Merge branch 'jn/preformatted-doc-url' into maint
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.9.0/git.html[documentation for release 2.9]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.9.0.txt[2.9].
50
51 * link:v2.8.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.8.4]
52
53 * release notes for
54 link:RelNotes/2.8.4.txt[2.8.4],
55 link:RelNotes/2.8.3.txt[2.8.3],
56 link:RelNotes/2.8.2.txt[2.8.2],
57 link:RelNotes/2.8.1.txt[2.8.1],
58 link:RelNotes/2.8.0.txt[2.8].
59
60 * link:v2.7.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.7.3]
61
62 * release notes for
63 link:RelNotes/2.7.3.txt[2.7.3],
64 link:RelNotes/2.7.2.txt[2.7.2],
65 link:RelNotes/2.7.1.txt[2.7.1],
66 link:RelNotes/2.7.0.txt[2.7].
67
68 * link:v2.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 2.6.6]
69
70 * release notes for
71 link:RelNotes/2.6.6.txt[2.6.6],
72 link:RelNotes/2.6.5.txt[2.6.5],
73 link:RelNotes/2.6.4.txt[2.6.4],
74 link:RelNotes/2.6.3.txt[2.6.3],
75 link:RelNotes/2.6.2.txt[2.6.2],
76 link:RelNotes/2.6.1.txt[2.6.1],
77 link:RelNotes/2.6.0.txt[2.6].
78
79 * link:v2.5.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.5.5]
80
81 * release notes for
82 link:RelNotes/2.5.5.txt[2.5.5],
83 link:RelNotes/2.5.4.txt[2.5.4],
84 link:RelNotes/2.5.3.txt[2.5.3],
85 link:RelNotes/2.5.2.txt[2.5.2],
86 link:RelNotes/2.5.1.txt[2.5.1],
87 link:RelNotes/2.5.0.txt[2.5].
88
89 * link:v2.4.11/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.11]
90
91 * release notes for
92 link:RelNotes/2.4.11.txt[2.4.11],
93 link:RelNotes/2.4.10.txt[2.4.10],
94 link:RelNotes/2.4.9.txt[2.4.9],
95 link:RelNotes/2.4.8.txt[2.4.8],
96 link:RelNotes/2.4.7.txt[2.4.7],
97 link:RelNotes/2.4.6.txt[2.4.6],
98 link:RelNotes/2.4.5.txt[2.4.5],
99 link:RelNotes/2.4.4.txt[2.4.4],
100 link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
101 link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
102 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
103 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
104
105 * link:v2.3.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.10]
106
107 * release notes for
108 link:RelNotes/2.3.10.txt[2.3.10],
109 link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
110 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
111 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
112 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
113 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
114 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
115 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
116 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
117 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
118 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
119
120 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
121
122 * release notes for
123 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
124 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
125 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
126 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
127
128 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
129
130 * release notes for
131 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
132 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
133 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
134 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
135 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
136
137 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
138
139 * release notes for
140 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
141 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
142 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
143 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
144 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
145 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
146
147 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
148
149 * release notes for
150 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
151 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
152 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
153 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
154 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
155 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
156
157 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
158
159 * release notes for
160 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
161 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
162 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
163 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
164 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
165 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
166 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
167
168 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
169
170 * release notes for
171 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
172 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
173 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
174 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
175 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
176 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
177
178 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
179
180 * release notes for
181 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
182 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
183 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
184 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
185 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
186
187 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
188
189 * release notes for
190 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
191 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
192 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
193 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
194
195 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
196
197 * release notes for
198 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
199 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
200 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
201 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
202 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
203 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
204 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
205
206 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
207
208 * release notes for
209 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
210 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
211 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
212 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
213
214 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
215
216 * release notes for
217 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
218 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
219 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
220 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
221 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
222
223 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
224
225 * release notes for
226 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
227 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
228 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
229 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
230 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
231 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
232 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
233 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
234
235 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
236
237 * release notes for
238 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
239 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
240 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
241 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
242 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
243 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
244
245 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
246
247 * release notes for
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
249 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
250 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
251 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
252 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
253 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
254 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
255 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
256
257 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
258
259 * release notes for
260 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
261 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
262 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
263 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
264 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
265 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
266 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
267
268 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
269
270 * release notes for
271 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
272 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
273 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
274 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
275 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
276 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
277 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
278 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
279
280 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
281
282 * release notes for
283 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
284 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
285 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
286 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
287 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
288 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
289 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
290
291 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
292
293 * release notes for
294 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
295 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
296 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
297 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
298 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
299
300 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
301
302 * release notes for
303 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
304 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
305 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
306 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
307 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
308 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
309
310 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
311
312 * release notes for
313 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
314 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
315 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
316 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
317 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
318 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
319
320 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
321
322 * release notes for
323 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
324 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
325 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
326 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
327 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
328 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
329
330 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
331
332 * release notes for
333 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
334 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
335 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
336 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
337 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
338
339 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
340
341 * release notes for
342 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
343 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
344 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
345 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
346 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
347 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
348 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
349 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
350 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
351 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
352
353 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
354
355 * release notes for
356 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
357 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
358 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
359 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
360
361 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
362
363 * release notes for
364 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
365 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
366 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
367 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
368 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
369 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
370 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
371 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
372 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
373 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
374
375 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
376
377 * release notes for
378 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
379 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
380 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
381 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
382 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
383 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
384
385 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
386
387 * release notes for
388 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
389 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
390 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
391 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
392 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
393
394 * release notes for
395 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
396 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
397 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
398 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
399 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
400 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
401
402 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
403
404 * release notes for
405 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
406 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
407 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
408 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
409
410 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
411
412 * release notes for
413 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
414 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
415 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
416 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
417 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
418 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
419 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
420
421 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
422
423 * release notes for
424 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
425 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
426 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
427 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
428 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
429 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
430 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
431
432 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
433
434 * release notes for
435 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
436 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
437 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
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440 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
442
443 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
444
445 * release notes for
446 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
452 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
453 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
454
455 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
456
457 * release notes for
458 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
459 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
460 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
461 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
462 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
463 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
464 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
465 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
466 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
467
468 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
469
470 * release notes for
471 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
472 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
473 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
474 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
475 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
476 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
477
478 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
479
480 * release notes for
481 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
482 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
483 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
484 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
485 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
486 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
487 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
488
489 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
490
491 * release notes for
492 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
493 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
494 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
495 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
496 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
497 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
498 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
499
500 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
501 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
502 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
503 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
504
505 ============
506
507 endif::stalenotes[]
508
509 OPTIONS
510 -------
511 --version::
512 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
513
514 --help::
515 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
516 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
517 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
518 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
519 +
520 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
521 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
522 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
523 help ...`.
524
525 -C <path>::
526 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
527 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
528 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
529 <path>`.
530 +
531 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
532 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
533 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
534 example the following invocations are equivalent:
535
536 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
537 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
538
539 -c <name>=<value>::
540 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
541 given will override values from configuration files.
542 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
543 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
544 +
545 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
546 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
547 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
548 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
549
550 --exec-path[=<path>]::
551 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
552 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
553 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
554 the current setting and then exit.
555
556 --html-path::
557 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
558 documentation is installed and exit.
559
560 --man-path::
561 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
562 this version of Git and exit.
563
564 --info-path::
565 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
566 version of Git are installed and exit.
567
568 -p::
569 --paginate::
570 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
571 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
572 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
573 below).
574
575 --no-pager::
576 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
577
578 --git-dir=<path>::
579 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
580 setting the `GIT_DIR` environment variable. It can be an absolute
581 path or relative path to current working directory.
582
583 --work-tree=<path>::
584 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
585 or a path relative to the current working directory.
586 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
587 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
588 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
589 more detailed discussion).
590
591 --namespace=<path>::
592 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
593 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
594 variable.
595
596 --bare::
597 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
598 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
599 directory.
600
601 --no-replace-objects::
602 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
603 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
604
605 --literal-pathspecs::
606 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
607 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
608 variable to `1`.
609
610 --glob-pathspecs::
611 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
612 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
613 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
614 magic ":(literal)"
615
616 --noglob-pathspecs::
617 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
618 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
619 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
620 magic ":(glob)"
621
622 --icase-pathspecs::
623 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
624 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
625
626 GIT COMMANDS
627 ------------
628
629 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
630 ("plumbing") commands.
631
632 High-level commands (porcelain)
633 -------------------------------
634
635 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
636 ancillary user utilities.
637
638 Main porcelain commands
639 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
640
641 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
642
643 Ancillary Commands
644 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
645 Manipulators:
646
647 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
648
649 Interrogators:
650
651 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
652
653
654 Interacting with Others
655 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
656
657 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
658 people via patch over e-mail.
659
660 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
661
662
663 Low-level commands (plumbing)
664 -----------------------------
665
666 Although Git includes its
667 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
668 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
669 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
670 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
671
672 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
673 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
674 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
675 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
676 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
677 end user experience.
678
679 The following description divides
680 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
681 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
682 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
683 repositories.
684
685
686 Manipulation commands
687 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
688
689 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
690
691
692 Interrogation commands
693 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
694
695 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
696
697 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
698 the working tree.
699
700
701 Synching repositories
702 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
703
704 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
705
706 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
707 typically do not use them directly.
708
709 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
710
711
712 Internal helper commands
713 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
714
715 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
716 users typically do not use them directly.
717
718 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
719
720
721 Configuration Mechanism
722 -----------------------
723
724 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
725 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
726 like this:
727
728 ------------
729 #
730 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
731 #
732
733 ; core variables
734 [core]
735 ; Don't trust file modes
736 filemode = false
737
738 ; user identity
739 [user]
740 name = "Junio C Hamano"
741 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
742
743 ------------
744
745 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
746 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
747 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
748
749
750 Identifier Terminology
751 ----------------------
752 <object>::
753 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
754
755 <blob>::
756 Indicates a blob object name.
757
758 <tree>::
759 Indicates a tree object name.
760
761 <commit>::
762 Indicates a commit object name.
763
764 <tree-ish>::
765 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
766 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
767 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
768 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
769
770 <commit-ish>::
771 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
772 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
773 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
774 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
775
776 <type>::
777 Indicates that an object type is required.
778 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
779
780 <file>::
781 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
782 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
783
784 Symbolic Identifiers
785 --------------------
786 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
787 symbolic notation:
788
789 HEAD::
790 indicates the head of the current branch.
791
792 <tag>::
793 a valid tag 'name'
794 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
795
796 <head>::
797 a valid head 'name'
798 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
799
800 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
801 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
802
803
804 File/Directory Structure
805 ------------------------
806
807 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
808
809 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
810
811 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
812 `$GIT_DIR`.
813
814
815 Terminology
816 -----------
817 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
818
819
820 Environment Variables
821 ---------------------
822 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
823
824 The Git Repository
825 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
826 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
827 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
828 Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
829
830 `GIT_INDEX_FILE`::
831 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
832 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
833 is used.
834
835 `GIT_INDEX_VERSION`::
836 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
837 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
838 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
839 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
840
841 `GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY`::
842 If the object storage directory is specified via this
843 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
844 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
845 directory is used.
846
847 `GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES`::
848 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
849 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
850 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
851 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
852 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
853
854 `GIT_DIR`::
855 If the `GIT_DIR` environment variable is set then it
856 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
857 for the base of the repository.
858 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
859
860 `GIT_WORK_TREE`::
861 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
862 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
863 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
864
865 `GIT_NAMESPACE`::
866 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
867 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
868
869 `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES`::
870 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
871 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
872 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
873 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
874 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
875 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
876 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
877 might be present in order to compare them with the current
878 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
879 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
880 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
881 e.g.,
882 `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink`.
883
884 `GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM`::
885 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
886 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
887 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
888 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
889 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
890 boundaries. Like `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES`, this will not affect
891 an explicit repository directory set via `GIT_DIR` or on the
892 command line.
893
894 `GIT_COMMON_DIR`::
895 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
896 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
897 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
898 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
899 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
900 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
901 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
902
903 Git Commits
904 ~~~~~~~~~~~
905 `GIT_AUTHOR_NAME`::
906 `GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL`::
907 `GIT_AUTHOR_DATE`::
908 `GIT_COMMITTER_NAME`::
909 `GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL`::
910 `GIT_COMMITTER_DATE`::
911 'EMAIL'::
912 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
913
914 Git Diffs
915 ~~~~~~~~~
916 `GIT_DIFF_OPTS`::
917 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
918 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
919 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
920 value passed on the Git diff command line.
921
922 `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF`::
923 When the environment variable `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is set, the
924 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
925 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
926 `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called with 7 parameters:
927
928 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
929 +
930 where:
931
932 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
933 contents of <old|new>,
934 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
935 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
936 +
937 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
938 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
939 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
940 index). `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` should not worry about unlinking the
941 temporary file --- it is removed when `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` exits.
942 +
943 For a path that is unmerged, `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called with 1
944 parameter, <path>.
945 +
946 For each path `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called, two environment variables,
947 `GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER` and `GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL` are set.
948
949 `GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER`::
950 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
951
952 `GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL`::
953 The total number of paths.
954
955 other
956 ~~~~~
957 `GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY`::
958 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
959 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
960 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
961
962 `GIT_PAGER`::
963 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
964 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
965 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
966 linkgit:git-config[1].
967
968 `GIT_EDITOR`::
969 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
970 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
971 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
972 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
973
974 `GIT_SSH`::
975 `GIT_SSH_COMMAND`::
976 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
977 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
978 when they need to connect to a remote system.
979 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
980 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
981 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
982 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
983 something other than the default SSH port.
984 +
985 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
986 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
987 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
988 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
989 needed).
990 +
991 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
992 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
993 for further details.
994
995 `GIT_ASKPASS`::
996 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
997 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
998 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
999 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the `core.askPass`
1000 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
1001
1002 `GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT`::
1003 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
1004 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
1005
1006 `GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM`::
1007 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
1008 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
1009 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
1010 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
1011 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
1012 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
1013
1014 `GIT_FLUSH`::
1015 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
1016 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
1017 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
1018 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
1019 flushed. If this
1020 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
1021 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
1022 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
1023 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
1024
1025 `GIT_TRACE`::
1026 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
1027 command execution and external command execution.
1028 +
1029 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
1030 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
1031 stderr.
1032 +
1033 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
1034 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
1035 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
1036 trace messages into this file descriptor.
1037 +
1038 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
1039 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
1040 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
1041 into it.
1042 +
1043 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
1044 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
1045
1046 `GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS`::
1047 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
1048 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1049 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1050 pack-related performance problems.
1051 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1052
1053 `GIT_TRACE_PACKET`::
1054 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1055 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1056 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1057 starting with "PACK" (but see `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE` below).
1058 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1059
1060 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE`::
1061 Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
1062 given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
1063 verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
1064 certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
1065 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
1066 the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
1067 +
1068 Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
1069 of clones and fetches.
1070
1071 `GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE`::
1072 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1073 time of each Git command.
1074 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1075
1076 `GIT_TRACE_SETUP`::
1077 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1078 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1079 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1080
1081 `GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW`::
1082 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1083 cloning of shallow repositories.
1084 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1085
1086 `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS`::
1087 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1088 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1089 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1090 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1091 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1092 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1093 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1094
1095 `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS`::
1096 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1097 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1098
1099 `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS`::
1100 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1101 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1102
1103 `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS`::
1104 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1105 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1106
1107 `GIT_REFLOG_ACTION`::
1108 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1109 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1110 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1111 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1112 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1113 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1114 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1115 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1116
1117 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1118 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1119 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1120 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1121 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1122 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1123 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1124 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1125 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1126 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1127
1128 `GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL`::
1129 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1130 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1131 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1132 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1133 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1134 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1135 currently used by git are:
1136
1137 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1138 or local paths)
1139
1140 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1141 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1142
1143 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
1144 `ssh://`, etc).
1145
1146 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1147 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1148 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1149
1150 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1151 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
1152
1153
1154 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1155 ------------------------
1156
1157 More detail on the following is available from the
1158 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1159 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1160
1161 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1162 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1163 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1164 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1165 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1166 as tags and branch heads.
1167
1168 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1169 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1170 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1171 and some number of parent commits.
1172
1173 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1174 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1175 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1176 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1177
1178 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1179 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1180 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1181 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1182 purpose.
1183
1184 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1185 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1186
1187 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1188 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1189 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1190 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1191 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1192 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1193
1194 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1195 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1196 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1197 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1198 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1199 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1200 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1201 content stored in the index.
1202
1203 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1204 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1205 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1206
1207 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1208 ---------------------
1209
1210 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1211 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1212 for a first-time user.
1213
1214 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1215 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1216 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1217
1218 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1219
1220 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1221 examples.
1222
1223 The internals are documented in the
1224 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1225
1226 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1227 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1228
1229
1230 Authors
1231 -------
1232 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1233 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1234 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1235 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1236
1237 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1238 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1239 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1240
1241 Reporting Bugs
1242 --------------
1243
1244 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1245 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1246 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1247
1248 SEE ALSO
1249 --------
1250 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1251 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1252 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1253 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1254 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1255
1256 GIT
1257 ---
1258 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite