9eec74091097c0ea5c9fea69a09eb63e3cebd8d9
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
1 git-push(1)
2 ===========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
14 [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
15 [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
16
17 DESCRIPTION
18 -----------
19
20 Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
21 necessary to complete the given refs.
22
23 You can make interesting things happen to a repository
24 every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
25 documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
26
27 When the command line does not specify where to push with the
28 `<repository>` argument, `branch.*.remote` configuration for the
29 current branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the
30 configuration is missing, it defaults to 'origin'.
31
32 When the command line does not specify what to push with `<refspec>...`
33 arguments or `--all`, `--mirror`, `--tags` options, the command finds
34 the default `<refspec>` by consulting `remote.*.push` configuration,
35 and if it is not found, honors `push.default` configuration to decide
36 what to push (See gitlink:git-config[1] for the meaning of `push.default`).
37
38
39 OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
40 ------------------
41 <repository>::
42 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
43 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
44 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
45 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
46
47 <refspec>...::
48 Specify what destination ref to update with what source object.
49 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
50 `+`, followed by the source object <src>, followed
51 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
52 +
53 The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
54 it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
55 `HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
56 +
57 The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
58 push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
59 be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
60 updated.
61 +
62 The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
63 on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
64 a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it can fast-forward
65 <dst>. By having the optional leading `+`, you can tell Git to update
66 the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by default (e.g., it is not a
67 fast-forward.) This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
68 EXAMPLES below for details.
69 +
70 `tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
71 +
72 Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
73 the remote repository.
74 +
75 The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
76 directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
77 the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
78 already exists on the remote side.
79
80 --all::
81 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
82 refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
83
84 --prune::
85 Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
86 a remote branch `tmp` will be removed if a local branch with the same
87 name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.
88 `git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/*` would
89 make sure that remote `refs/tmp/foo` will be removed if `refs/heads/foo`
90 doesn't exist.
91
92 --mirror::
93 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
94 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
95 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
96 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
97 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
98 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
99 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
100 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
101 set.
102
103 -n::
104 --dry-run::
105 Do everything except actually send the updates.
106
107 --porcelain::
108 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
109 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
110 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
111
112 --delete::
113 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
114 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
115
116 --tags::
117 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
118 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
119 line.
120
121 --follow-tags::
122 Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option,
123 and also push annotated tags in `refs/tags` that are missing
124 from the remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are
125 reachable from the refs being pushed.
126
127 --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
128 --exec=<git-receive-pack>::
129 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
130 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
131 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
132 a directory on the default $PATH.
133
134 --[no-]force-with-lease::
135 --force-with-lease=<refname>::
136 --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>::
137 Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is
138 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
139 +
140 This option bypasses the check, but instead requires that the
141 current value of the ref to be the expected value. "git push"
142 fails otherwise.
143 +
144 Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
145 You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
146 replace the history you originally published with the rebased history.
147 If somebody else built on top of your original history while you are
148 rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may advance with her
149 commit, and blindly pushing with `--force` will lose her work.
150 +
151 This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
152 updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
153 still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
154 other people did anything to the ref (it is like taking a "lease" on
155 the ref without explicitly locking it, and you update the ref while
156 making sure that your earlier "lease" is still valid).
157 +
158 `--force-with-lease` alone, without specifying the details, will protect
159 all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring their
160 current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we have
161 for them, unless specified with a `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
162 option that explicitly states what the expected value is.
163 +
164 `--force-with-lease=<refname>`, without specifying the expected value, will
165 protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be updated, by
166 requiring its current value to be the same as the remote-tracking
167 branch we have for it.
168 +
169 `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>` will protect the named ref (alone),
170 if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be
171 the same as the specified value <expect> (which is allowed to be
172 different from the remote-tracking branch we have for the refname,
173 or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking branch when
174 this form is used).
175 +
176 Note that all forms other than `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
177 that specifies the expected current value of the ref explicitly are
178 still experimental and their semantics may change as we gain experience
179 with this feature.
180 +
181 "--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous --force-with-lease on the
182 command line.
183
184 -f::
185 --force::
186 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
187 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
188 Also, when `--force-with-lease` option is used, the command refuses
189 to update a remote ref whose current value does not match
190 what is expected.
191 +
192 This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote repository
193 to lose commits; use it with care.
194 +
195 Note that `--force` applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
196 using it with `push.default` set to `matching` or with multiple push
197 destinations configured with `remote.*.push` may overwrite refs
198 other than the current branch (including local refs that are
199 strictly behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only
200 one branch, use a `+` in front of the refspec to push (e.g `git push
201 origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
202 `<refspec>...` section above for details.
203
204 --repo=<repository>::
205 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
206 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
207 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
208 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
209 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
210 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
211 the difference between these two commands
212 +
213 --------------------------
214 git push public #1
215 git push --repo=public #2
216 --------------------------
217 +
218 is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
219 only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
220 useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
221
222 -u::
223 --set-upstream::
224 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
225 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
226 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
227 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
228
229 --[no-]thin::
230 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
231 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
232 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
233 \--thin.
234
235 -q::
236 --quiet::
237 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
238 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
239 error stream.
240
241 -v::
242 --verbose::
243 Run verbosely.
244
245 --progress::
246 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
247 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
248 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
249 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
250
251 --recurse-submodules=check|on-demand::
252 Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
253 pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch. If 'check' is
254 used Git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
255 the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote
256 of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
257 aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
258 all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will
259 be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
260 revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
261
262 --[no-]verify::
263 Toggle the pre-push hook (see linkgit:githooks[5]). The
264 default is \--verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the
265 push. With \--no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.
266
267
268 include::urls-remotes.txt[]
269
270 OUTPUT
271 ------
272
273 The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
274 section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
275 locally or via ssh).
276
277 The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
278 representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
279
280 -------------------------------
281 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
282 -------------------------------
283
284 If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
285
286 -------------------------------
287 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
288 -------------------------------
289
290 The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
291 option is used.
292
293 flag::
294 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
295 (space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
296 `+`;; for a successful forced update;
297 `-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
298 `*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
299 `!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
300 `=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
301
302 summary::
303 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
304 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
305 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
306 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
307 +
308 For a failed update, more details are given:
309 +
310 --
311 rejected::
312 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
313 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
314
315 remote rejected::
316 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
317 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
318 of the following safety options in effect:
319 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
320 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
321 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
322 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
323
324 remote failure::
325 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
326 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
327 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
328 --
329
330 from::
331 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
332 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
333 name of the local ref is omitted.
334
335 to::
336 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
337 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
338
339 reason::
340 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
341 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
342 failure is described.
343
344 Note about fast-forwards
345 ------------------------
346
347 When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
348 point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
349 fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
350
351 In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
352 commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
353 builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
354
355 In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
356 suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
357 a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
358 leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
359
360 ----------------
361
362 B
363 /
364 ---X---A
365
366 ----------------
367
368 Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
369 back to the original repository from which you two obtained the original
370 commit X.
371
372 The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
373 commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
374
375 But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
376 now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
377 so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
378 will now start building on top of B.
379
380 The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
381 to prevent such loss of history.
382
383 If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
384 the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
385 history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
386 by both parties, and push the result back.
387
388 You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
389 the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
390 and B.
391
392 ----------------
393
394 B---C
395 / /
396 ---X---A
397
398 ----------------
399
400 Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
401 push will be accepted.
402
403 Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
404 with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
405 create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
406 A.
407
408 ----------------
409
410 B D
411 / /
412 ---X---A
413
414 ----------------
415
416 Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
417 accepted.
418
419 There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
420 rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
421 pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
422 A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
423 commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
424 forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
425 you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
426 (and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
427 overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
428 a case where you do mean to lose history.
429
430
431 Examples
432 --------
433
434 `git push`::
435 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
436 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
437 configured for the current branch).
438
439 `git push origin`::
440 Without additional configuration, works like
441 `git push origin :`.
442 +
443 The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
444 configured by setting the `push` option of the remote, or the `push.default`
445 configuration variable.
446 +
447 For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
448 use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
449 the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
450 `git push origin`.
451
452 `git push origin :`::
453 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
454 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
455 description of "matching" branches.
456
457 `git push origin master`::
458 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
459 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
460 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
461 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
462 created.
463
464 `git push origin HEAD`::
465 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
466 remote.
467
468 `git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
469 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
470 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
471 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `mothership` repository;
472 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
473 +
474 This is to emulate `git fetch` run on the `mothership` using `git
475 push` that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate
476 the work done on `satellite`, and is often necessary when you can
477 only make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into
478 mothership but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite
479 because the latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).
480 +
481 After running this `git push` on the `satellite` machine, you would
482 ssh into the `mothership` and run `git merge` there to complete the
483 emulation of `git pull` that were run on `mothership` to pull changes
484 made on `satellite`.
485
486 `git push origin HEAD:master`::
487 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
488 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
489 branch without thinking about its local name.
490
491 `git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
492 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
493 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
494 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
495 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
496 the ref name on its own will work.
497
498 `git push origin :experimental`::
499 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
500 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
501
502 `git push origin +dev:master`::
503 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
504 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
505 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
506 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
507 +
508 ----
509 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
510 \
511 X---Y---Z dev
512 ----
513 +
514 The above command would change the origin repository to
515 +
516 ----
517 A---B (unnamed branch)
518 /
519 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
520 ----
521 +
522 Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
523 and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
524 a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
525
526 GIT
527 ---
528 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite