may also be specified.
100
101 ifndef::git-rev-list[]
102 Diff Formatting
103 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
104
105 Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
106 Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
107 options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
108
109 -c::
110
111 This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed. It shows
112 the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
113 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
114 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
115 which were modified from all parents.
116
117 --cc::
118
119 This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
120 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
121 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
122 one of them without modification.
123
124 -r::
125
126 Show recursive diffs.
127
128 -t::
129
130 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
131 endif::git-rev-list[]
132
133 Commit Limiting
134 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
135
136 Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
137 special notations explained in the description, additional commit
138 limiting may be applied.
139
140 --
141
142 -n 'number'::
143 --max-count=<number>::
144
145 Limit the number of commits output.
146
147 --skip=<number>::
148
149 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
150
151 --since=<date>::
152 --after=<date>::
153
154 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
155
156 --until=<date>::
157 --before=<date>::
158
159 Show commits older than a specific date.
160
161 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
162 --max-age=<timestamp>::
163 --min-age=<timestamp>::
164
165 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
166 endif::git-rev-list[]
167
168 --author=<pattern>::
169 --committer=<pattern>::
170
171 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
172 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
173
174 --grep=<pattern>::
175
176 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
177 matches the specified pattern (regular expression).
178
179 --all-match::
180 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
181 --author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one.
182
183 -i::
184 --regexp-ignore-case::
185
186 Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.
187
188 -E::
189 --extended-regexp::
190
191 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
192 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
193
194 -F::
195 --fixed-strings::
196
197 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
198 pattern as a regular expression).
199
200 --remove-empty::
201
202 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
203
204 --merges::
205
206 Print only merge commits.
207
208 --no-merges::
209
210 Do not print commits with more than one parent.
211
212 --first-parent::
213 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
214 commit. This option can give a better overview when
215 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
216 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
217 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
218 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
219 brought in to your history by such a merge.
220
221 --not::
222
223 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
224 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
225
226 --all::
227
228 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/` are listed on the
229 command line as '<commit>'.
230
231 --branches[=pattern]::
232
233 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` are listed
234 on the command line as '<commit>'. If `pattern` is given, limit
235 branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?',
236 '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is impiled.
237
238 --tags[=pattern]::
239
240 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are listed
241 on the command line as '<commit>'. If `pattern` is given, limit
242 tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?', '*',
243 or '[', '/*' at the end is impiled.
244
245 --remotes[=pattern]::
246
247 Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes` are listed
248 on the command line as '<commit>'. If `pattern`is given, limit
249 remote tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
250 If pattern lacks '?', '*', or '[', '/*' at the end is impiled.
251
252 --glob=glob-pattern::
253 Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob `glob-pattern`
254 are listed on the command line as '<commit>'. Leading 'refs/',
255 is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '*',
256 or '[', '/*' at the end is impiled.
257
258
259 ifndef::git-rev-list[]
260 --bisect::
261
262 Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/bad`
263 was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
264 bisection refs `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
265 line.
266 endif::git-rev-list[]
267
268 --stdin::
269
270 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
271 line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
272 seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
273 result.
274
275 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
276 --quiet::
277
278 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
279 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
280 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
281 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
282 to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.
283 endif::git-rev-list[]
284
285 --cherry-pick::
286
287 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
288 another commit on the "other side" when the set of
289 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
290 +
291 For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
292 to list all commits on only one side of them is with
293 `--left-right`, like the example above in the description of
294 that option. It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked
295 from the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked
296 from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
297 excluded from the output.
298
299 -g::
300 --walk-reflogs::
301
302 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
303 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
304 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
305 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
306 nor 'commit1...commit2' notations cannot be used).
307 +
308 With '\--pretty' format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
309 this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
310 taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
311 used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
312 'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
313 instead. Under '\--pretty=oneline', the commit message is
314 prefixed with this information on the same line.
315 This option cannot be combined with '\--reverse'.
316 See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
317
318 --merge::
319
320 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
321 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
322
323 --boundary::
324
325 Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
326 not shown.
327
328 --
329
330 History Simplification
331 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
332
333 Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
334 commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
335 'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
336 is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
337
338 The following options select the commits to be shown:
339
340 <paths>::
341
342 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
343
344 --simplify-by-decoration::
345
346 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
347
348 Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
349
350 The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
351
352 Default mode::
353
354 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
355 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
356 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
357 with the same content)
358
359 --full-history::
360
361 As the default mode but does not prune some history.
362
363 --dense::
364
365 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
366 meaningful history.
367
368 --sparse::
369
370 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
371
372 --simplify-merges::
373
374 Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
375 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
376 commits contributing to this merge.
377
378 A more detailed explanation follows.
379
380 Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
381 that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
382 filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
383
384 In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
385 illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
386 that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
387 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
388 .-A---M---N---O---P
389 / / / / /
390 I B C D E
391 \ / / / /
392 `-------------'
393 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
394 The horizontal line of history A--P is taken to be the first parent of
395 each merge. The commits are:
396
397 * `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
398 "asdf", and a file `quux` exists with contents "quux". Initial
399 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
400
401 * In `A`, `foo` contains just "foo".
402
403 * `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
404 hence TREESAME to all parents.
405
406 * `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to "foobar",
407 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
408
409 * `D` sets `foo` to "baz". Its merge `O` combines the strings from
410 `N` and `D` to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
411
412 * `E` changes `quux` to "xyzzy", and its merge `P` combines the
413 strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting, `P` is
414 TREESAME to all parents.
415
416 'rev-list' walks backwards through history, including or excluding
417 commits based on whether '\--full-history' and/or parent rewriting
418 (via '\--parents' or '\--children') are used. The following settings
419 are available.
420
421 Default mode::
422
423 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
424 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below). If the
425 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
426 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
427 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
428 parents.
429 +
430 This results in:
431 +
432 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
433 .-A---N---O
434 / /
435 I---------D
436 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
437 +
438 Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
439 available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
440 considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
441 empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
442 +
443 Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
444 not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
445 parent lines.
446
447 --full-history without parent rewriting::
448
449 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
450 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
451 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
452 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
453 the example, we get
454 +
455 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
456 I A B N D O
457 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
458 +
459 `P` and `M` were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent. `E`,
460 `C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
461 do not appear.
462 +
463 Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
464 about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
465 them disconnected.
466
467 --full-history with parent rewriting::
468
469 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
470 (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below).
471 +
472 Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
473 Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
474 themselves. This results in
475 +
476 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
477 .-A---M---N---O---P
478 / / / / /
479 I B / D /
480 \ / / / /
481 `-------------'
482 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
483 +
484 Compare to '\--full-history' without rewriting above. Note that `E`
485 was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
486 rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
487 `N`. Note also that `P` was included despite being TREESAME.
488
489 In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
490 affects inclusion:
491
492 --dense::
493
494 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
495 to any parent.
496
497 --sparse::
498
499 All commits that are walked are included.
500 +
501 Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
502 one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
503 sides of the merge are never walked.
504
505 Finally, there is a fourth simplification mode available:
506
507 --simplify-merges::
508
509 First, build a history graph in the same way that
510 '\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
511 +
512 Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
513 history according to the following rules:
514 +
515 --
516 * Set `C'` to `C`.
517 +
518 * Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
519 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
520 remove duplicates.
521 +
522 * If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
523 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
524 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
525 --
526 +
527 The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
528 '\--full-history' with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
529 +
530 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
531 .-A---M---N---O
532 / / /
533 I B D
534 \ / /
535 `---------'
536 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
537 +
538 Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '\--full-history':
539 +
540 --
541 * `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
542 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
543 +
544 * `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
545 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
546 --
547
548 The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
549 big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
550 that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
551 (in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
552 above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
553 contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
554 commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
555
556 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
557 Bisection Helpers
558 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
559
560 --bisect::
561
562 Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
563 included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
564 `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
565 exists) and the good bisection refs `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/good-*` are
566 added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
567 are no refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/`, if
568
569 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
570 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
571 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
572
573 outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
574
575 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
576 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
577 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
578 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
579
580 would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
581 introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
582 generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
583 one.
584
585 --bisect-vars::
586
587 This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
588 `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
589 text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
590 name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
591 expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
592 to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
593 `bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
594 number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
595 `bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
596 `bisect_all`.
597
598 --bisect-all::
599
600 This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
601 commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
602 commits. Refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
603 from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
604 `--bisect`.)
605 +
606 This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
607 test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
608 may not compile for example).
609 +
610 This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
611 after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
612 `--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
613 endif::git-rev-list[]
614
615
616 Commit Ordering
617 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
618
619 By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
620
621 --topo-order::
622
623 This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
624 descendant commits are shown before their parents).
625
626 --date-order::
627
628 This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
629 parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
630 are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
631
632 --reverse::
633
634 Output the commits in reverse order.
635 Cannot be combined with '\--walk-reflogs'.
636
637 Object Traversal
638 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
639
640 These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
641
642 --objects::
643
644 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
645 commits. '--objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
646 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
647 object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
648
649 --objects-edge::
650
651 Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
652 commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
653 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
654 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
655 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
656
657 --unpacked::
658
659 Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
660 in packs.
661
662 --no-walk::
663
664 Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.
665
666 --do-walk::
667
668 Overrides a previous --no-walk.