pathspec: make --literal-pathspecs disable pathspec magic
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v1.8.3.2/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.2]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
50 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
51 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
52
53 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
54
55 * release notes for
56 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
57 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
58 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
59 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
60
61 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
62
63 * release notes for
64 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
65 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
66 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
67 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
68 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
69 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
70 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
71
72 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
73
74 * release notes for
75 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
76 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
77 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
78 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
79
80 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
81
82 * release notes for
83 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
84 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
85 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
86 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
87 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
88
89 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
90
91 * release notes for
92 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
93 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
94 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
95 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
96 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
97 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
98 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
99 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
100
101 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
102
103 * release notes for
104 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
105 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
106 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
107 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
108 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
109 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
110
111 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
112
113 * release notes for
114 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
115 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
116 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
117 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
118 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
119 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
120 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
121 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
122
123 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
124
125 * release notes for
126 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
127 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
129 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
130 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
131 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
132 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
133
134 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
135
136 * release notes for
137 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
138 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
139 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
141 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
145
146 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
147
148 * release notes for
149 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
150 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
151 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
156
157 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
158
159 * release notes for
160 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
165
166 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
167
168 * release notes for
169 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
170 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
171 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
175
176 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
177
178 * release notes for
179 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
180 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
181 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
182 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
183 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
185
186 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
187
188 * release notes for
189 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
193 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
194 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
195
196 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
197
198 * release notes for
199 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
200 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
201 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
202 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
203 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
204
205 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
206
207 * release notes for
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
209 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
210 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
211 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
212 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
213 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
214 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
216 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
217 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
218
219 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
220
221 * release notes for
222 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
223 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
224 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
225 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
226
227 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
228
229 * release notes for
230 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
231 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
232 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
233 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
234 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
235 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
236 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
237 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
238 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
239 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
240
241 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
242
243 * release notes for
244 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
245 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
246 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
247 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
248 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
249 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
250
251 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
252
253 * release notes for
254 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
255 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
256 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
257 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
258 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
259
260 * release notes for
261 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
262 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
263 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
264 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
265 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
266 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
267
268 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
269
270 * release notes for
271 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
272 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
273 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
274 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
275
276 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
277
278 * release notes for
279 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
280 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
281 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
282 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
283 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
284 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
285 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
286
287 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
288
289 * release notes for
290 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
291 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
292 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
293 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
294 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
295 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
296 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
297
298 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
299
300 * release notes for
301 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
302 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
303 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
304 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
305 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
306 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
307 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
308
309 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
310
311 * release notes for
312 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
313 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
314 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
315 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
316 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
317 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
318 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
319 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
320
321 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
322
323 * release notes for
324 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
325 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
326 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
327 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
328 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
329 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
330 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
331 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
332 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
333
334 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
335
336 * release notes for
337 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
338 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
339 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
340 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
341 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
342 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
343
344 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
345
346 * release notes for
347 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
348 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
349 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
350 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
351 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
352 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
353 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
354
355 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
356
357 * release notes for
358 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
359 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
360 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
361 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
362 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
363 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
364 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
365
366 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
367 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
368 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
369 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
370
371 ============
372
373 endif::stalenotes[]
374
375 OPTIONS
376 -------
377 --version::
378 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
379
380 --help::
381 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
382 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
383 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
384 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
385 +
386 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
387 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
388 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
389 help ...`.
390
391 -c <name>=<value>::
392 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
393 given will override values from configuration files.
394 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
395 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
396
397 --exec-path[=<path>]::
398 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
399 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
400 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
401 the current setting and then exit.
402
403 --html-path::
404 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
405 documentation is installed and exit.
406
407 --man-path::
408 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
409 this version of Git and exit.
410
411 --info-path::
412 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
413 version of Git are installed and exit.
414
415 -p::
416 --paginate::
417 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
418 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
419 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
420 below).
421
422 --no-pager::
423 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
424
425 --git-dir=<path>::
426 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
427 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
428 path or relative path to current working directory.
429
430 --work-tree=<path>::
431 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
432 or a path relative to the current working directory.
433 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
434 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
435 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
436 more detailed discussion).
437
438 --namespace=<path>::
439 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
440 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
441 variable.
442
443 --bare::
444 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
445 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
446 directory.
447
448 --no-replace-objects::
449 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
450 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
451
452 --literal-pathspecs::
453 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
454 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
455 variable to `1`.
456
457
458 GIT COMMANDS
459 ------------
460
461 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
462 ("plumbing") commands.
463
464 High-level commands (porcelain)
465 -------------------------------
466
467 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
468 ancillary user utilities.
469
470 Main porcelain commands
471 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
472
473 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
474
475 Ancillary Commands
476 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
477 Manipulators:
478
479 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
480
481 Interrogators:
482
483 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
484
485
486 Interacting with Others
487 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
488
489 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
490 people via patch over e-mail.
491
492 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
493
494
495 Low-level commands (plumbing)
496 -----------------------------
497
498 Although Git includes its
499 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
500 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
501 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
502 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
503
504 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
505 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
506 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
507 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
508 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
509 end user experience.
510
511 The following description divides
512 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
513 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
514 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
515 repositories.
516
517
518 Manipulation commands
519 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
520
521 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
522
523
524 Interrogation commands
525 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
526
527 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
528
529 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
530 the working tree.
531
532
533 Synching repositories
534 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
535
536 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
537
538 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
539 typically do not use them directly.
540
541 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
542
543
544 Internal helper commands
545 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
546
547 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
548 users typically do not use them directly.
549
550 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
551
552
553 Configuration Mechanism
554 -----------------------
555
556 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
557 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
558 like this:
559
560 ------------
561 #
562 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
563 #
564
565 ; core variables
566 [core]
567 ; Don't trust file modes
568 filemode = false
569
570 ; user identity
571 [user]
572 name = "Junio C Hamano"
573 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
574
575 ------------
576
577 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
578 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
579 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
580
581
582 Identifier Terminology
583 ----------------------
584 <object>::
585 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
586
587 <blob>::
588 Indicates a blob object name.
589
590 <tree>::
591 Indicates a tree object name.
592
593 <commit>::
594 Indicates a commit object name.
595
596 <tree-ish>::
597 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
598 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
599 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
600 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
601
602 <commit-ish>::
603 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
604 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
605 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
606 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
607
608 <type>::
609 Indicates that an object type is required.
610 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
611
612 <file>::
613 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
614 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
615
616 Symbolic Identifiers
617 --------------------
618 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
619 symbolic notation:
620
621 HEAD::
622 indicates the head of the current branch.
623
624 <tag>::
625 a valid tag 'name'
626 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
627
628 <head>::
629 a valid head 'name'
630 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
631
632 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
633 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
634
635
636 File/Directory Structure
637 ------------------------
638
639 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
640
641 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
642
643 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
644 `$GIT_DIR`.
645
646
647 Terminology
648 -----------
649 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
650
651
652 Environment Variables
653 ---------------------
654 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
655
656 The Git Repository
657 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
658 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
659 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
660 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
661
662 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
663 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
664 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
665 is used.
666
667 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
668 If the object storage directory is specified via this
669 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
670 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
671 directory is used.
672
673 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
674 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
675 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
676 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
677 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
678 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
679
680 'GIT_DIR'::
681 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
682 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
683 for the base of the repository.
684 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
685
686 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
687 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
688 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
689 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
690
691 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
692 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
693 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
694
695 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
696 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
697 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
698 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
699 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
700 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
701 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
702 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
703 might be present in order to compare them with the current
704 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
705 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
706 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
707 e.g.,
708 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
709
710 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
711 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
712 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
713 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
714 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
715 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
716 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
717 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
718 command line.
719
720 Git Commits
721 ~~~~~~~~~~~
722 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
723 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
724 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
725 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
726 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
727 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
728 'EMAIL'::
729 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
730
731 Git Diffs
732 ~~~~~~~~~
733 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
734 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
735 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
736 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
737 value passed on the Git diff command line.
738
739 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
740 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
741 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
742 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
743 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
744
745 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
746 +
747 where:
748
749 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
750 contents of <old|new>,
751 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
752 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
753 +
754 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
755 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
756 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
757 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
758 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
759 +
760 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
761 parameter, <path>.
762
763 other
764 ~~~~~
765 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
766 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
767 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
768 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
769
770 'GIT_PAGER'::
771 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
772 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
773 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
774 linkgit:git-config[1].
775
776 'GIT_EDITOR'::
777 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
778 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
779 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
780 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
781
782 'GIT_SSH'::
783 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
784 and 'git push' will use this command instead
785 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
786 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
787 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
788 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
789 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
790 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
791 than the default SSH port.
792 +
793 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
794 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
795 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
796 +
797 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
798 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
799 for further details.
800
801 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
802 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
803 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
804 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
805 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
806 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
807
808 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
809 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
810 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
811 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
812 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
813 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
814 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
815
816 'GIT_FLUSH'::
817 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
818 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
819 'git check-attr', 'git check-ignore', and 'git whatchanged' will
820 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
821 flushed. If this
822 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
823 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
824 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
825 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
826
827 'GIT_TRACE'::
828 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
829 is case insensitive), Git will print `trace:` messages on
830 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
831 execution and external command execution.
832 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
833 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
834 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
835 trace messages into this file descriptor.
836 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
837 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
838 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
839 into it.
840
841 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
842 If this variable is set to a path, a file will be created at
843 the given path logging all accesses to any packs. For each
844 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
845 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
846 pack-related performance problems.
847
848 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
849 If this variable is set, it shows a trace of all packets
850 coming in or out of a given program. This can help with
851 debugging object negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing
852 is turned off at a packet starting with "PACK".
853
854 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
855 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
856 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
857 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
858 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
859 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
860 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
861 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
862
863
864 Discussion[[Discussion]]
865 ------------------------
866
867 More detail on the following is available from the
868 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
869 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
870
871 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
872 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
873 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
874 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
875 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
876 as tags and branch heads.
877
878 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
879 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
880 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
881 and some number of parent commits.
882
883 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
884 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
885 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
886 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
887
888 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
889 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
890 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
891 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
892 purpose.
893
894 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
895 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
896
897 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
898 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
899 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
900 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
901 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
902 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
903
904 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
905 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
906 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
907 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
908 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
909 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
910 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
911 content stored in the index.
912
913 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
914 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
915 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
916
917 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
918 ---------------------
919
920 See the references in the "description" section to get started
921 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
922 for a first-time user.
923
924 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
925 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
926 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
927
928 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
929
930 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
931 examples.
932
933 The internals are documented in the
934 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
935
936 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
937 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
938
939
940 Authors
941 -------
942 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
943 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
944 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
945 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
946
947 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
948 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
949 the authors for specific parts of the project.
950
951 Reporting Bugs
952 --------------
953
954 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
955 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
956 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
957
958 SEE ALSO
959 --------
960 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
961 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
962 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
963 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
964 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
965
966 GIT
967 ---
968 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite