af306209e936e0387e08d779815f995988565cc4
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.3.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.3]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
50 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
51 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
52 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
53
54 * link:v2.2.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.2]
55
56 * release notes for
57 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
58 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
59 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
60
61 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
62
63 * release notes for
64 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
65 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
66 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
67 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
68 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
69
70 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
71
72 * release notes for
73 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
74 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
75 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
76 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
77 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
78 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
79
80 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
81
82 * release notes for
83 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
84 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
85 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
86 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
87 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
88 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
89
90 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
91
92 * release notes for
93 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
94 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
95 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
96 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
97 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
98 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
99 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
100
101 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
102
103 * release notes for
104 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
105 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
106 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
107 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
108 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
109 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
110
111 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
112
113 * release notes for
114 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
115 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
116 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
117 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
118 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
119
120 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
121
122 * release notes for
123 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
124 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
125 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
126 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
127
128 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
129
130 * release notes for
131 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
132 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
133 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
134 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
135 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
136 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
137 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
138
139 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
140
141 * release notes for
142 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
143 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
144 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
145 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
146
147 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
148
149 * release notes for
150 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
151 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
155
156 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
157
158 * release notes for
159 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
160 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
165 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
166 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
167
168 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
169
170 * release notes for
171 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
177
178 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
179
180 * release notes for
181 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
182 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
183 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
188 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
189
190 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
191
192 * release notes for
193 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
194 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
195 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
196 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
197 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
198 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
199 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
200
201 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
202
203 * release notes for
204 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
205 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
206 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
207 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
209 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
210 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
211 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
212
213 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
214
215 * release notes for
216 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
217 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
218 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
219 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
220 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
221 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
222 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
223
224 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
225
226 * release notes for
227 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
228 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
229 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
230 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
231 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
232
233 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
234
235 * release notes for
236 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
237 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
238 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
239 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
240 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
241 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
242
243 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
244
245 * release notes for
246 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
247 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
249 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
250 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
251 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
252
253 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
254
255 * release notes for
256 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
257 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
258 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
259 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
260 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
261 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
262
263 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
264
265 * release notes for
266 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
267 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
268 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
269 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
270 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
271
272 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
273
274 * release notes for
275 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
276 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
277 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
278 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
279 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
280 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
281 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
282 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
283 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
284 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
285
286 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
287
288 * release notes for
289 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
290 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
291 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
292 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
293
294 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
295
296 * release notes for
297 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
298 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
299 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
300 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
301 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
302 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
303 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
304 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
305 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
306 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
307
308 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
309
310 * release notes for
311 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
312 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
313 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
314 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
315 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
316 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
317
318 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
319
320 * release notes for
321 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
322 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
323 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
324 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
325 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
326
327 * release notes for
328 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
329 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
330 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
331 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
332 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
333 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
334
335 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
336
337 * release notes for
338 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
339 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
340 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
341 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
342
343 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
344
345 * release notes for
346 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
347 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
348 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
349 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
350 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
351 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
352 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
353
354 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
355
356 * release notes for
357 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
358 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
359 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
360 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
361 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
362 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
363 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
364
365 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
366
367 * release notes for
368 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
369 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
370 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
371 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
372 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
373 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
374 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
375
376 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
377
378 * release notes for
379 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
380 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
381 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
382 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
383 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
386 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
387
388 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
389
390 * release notes for
391 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
392 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
393 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
394 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
396 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
397 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
398 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
399 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
400
401 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
402
403 * release notes for
404 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
405 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
406 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
407 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
408 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
409 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
410
411 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
412
413 * release notes for
414 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
415 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
416 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
417 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
418 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
420 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
421
422 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
423
424 * release notes for
425 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
426 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
427 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
428 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
429 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
430 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
431 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
432
433 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
434 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
435 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
436 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
437
438 ============
439
440 endif::stalenotes[]
441
442 OPTIONS
443 -------
444 --version::
445 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
446
447 --help::
448 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
449 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
450 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
451 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
452 +
453 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
454 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
455 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
456 help ...`.
457
458 -C <path>::
459 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
460 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
461 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
462 <path>`.
463 +
464 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
465 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
466 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
467 example the following invocations are equivalent:
468
469 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
470 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
471
472 -c <name>=<value>::
473 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
474 given will override values from configuration files.
475 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
476 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
477 +
478 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
479 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
480 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
481 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
482
483 --exec-path[=<path>]::
484 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
485 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
486 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
487 the current setting and then exit.
488
489 --html-path::
490 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
491 documentation is installed and exit.
492
493 --man-path::
494 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
495 this version of Git and exit.
496
497 --info-path::
498 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
499 version of Git are installed and exit.
500
501 -p::
502 --paginate::
503 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
504 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
505 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
506 below).
507
508 --no-pager::
509 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
510
511 --git-dir=<path>::
512 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
513 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
514 path or relative path to current working directory.
515
516 --work-tree=<path>::
517 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
518 or a path relative to the current working directory.
519 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
520 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
521 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
522 more detailed discussion).
523
524 --namespace=<path>::
525 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
526 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
527 variable.
528
529 --bare::
530 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
531 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
532 directory.
533
534 --no-replace-objects::
535 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
536 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
537
538 --literal-pathspecs::
539 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
540 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
541 variable to `1`.
542
543 --glob-pathspecs::
544 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
545 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
546 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
547 magic ":(literal)"
548
549 --noglob-pathspecs::
550 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
551 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
552 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
553 magic ":(glob)"
554
555 --icase-pathspecs::
556 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
557 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
558
559 GIT COMMANDS
560 ------------
561
562 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
563 ("plumbing") commands.
564
565 High-level commands (porcelain)
566 -------------------------------
567
568 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
569 ancillary user utilities.
570
571 Main porcelain commands
572 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
573
574 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
575
576 Ancillary Commands
577 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
578 Manipulators:
579
580 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
581
582 Interrogators:
583
584 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
585
586
587 Interacting with Others
588 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
589
590 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
591 people via patch over e-mail.
592
593 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
594
595
596 Low-level commands (plumbing)
597 -----------------------------
598
599 Although Git includes its
600 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
601 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
602 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
603 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
604
605 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
606 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
607 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
608 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
609 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
610 end user experience.
611
612 The following description divides
613 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
614 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
615 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
616 repositories.
617
618
619 Manipulation commands
620 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
621
622 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
623
624
625 Interrogation commands
626 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
627
628 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
629
630 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
631 the working tree.
632
633
634 Synching repositories
635 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
636
637 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
638
639 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
640 typically do not use them directly.
641
642 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
643
644
645 Internal helper commands
646 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
647
648 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
649 users typically do not use them directly.
650
651 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
652
653
654 Configuration Mechanism
655 -----------------------
656
657 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
658 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
659 like this:
660
661 ------------
662 #
663 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
664 #
665
666 ; core variables
667 [core]
668 ; Don't trust file modes
669 filemode = false
670
671 ; user identity
672 [user]
673 name = "Junio C Hamano"
674 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
675
676 ------------
677
678 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
679 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
680 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
681
682
683 Identifier Terminology
684 ----------------------
685 <object>::
686 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
687
688 <blob>::
689 Indicates a blob object name.
690
691 <tree>::
692 Indicates a tree object name.
693
694 <commit>::
695 Indicates a commit object name.
696
697 <tree-ish>::
698 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
699 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
700 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
701 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
702
703 <commit-ish>::
704 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
705 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
706 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
707 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
708
709 <type>::
710 Indicates that an object type is required.
711 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
712
713 <file>::
714 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
715 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
716
717 Symbolic Identifiers
718 --------------------
719 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
720 symbolic notation:
721
722 HEAD::
723 indicates the head of the current branch.
724
725 <tag>::
726 a valid tag 'name'
727 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
728
729 <head>::
730 a valid head 'name'
731 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
732
733 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
734 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
735
736
737 File/Directory Structure
738 ------------------------
739
740 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
741
742 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
743
744 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
745 `$GIT_DIR`.
746
747
748 Terminology
749 -----------
750 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
751
752
753 Environment Variables
754 ---------------------
755 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
756
757 The Git Repository
758 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
759 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
760 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
761 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
762
763 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
764 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
765 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
766 is used.
767
768 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
769 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
770 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
771 files. By default index file version [23] is used.
772
773 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
774 If the object storage directory is specified via this
775 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
776 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
777 directory is used.
778
779 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
780 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
781 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
782 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
783 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
784 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
785
786 'GIT_DIR'::
787 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
788 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
789 for the base of the repository.
790 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
791
792 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
793 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
794 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
795 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
796
797 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
798 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
799 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
800
801 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
802 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
803 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
804 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
805 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
806 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
807 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
808 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
809 might be present in order to compare them with the current
810 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
811 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
812 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
813 e.g.,
814 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
815
816 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
817 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
818 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
819 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
820 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
821 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
822 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
823 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
824 command line.
825
826 Git Commits
827 ~~~~~~~~~~~
828 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
829 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
830 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
831 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
832 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
833 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
834 'EMAIL'::
835 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
836
837 Git Diffs
838 ~~~~~~~~~
839 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
840 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
841 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
842 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
843 value passed on the Git diff command line.
844
845 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
846 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
847 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
848 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
849 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
850
851 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
852 +
853 where:
854
855 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
856 contents of <old|new>,
857 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
858 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
859 +
860 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
861 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
862 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
863 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
864 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
865 +
866 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
867 parameter, <path>.
868 +
869 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
870 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
871
872 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
873 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
874
875 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
876 The total number of paths.
877
878 other
879 ~~~~~
880 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
881 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
882 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
883 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
884
885 'GIT_PAGER'::
886 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
887 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
888 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
889 linkgit:git-config[1].
890
891 'GIT_EDITOR'::
892 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
893 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
894 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
895 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
896
897 'GIT_SSH'::
898 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
899 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
900 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
901 when they need to connect to a remote system.
902 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
903 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
904 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
905 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
906 something other than the default SSH port.
907 +
908 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
909 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
910 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
911 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
912 needed).
913 +
914 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
915 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
916 for further details.
917
918 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
919 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
920 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
921 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
922 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
923 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
924
925 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
926 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
927 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
928
929 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
930 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
931 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
932 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
933 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
934 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
935 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
936
937 'GIT_FLUSH'::
938 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
939 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
940 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
941 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
942 flushed. If this
943 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
944 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
945 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
946 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
947
948 'GIT_TRACE'::
949 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
950 command execution and external command execution.
951 +
952 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
953 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
954 stderr.
955 +
956 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
957 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
958 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
959 trace messages into this file descriptor.
960 +
961 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
962 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
963 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
964 into it.
965 +
966 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
967 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
968
969 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
970 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
971 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
972 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
973 pack-related performance problems.
974 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
975
976 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
977 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
978 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
979 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
980 starting with "PACK".
981 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
982
983 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
984 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
985 time of each Git command.
986 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
987
988 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
989 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
990 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
991 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
992
993 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
994 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
995 cloning of shallow repositories.
996 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
997
998 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
999 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1000 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1001 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1002 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1003 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1004 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1005 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1006
1007 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1008 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1009 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1010
1011 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1012 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1013 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1014
1015 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1016 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1017 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1018
1019 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1020 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1021 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1022 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1023 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1024 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1025 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1026 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1027 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1028
1029
1030 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1031 ------------------------
1032
1033 More detail on the following is available from the
1034 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1035 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1036
1037 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1038 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1039 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1040 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1041 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1042 as tags and branch heads.
1043
1044 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1045 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1046 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1047 and some number of parent commits.
1048
1049 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1050 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1051 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1052 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1053
1054 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1055 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1056 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1057 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1058 purpose.
1059
1060 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1061 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1062
1063 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1064 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1065 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1066 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1067 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1068 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1069
1070 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1071 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1072 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1073 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1074 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1075 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1076 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1077 content stored in the index.
1078
1079 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1080 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1081 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1082
1083 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1084 ---------------------
1085
1086 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1087 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1088 for a first-time user.
1089
1090 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1091 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1092 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1093
1094 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1095
1096 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1097 examples.
1098
1099 The internals are documented in the
1100 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1101
1102 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1103 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1104
1105
1106 Authors
1107 -------
1108 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1109 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1110 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1111 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1112
1113 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1114 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1115 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1116
1117 Reporting Bugs
1118 --------------
1119
1120 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1121 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1122 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1123
1124 SEE ALSO
1125 --------
1126 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1127 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1128 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1129 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1130 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1131
1132 GIT
1133 ---
1134 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite