i18n: fix auto detection of gettext scheme for shell scripts
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
26 "man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
27 also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
28 the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
29 introduction.
30
31 The '<command>' is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
32 as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
35 documentation can be viewed at
36 `http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
37
38 ifdef::stalenotes[]
39 [NOTE]
40 ============
41
42 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
43 unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
44 branch of the `git.git` repository.
45 Documentation for older releases are available here:
46
47 * link:v1.7.9.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.3]
48
49 * release notes for
50 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
51 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
52 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
53 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
54
55 * link:v1.7.8.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.4]
56
57 * release notes for
58 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
59 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
60 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
61 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
62 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
63
64 * link:v1.7.7.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.6]
65
66 * release notes for
67 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
68 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
69 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
70 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
71 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
72 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
73 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
74
75 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
76
77 * release notes for
78 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
79 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
80 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
81 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
82 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
83 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
84 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
85
86 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
87
88 * release notes for
89 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
90 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
91 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
92 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
93 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
94
95 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
96
97 * release notes for
98 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
99 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
100 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
101 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
102 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
103 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
104
105 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
106
107 * release notes for
108 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
109 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
110 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
111 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
112 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
113 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
114
115 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
116
117 * release notes for
118 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
119 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
120 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
121 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
122 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
123 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
124
125 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
126
127 * release notes for
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
129 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
130 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
131 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
132 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
133
134 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
135
136 * release notes for
137 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
138 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
139 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
141 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
146 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
147
148 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
149
150 * release notes for
151 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
152 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
153 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
154 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
155
156 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
157
158 * release notes for
159 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
160 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
161 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
162 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
163 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
164 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
165 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
166 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
167 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
168 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
169
170 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
171
172 * release notes for
173 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
174 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
175 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
176 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
177 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
178 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
179
180 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
181
182 * release notes for
183 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
184 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
185 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
186 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
187 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
188
189 * release notes for
190 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
191 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
192 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
193 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
194 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
195 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
196
197 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
198
199 * release notes for
200 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
201 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
202 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
203 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
204
205 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
206
207 * release notes for
208 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
211 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
212 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
213 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
214 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
215
216 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
217
218 * release notes for
219 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
220 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
221 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
222 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
223 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
224 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
225 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
226
227 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
228
229 * release notes for
230 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
231 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
232 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
233 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
234 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
235 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
236 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
237
238 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
239
240 * release notes for
241 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
242 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
243 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
244 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
245 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
246 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
247 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
248 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
249
250 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
251
252 * release notes for
253 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
254 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
255 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
256 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
257 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
258 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
259 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
260 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
261 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
262
263 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
264
265 * release notes for
266 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
267 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
268 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
269 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
270 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
271 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
272
273 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
274
275 * release notes for
276 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
277 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
278 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
279 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
280 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
281 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
282 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
283
284 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
285
286 * release notes for
287 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
288 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
289 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
290 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
291 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
292 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
293 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
294
295 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
296 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
297 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
298 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
299
300 ============
301
302 endif::stalenotes[]
303
304 OPTIONS
305 -------
306 --version::
307 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
308
309 --help::
310 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
311 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
312 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
313 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
314 +
315 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
316 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
317 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
318 help ...`.
319
320 -c <name>=<value>::
321 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
322 given will override values from configuration files.
323 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
324 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
325
326 --exec-path[=<path>]::
327 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
328 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
329 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
330 the current setting and then exit.
331
332 --html-path::
333 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
334 documentation is installed and exit.
335
336 --man-path::
337 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
338 this version of git and exit.
339
340 --info-path::
341 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
342 version of git are installed and exit.
343
344 -p::
345 --paginate::
346 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
347 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
348 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
349 below).
350
351 --no-pager::
352 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
353
354 --git-dir=<path>::
355 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
356 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
357 path or relative path to current working directory.
358
359 --work-tree=<path>::
360 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
361 or a path relative to the current working directory.
362 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
363 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
364 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
365 more detailed discussion).
366
367 --namespace=<path>::
368 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
369 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
370 variable.
371
372 --bare::
373 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
374 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
375 directory.
376
377 --no-replace-objects::
378 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
379 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
380
381
382 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
383 ---------------------
384
385 See the references above to get started using git. The following is
386 probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
387
388 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
389 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
390 introductions to the underlying git architecture.
391
392 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
393
394 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
395 examples.
396
397 The internals are documented in the
398 link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
399
400 GIT COMMANDS
401 ------------
402
403 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
404 ("plumbing") commands.
405
406 High-level commands (porcelain)
407 -------------------------------
408
409 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
410 ancillary user utilities.
411
412 Main porcelain commands
413 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
414
415 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
416
417 Ancillary Commands
418 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
419 Manipulators:
420
421 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
422
423 Interrogators:
424
425 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
426
427
428 Interacting with Others
429 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
430
431 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
432 people via patch over e-mail.
433
434 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
435
436
437 Low-level commands (plumbing)
438 -----------------------------
439
440 Although git includes its
441 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
442 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
443 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
444 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
445
446 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
447 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
448 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
449 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
450 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
451 end user experience.
452
453 The following description divides
454 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
455 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
456 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
457 repositories.
458
459
460 Manipulation commands
461 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
462
463 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
464
465
466 Interrogation commands
467 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
468
469 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
470
471 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
472 the working tree.
473
474
475 Synching repositories
476 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
477
478 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
479
480 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
481 typically do not use them directly.
482
483 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
484
485
486 Internal helper commands
487 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
488
489 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
490 users typically do not use them directly.
491
492 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
493
494
495 Configuration Mechanism
496 -----------------------
497
498 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
499 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
500 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
501 people. Here is an example:
502
503 ------------
504 #
505 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
506 #
507
508 ; core variables
509 [core]
510 ; Don't trust file modes
511 filemode = false
512
513 ; user identity
514 [user]
515 name = "Junio C Hamano"
516 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
517
518 ------------
519
520 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
521 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
522 list.
523
524
525 Identifier Terminology
526 ----------------------
527 <object>::
528 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
529
530 <blob>::
531 Indicates a blob object name.
532
533 <tree>::
534 Indicates a tree object name.
535
536 <commit>::
537 Indicates a commit object name.
538
539 <tree-ish>::
540 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
541 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
542 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
543 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
544
545 <commit-ish>::
546 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
547 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
548 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
549 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
550
551 <type>::
552 Indicates that an object type is required.
553 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
554
555 <file>::
556 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
557 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
558
559 Symbolic Identifiers
560 --------------------
561 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
562 symbolic notation:
563
564 HEAD::
565 indicates the head of the current branch.
566
567 <tag>::
568 a valid tag 'name'
569 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
570
571 <head>::
572 a valid head 'name'
573 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
574
575 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
576 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
577
578
579 File/Directory Structure
580 ------------------------
581
582 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
583
584 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
585
586 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
587 `$GIT_DIR`.
588
589
590 Terminology
591 -----------
592 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
593
594
595 Environment Variables
596 ---------------------
597 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
598
599 The git Repository
600 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
601 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
602 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
603 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
604
605 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
606 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
607 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
608 is used.
609
610 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
611 If the object storage directory is specified via this
612 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
613 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
614 directory is used.
615
616 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
617 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
618 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
619 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
620 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
621 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
622
623 'GIT_DIR'::
624 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
625 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
626 for the base of the repository.
627
628 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
629 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
630 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
631 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
632 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
633 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
634
635 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
636 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
637 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
638
639 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
640 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
641 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
642 up into while looking for a repository directory.
643 It will not exclude the current working directory or
644 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
645 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
646
647 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
648 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
649 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
650 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
651 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
652 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
653 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
654 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
655 command line.
656
657 git Commits
658 ~~~~~~~~~~~
659 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
660 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
661 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
662 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
663 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
664 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
665 'EMAIL'::
666 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
667
668 git Diffs
669 ~~~~~~~~~
670 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
671 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
672 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
673 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
674 value passed on the git diff command line.
675
676 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
677 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
678 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
679 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
680 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
681
682 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
683 +
684 where:
685
686 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
687 contents of <old|new>,
688 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
689 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
690 +
691 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
692 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
693 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
694 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
695 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
696 +
697 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
698 parameter, <path>.
699
700 other
701 ~~~~~
702 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
703 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
704 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
705 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
706
707 'GIT_PAGER'::
708 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
709 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
710 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
711 linkgit:git-config[1].
712
713 'GIT_SSH'::
714 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
715 and 'git push' will use this command instead
716 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
717 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
718 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
719 shell command to execute on that remote system.
720 +
721 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
722 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
723 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
724 +
725 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
726 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
727 for further details.
728
729 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
730 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
731 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
732 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
733 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
734 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
735
736 'GIT_FLUSH'::
737 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
738 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
739 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
740 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
741 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
742 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
743 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
744 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
745
746 'GIT_TRACE'::
747 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
748 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
749 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
750 execution and external command execution.
751 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
752 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
753 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
754 trace messages into this file descriptor.
755 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
756 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
757 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
758 into it.
759
760 Discussion[[Discussion]]
761 ------------------------
762
763 More detail on the following is available from the
764 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
765 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
766
767 A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
768 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
769 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
770 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
771 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
772 as tags and branch heads.
773
774 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
775 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
776 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
777 and some number of parent commits.
778
779 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
780 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
781 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
782 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
783
784 All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
785 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
786 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
787 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
788 purpose.
789
790 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
791 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
792
793 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
794 may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
795 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
796 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
797 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
798 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
799
800 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
801 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
802 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
803 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
804 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
805 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
806 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
807 content stored in the index.
808
809 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
810 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
811 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
812
813 Authors
814 -------
815 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
816 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
817 <git@vger.kernel.org>. For a more complete list of contributors, see
818 http://git-scm.com/about. If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
819 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
820 the authors for specific parts of the project.
821
822 Reporting Bugs
823 --------------
824
825 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
826 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
827 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
828
829 SEE ALSO
830 --------
831 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
832 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
833 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
834 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
835 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
836
837 GIT
838 ---
839 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite