Merge branch 'nd/conditional-config-include'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-for-each-ref.txt
1 git-for-each-ref(1)
2 ===================
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-for-each-ref - Output information on each ref
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git for-each-ref' [--count=<count>] [--shell|--perl|--python|--tcl]
12 [(--sort=<key>)...] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
13 [--points-at <object>] [(--merged | --no-merged) [<object>]]
14 [--contains [<object>]] [--no-contains [<object>]]
15
16 DESCRIPTION
17 -----------
18
19 Iterate over all refs that match `<pattern>` and show them
20 according to the given `<format>`, after sorting them according
21 to the given set of `<key>`. If `<count>` is given, stop after
22 showing that many refs. The interpolated values in `<format>`
23 can optionally be quoted as string literals in the specified
24 host language allowing their direct evaluation in that language.
25
26 OPTIONS
27 -------
28 <count>::
29 By default the command shows all refs that match
30 `<pattern>`. This option makes it stop after showing
31 that many refs.
32
33 <key>::
34 A field name to sort on. Prefix `-` to sort in
35 descending order of the value. When unspecified,
36 `refname` is used. You may use the --sort=<key> option
37 multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
38 key.
39
40 <format>::
41 A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from the
42 object pointed at by a ref being shown. If `fieldname`
43 is prefixed with an asterisk (`*`) and the ref points
44 at a tag object, the value for the field in the object
45 tag refers is used. When unspecified, defaults to
46 `%(objectname) SPC %(objecttype) TAB %(refname)`.
47 It also interpolates `%%` to `%`, and `%xx` where `xx`
48 are hex digits interpolates to character with hex code
49 `xx`; for example `%00` interpolates to `\0` (NUL),
50 `%09` to `\t` (TAB) and `%0a` to `\n` (LF).
51
52 <pattern>...::
53 If one or more patterns are given, only refs are shown that
54 match against at least one pattern, either using fnmatch(3) or
55 literally, in the latter case matching completely or from the
56 beginning up to a slash.
57
58 --shell::
59 --perl::
60 --python::
61 --tcl::
62 If given, strings that substitute `%(fieldname)`
63 placeholders are quoted as string literals suitable for
64 the specified host language. This is meant to produce
65 a scriptlet that can directly be `eval`ed.
66
67 --points-at <object>::
68 Only list refs which points at the given object.
69
70 --merged [<object>]::
71 Only list refs whose tips are reachable from the
72 specified commit (HEAD if not specified),
73 incompatible with `--no-merged`.
74
75 --no-merged [<object>]::
76 Only list refs whose tips are not reachable from the
77 specified commit (HEAD if not specified),
78 incompatible with `--merged`.
79
80 --contains [<object>]::
81 Only list refs which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
82 specified).
83
84 --no-contains [<object>]::
85 Only list refs which don't contain the specified commit (HEAD
86 if not specified).
87
88 --ignore-case::
89 Sorting and filtering refs are case insensitive.
90
91 FIELD NAMES
92 -----------
93
94 Various values from structured fields in referenced objects can
95 be used to interpolate into the resulting output, or as sort
96 keys.
97
98 For all objects, the following names can be used:
99
100 refname::
101 The name of the ref (the part after $GIT_DIR/).
102 For a non-ambiguous short name of the ref append `:short`.
103 The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
104 abbreviation mode. If `lstrip=<N>` (`rstrip=<N>`) is appended, strips `<N>`
105 slash-separated path components from the front (back) of the refname
106 (e.g. `%(refname:lstrip=2)` turns `refs/tags/foo` into `foo` and
107 `%(refname:rstrip=2)` turns `refs/tags/foo` into `refs`).
108 If `<N>` is a negative number, strip as many path components as
109 necessary from the specified end to leave `-<N>` path components
110 (e.g. `%(refname:lstrip=-2)` turns
111 `refs/tags/foo` into `tags/foo` and `%(refname:rstrip=-1)`
112 turns `refs/tags/foo` into `refs`). When the ref does not have
113 enough components, the result becomes an empty string if
114 stripping with positive <N>, or it becomes the full refname if
115 stripping with negative <N>. Neither is an error.
116 +
117 `strip` can be used as a synomym to `lstrip`.
118
119 objecttype::
120 The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
121
122 objectsize::
123 The size of the object (the same as 'git cat-file -s' reports).
124
125 objectname::
126 The object name (aka SHA-1).
127 For a non-ambiguous abbreviation of the object name append `:short`.
128 For an abbreviation of the object name with desired length append
129 `:short=<length>`, where the minimum length is MINIMUM_ABBREV. The
130 length may be exceeded to ensure unique object names.
131
132 upstream::
133 The name of a local ref which can be considered ``upstream''
134 from the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:lstrip` and
135 `:rstrip` in the same way as `refname` above. Additionally
136 respects `:track` to show "[ahead N, behind M]" and
137 `:trackshort` to show the terse version: ">" (ahead), "<"
138 (behind), "<>" (ahead and behind), or "=" (in sync). `:track`
139 also prints "[gone]" whenever unknown upstream ref is
140 encountered. Append `:track,nobracket` to show tracking
141 information without brackets (i.e "ahead N, behind M"). Has
142 no effect if the ref does not have tracking information
143 associated with it. All the options apart from `nobracket`
144 are mutually exclusive, but if used together the last option
145 is selected.
146
147 push::
148 The name of a local ref which represents the `@{push}`
149 location for the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:lstrip`,
150 `:rstrip`, `:track`, and `:trackshort` options as `upstream`
151 does. Produces an empty string if no `@{push}` ref is
152 configured.
153
154 HEAD::
155 '*' if HEAD matches current ref (the checked out branch), ' '
156 otherwise.
157
158 color::
159 Change output color. Followed by `:<colorname>`, where names
160 are described in `color.branch.*`.
161
162 align::
163 Left-, middle-, or right-align the content between
164 %(align:...) and %(end). The "align:" is followed by
165 `width=<width>` and `position=<position>` in any order
166 separated by a comma, where the `<position>` is either left,
167 right or middle, default being left and `<width>` is the total
168 length of the content with alignment. For brevity, the
169 "width=" and/or "position=" prefixes may be omitted, and bare
170 <width> and <position> used instead. For instance,
171 `%(align:<width>,<position>)`. If the contents length is more
172 than the width then no alignment is performed. If used with
173 `--quote` everything in between %(align:...) and %(end) is
174 quoted, but if nested then only the topmost level performs
175 quoting.
176
177 if::
178 Used as %(if)...%(then)...%(end) or
179 %(if)...%(then)...%(else)...%(end). If there is an atom with
180 value or string literal after the %(if) then everything after
181 the %(then) is printed, else if the %(else) atom is used, then
182 everything after %(else) is printed. We ignore space when
183 evaluating the string before %(then), this is useful when we
184 use the %(HEAD) atom which prints either "*" or " " and we
185 want to apply the 'if' condition only on the 'HEAD' ref.
186 Append ":equals=<string>" or ":notequals=<string>" to compare
187 the value between the %(if:...) and %(then) atoms with the
188 given string.
189
190 symref::
191 The ref which the given symbolic ref refers to. If not a
192 symbolic ref, nothing is printed. Respects the `:short`,
193 `:lstrip` and `:rstrip` options in the same way as `refname`
194 above.
195
196 In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header
197 field names (`tree`, `parent`, `object`, `type`, and `tag`) can
198 be used to specify the value in the header field.
199
200 For commit and tag objects, the special `creatordate` and `creator`
201 fields will correspond to the appropriate date or name-email-date tuple
202 from the `committer` or `tagger` fields depending on the object type.
203 These are intended for working on a mix of annotated and lightweight tags.
204
205 Fields that have name-email-date tuple as its value (`author`,
206 `committer`, and `tagger`) can be suffixed with `name`, `email`,
207 and `date` to extract the named component.
208
209 The complete message in a commit and tag object is `contents`.
210 Its first line is `contents:subject`, where subject is the concatenation
211 of all lines of the commit message up to the first blank line. The next
212 line is 'contents:body', where body is all of the lines after the first
213 blank line. The optional GPG signature is `contents:signature`. The
214 first `N` lines of the message is obtained using `contents:lines=N`.
215 Additionally, the trailers as interpreted by linkgit:git-interpret-trailers[1]
216 are obtained as 'contents:trailers'.
217
218 For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric order
219 (`objectsize`, `authordate`, `committerdate`, `creatordate`, `taggerdate`).
220 All other fields are used to sort in their byte-value order.
221
222 There is also an option to sort by versions, this can be done by using
223 the fieldname `version:refname` or its alias `v:refname`.
224
225 In any case, a field name that refers to a field inapplicable to
226 the object referred by the ref does not cause an error. It
227 returns an empty string instead.
228
229 As a special case for the date-type fields, you may specify a format for
230 the date by adding `:` followed by date format name (see the
231 values the `--date` option to linkgit:git-rev-list[1] takes).
232
233 Some atoms like %(align) and %(if) always require a matching %(end).
234 We call them "opening atoms" and sometimes denote them as %($open).
235
236 When a scripting language specific quoting is in effect, everything
237 between a top-level opening atom and its matching %(end) is evaluated
238 according to the semantics of the opening atom and only its result
239 from the top-level is quoted.
240
241
242 EXAMPLES
243 --------
244
245 An example directly producing formatted text. Show the most recent
246 3 tagged commits:
247
248 ------------
249 #!/bin/sh
250
251 git for-each-ref --count=3 --sort='-*authordate' \
252 --format='From: %(*authorname) %(*authoremail)
253 Subject: %(*subject)
254 Date: %(*authordate)
255 Ref: %(*refname)
256
257 %(*body)
258 ' 'refs/tags'
259 ------------
260
261
262 A simple example showing the use of shell eval on the output,
263 demonstrating the use of --shell. List the prefixes of all heads:
264 ------------
265 #!/bin/sh
266
267 git for-each-ref --shell --format="ref=%(refname)" refs/heads | \
268 while read entry
269 do
270 eval "$entry"
271 echo `dirname $ref`
272 done
273 ------------
274
275
276 A bit more elaborate report on tags, demonstrating that the format
277 may be an entire script:
278 ------------
279 #!/bin/sh
280
281 fmt='
282 r=%(refname)
283 t=%(*objecttype)
284 T=${r#refs/tags/}
285
286 o=%(*objectname)
287 n=%(*authorname)
288 e=%(*authoremail)
289 s=%(*subject)
290 d=%(*authordate)
291 b=%(*body)
292
293 kind=Tag
294 if test "z$t" = z
295 then
296 # could be a lightweight tag
297 t=%(objecttype)
298 kind="Lightweight tag"
299 o=%(objectname)
300 n=%(authorname)
301 e=%(authoremail)
302 s=%(subject)
303 d=%(authordate)
304 b=%(body)
305 fi
306 echo "$kind $T points at a $t object $o"
307 if test "z$t" = zcommit
308 then
309 echo "The commit was authored by $n $e
310 at $d, and titled
311
312 $s
313
314 Its message reads as:
315 "
316 echo "$b" | sed -e "s/^/ /"
317 echo
318 fi
319 '
320
321 eval=`git for-each-ref --shell --format="$fmt" \
322 --sort='*objecttype' \
323 --sort=-taggerdate \
324 refs/tags`
325 eval "$eval"
326 ------------
327
328
329 An example to show the usage of %(if)...%(then)...%(else)...%(end).
330 This prefixes the current branch with a star.
331
332 ------------
333 git for-each-ref --format="%(if)%(HEAD)%(then)* %(else) %(end)%(refname:short)" refs/heads/
334 ------------
335
336
337 An example to show the usage of %(if)...%(then)...%(end).
338 This prints the authorname, if present.
339
340 ------------
341 git for-each-ref --format="%(refname)%(if)%(authorname)%(then) Authored by: %(authorname)%(end)"
342 ------------
343
344 SEE ALSO
345 --------
346 linkgit:git-show-ref[1]
347
348 GIT
349 ---
350 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite