Merge branch 'ep/worktree-quiet-option'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-worktree.txt
1 git-worktree(1)
2 ===============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-worktree - Manage multiple working trees
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [--lock] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<commit-ish>]
13 'git worktree list' [--porcelain]
14 'git worktree lock' [--reason <string>] <worktree>
15 'git worktree move' <worktree> <new-path>
16 'git worktree prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
17 'git worktree remove' [-f] <worktree>
18 'git worktree unlock' <worktree>
19
20 DESCRIPTION
21 -----------
22
23 Manage multiple working trees attached to the same repository.
24
25 A git repository can support multiple working trees, allowing you to check
26 out more than one branch at a time. With `git worktree add` a new working
27 tree is associated with the repository. This new working tree is called a
28 "linked working tree" as opposed to the "main working tree" prepared by "git
29 init" or "git clone". A repository has one main working tree (if it's not a
30 bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees. When you are done
31 with a linked working tree, remove it with `git worktree remove`.
32
33 If a working tree is deleted without using `git worktree remove`, then
34 its associated administrative files, which reside in the repository
35 (see "DETAILS" below), will eventually be removed automatically (see
36 `gc.worktreePruneExpire` in linkgit:git-config[1]), or you can run
37 `git worktree prune` in the main or any linked working tree to
38 clean up any stale administrative files.
39
40 If a linked working tree is stored on a portable device or network share
41 which is not always mounted, you can prevent its administrative files from
42 being pruned by issuing the `git worktree lock` command, optionally
43 specifying `--reason` to explain why the working tree is locked.
44
45 COMMANDS
46 --------
47 add <path> [<commit-ish>]::
48
49 Create `<path>` and checkout `<commit-ish>` into it. The new working directory
50 is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except working
51 directory specific files such as HEAD, index, etc. `-` may also be
52 specified as `<commit-ish>`; it is synonymous with `@{-1}`.
53 +
54 If <commit-ish> is a branch name (call it `<branch>`) and is not found,
55 and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` are used, but there does
56 exist a tracking branch in exactly one remote (call it `<remote>`)
57 with a matching name, treat as equivalent to:
58 +
59 ------------
60 $ git worktree add --track -b <branch> <path> <remote>/<branch>
61 ------------
62 +
63 If the branch exists in multiple remotes and one of them is named by
64 the `checkout.defaultRemote` configuration variable, we'll use that
65 one for the purposes of disambiguation, even if the `<branch>` isn't
66 unique across all remotes. Set it to
67 e.g. `checkout.defaultRemote=origin` to always checkout remote
68 branches from there if `<branch>` is ambiguous but exists on the
69 'origin' remote. See also `checkout.defaultRemote` in
70 linkgit:git-config[1].
71 +
72 If `<commit-ish>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` used,
73 then, as a convenience, the new worktree is associated with a branch
74 (call it `<branch>`) named after `$(basename <path>)`. If `<branch>`
75 doesn't exist, a new branch based on HEAD is automatically created as
76 if `-b <branch>` was given. If `<branch>` does exist, it will be
77 checked out in the new worktree, if it's not checked out anywhere
78 else, otherwise the command will refuse to create the worktree (unless
79 `--force` is used).
80
81 list::
82
83 List details of each worktree. The main worktree is listed first, followed by
84 each of the linked worktrees. The output details include if the worktree is
85 bare, the revision currently checked out, and the branch currently checked out
86 (or 'detached HEAD' if none).
87
88 lock::
89
90 If a working tree is on a portable device or network share which
91 is not always mounted, lock it to prevent its administrative
92 files from being pruned automatically. This also prevents it from
93 being moved or deleted. Optionally, specify a reason for the lock
94 with `--reason`.
95
96 move::
97
98 Move a working tree to a new location. Note that the main working tree
99 or linked working trees containing submodules cannot be moved.
100
101 prune::
102
103 Prune working tree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.
104
105 remove::
106
107 Remove a working tree. Only clean working trees (no untracked files
108 and no modification in tracked files) can be removed. Unclean working
109 trees or ones with submodules can be removed with `--force`. The main
110 working tree cannot be removed.
111
112 unlock::
113
114 Unlock a working tree, allowing it to be pruned, moved or deleted.
115
116 OPTIONS
117 -------
118
119 -f::
120 --force::
121 By default, `add` refuses to create a new working tree when
122 `<commit-ish>` is a branch name and is already checked out by
123 another working tree and `remove` refuses to remove an unclean
124 working tree. This option overrides these safeguards.
125
126 -b <new-branch>::
127 -B <new-branch>::
128 With `add`, create a new branch named `<new-branch>` starting at
129 `<commit-ish>`, and check out `<new-branch>` into the new working tree.
130 If `<commit-ish>` is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.
131 By default, `-b` refuses to create a new branch if it already
132 exists. `-B` overrides this safeguard, resetting `<new-branch>` to
133 `<commit-ish>`.
134
135 --detach::
136 With `add`, detach HEAD in the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD"
137 in linkgit:git-checkout[1].
138
139 --[no-]checkout::
140 By default, `add` checks out `<commit-ish>`, however, `--no-checkout` can
141 be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations,
142 such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout"
143 in linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
144
145 --[no-]guess-remote::
146 With `worktree add <path>`, without `<commit-ish>`, instead
147 of creating a new branch from HEAD, if there exists a tracking
148 branch in exactly one remote matching the basename of `<path>`,
149 base the new branch on the remote-tracking branch, and mark
150 the remote-tracking branch as "upstream" from the new branch.
151 +
152 This can also be set up as the default behaviour by using the
153 `worktree.guessRemote` config option.
154
155 --[no-]track::
156 When creating a new branch, if `<commit-ish>` is a branch,
157 mark it as "upstream" from the new branch. This is the
158 default if `<commit-ish>` is a remote-tracking branch. See
159 "--track" in linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
160
161 --lock::
162 Keep the working tree locked after creation. This is the
163 equivalent of `git worktree lock` after `git worktree add`,
164 but without race condition.
165
166 -n::
167 --dry-run::
168 With `prune`, do not remove anything; just report what it would
169 remove.
170
171 --porcelain::
172 With `list`, output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts.
173 This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user
174 configuration. See below for details.
175
176 -q::
177 --quiet::
178 With 'add', suppress feedback messages.
179
180 -v::
181 --verbose::
182 With `prune`, report all removals.
183
184 --expire <time>::
185 With `prune`, only expire unused working trees older than <time>.
186
187 --reason <string>::
188 With `lock`, an explanation why the working tree is locked.
189
190 <worktree>::
191 Working trees can be identified by path, either relative or
192 absolute.
193 +
194 If the last path components in the working tree's path is unique among
195 working trees, it can be used to identify worktrees. For example if
196 you only have two working trees, at "/abc/def/ghi" and "/abc/def/ggg",
197 then "ghi" or "def/ghi" is enough to point to the former working tree.
198
199 DETAILS
200 -------
201 Each linked working tree has a private sub-directory in the repository's
202 $GIT_DIR/worktrees directory. The private sub-directory's name is usually
203 the base name of the linked working tree's path, possibly appended with a
204 number to make it unique. For example, when `$GIT_DIR=/path/main/.git` the
205 command `git worktree add /path/other/test-next next` creates the linked
206 working tree in `/path/other/test-next` and also creates a
207 `$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next` directory (or `$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next1`
208 if `test-next` is already taken).
209
210 Within a linked working tree, $GIT_DIR is set to point to this private
211 directory (e.g. `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next` in the example) and
212 $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set to point back to the main working tree's $GIT_DIR
213 (e.g. `/path/main/.git`). These settings are made in a `.git` file located at
214 the top directory of the linked working tree.
215
216 Path resolution via `git rev-parse --git-path` uses either
217 $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR depending on the path. For example, in the
218 linked working tree `git rev-parse --git-path HEAD` returns
219 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/HEAD` (not
220 `/path/other/test-next/.git/HEAD` or `/path/main/.git/HEAD`) while `git
221 rev-parse --git-path refs/heads/master` uses
222 $GIT_COMMON_DIR and returns `/path/main/.git/refs/heads/master`,
223 since refs are shared across all working trees.
224
225 See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] for more information. The rule of
226 thumb is do not make any assumption about whether a path belongs to
227 $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something
228 inside $GIT_DIR. Use `git rev-parse --git-path` to get the final path.
229
230 If you manually move a linked working tree, you need to update the 'gitdir' file
231 in the entry's directory. For example, if a linked working tree is moved
232 to `/newpath/test-next` and its `.git` file points to
233 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next`, then update
234 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/gitdir` to reference `/newpath/test-next`
235 instead.
236
237 To prevent a $GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which
238 can be useful in some situations, such as when the
239 entry's working tree is stored on a portable device), use the
240 `git worktree lock` command, which adds a file named
241 'locked' to the entry's directory. The file contains the reason in
242 plain text. For example, if a linked working tree's `.git` file points
243 to `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next` then a file named
244 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/locked` will prevent the
245 `test-next` entry from being pruned. See
246 linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] for details.
247
248 LIST OUTPUT FORMAT
249 ------------------
250 The worktree list command has two output formats. The default format shows the
251 details on a single line with columns. For example:
252
253 ------------
254 $ git worktree list
255 /path/to/bare-source (bare)
256 /path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master]
257 /path/to/other-linked-worktree 1234abc (detached HEAD)
258 ------------
259
260 Porcelain Format
261 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
262 The porcelain format has a line per attribute. Attributes are listed with a
263 label and value separated by a single space. Boolean attributes (like 'bare'
264 and 'detached') are listed as a label only, and are only present if and only
265 if the value is true. An empty line indicates the end of a worktree. For
266 example:
267
268 ------------
269 $ git worktree list --porcelain
270 worktree /path/to/bare-source
271 bare
272
273 worktree /path/to/linked-worktree
274 HEAD abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234
275 branch refs/heads/master
276
277 worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree
278 HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a
279 detached
280
281 ------------
282
283 EXAMPLES
284 --------
285 You are in the middle of a refactoring session and your boss comes in and
286 demands that you fix something immediately. You might typically use
287 linkgit:git-stash[1] to store your changes away temporarily, however, your
288 working tree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed
289 files, and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don't want to risk
290 disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked working tree to
291 make the emergency fix, remove it when done, and then resume your earlier
292 refactoring session.
293
294 ------------
295 $ git worktree add -b emergency-fix ../temp master
296 $ pushd ../temp
297 # ... hack hack hack ...
298 $ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss'
299 $ popd
300 $ git worktree remove ../temp
301 ------------
302
303 BUGS
304 ----
305 Multiple checkout in general is still experimental, and the support
306 for submodules is incomplete. It is NOT recommended to make multiple
307 checkouts of a superproject.
308
309 GIT
310 ---
311 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite