9cce703c5a0aab53cc86e00992447880e8f400cd
[git/git.git] / Documentation / gitignore.txt
1 gitignore(5)
2 ============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 gitignore - Specifies intentionally untracked files to ignore
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 $HOME/.config/git/ignore, $GIT_DIR/info/exclude, .gitignore
11
12 DESCRIPTION
13 -----------
14
15 A `gitignore` file specifies intentionally untracked files that
16 Git should ignore.
17 Files already tracked by Git are not affected; see the NOTES
18 below for details.
19
20 Each line in a `gitignore` file specifies a pattern.
21 When deciding whether to ignore a path, Git normally checks
22 `gitignore` patterns from multiple sources, with the following
23 order of precedence, from highest to lowest (within one level of
24 precedence, the last matching pattern decides the outcome):
25
26 * Patterns read from the command line for those commands that support
27 them.
28
29 * Patterns read from a `.gitignore` file in the same directory
30 as the path, or in any parent directory, with patterns in the
31 higher level files (up to the toplevel of the work tree) being overridden
32 by those in lower level files down to the directory containing the file.
33 These patterns match relative to the location of the
34 `.gitignore` file. A project normally includes such
35 `.gitignore` files in its repository, containing patterns for
36 files generated as part of the project build.
37
38 * Patterns read from `$GIT_DIR/info/exclude`.
39
40 * Patterns read from the file specified by the configuration
41 variable 'core.excludesfile'.
42
43 Which file to place a pattern in depends on how the pattern is meant to
44 be used.
45
46 * Patterns which should be version-controlled and distributed to
47 other repositories via clone (i.e., files that all developers will want
48 to ignore) should go into a `.gitignore` file.
49
50 * Patterns which are
51 specific to a particular repository but which do not need to be shared
52 with other related repositories (e.g., auxiliary files that live inside
53 the repository but are specific to one user's workflow) should go into
54 the `$GIT_DIR/info/exclude` file.
55
56 * Patterns which a user wants Git to
57 ignore in all situations (e.g., backup or temporary files generated by
58 the user's editor of choice) generally go into a file specified by
59 `core.excludesfile` in the user's `~/.gitconfig`. Its default value is
60 $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not set or
61 empty, $HOME/.config/git/ignore is used instead.
62
63 The underlying Git plumbing tools, such as
64 'git ls-files' and 'git read-tree', read
65 `gitignore` patterns specified by command-line options, or from
66 files specified by command-line options. Higher-level Git
67 tools, such as 'git status' and 'git add',
68 use patterns from the sources specified above.
69
70 PATTERN FORMAT
71 --------------
72
73 - A blank line matches no files, so it can serve as a separator
74 for readability.
75
76 - A line starting with # serves as a comment.
77 Put a backslash ("`\`") in front of the first hash for patterns
78 that begin with a hash.
79
80 - Trailing spaces are ignored unless they are quoted with backslash
81 ("`\`").
82
83 - An optional prefix "`!`" which negates the pattern; any
84 matching file excluded by a previous pattern will become
85 included again.
86 Put a backslash ("`\`") in front of the first "`!`" for patterns
87 that begin with a literal "`!`", for example, "`\!important!.txt`".
88 It is possible to re-include a file if a parent directory of that
89 file is excluded if certain conditions are met. See section NOTES
90 for detail.
91
92 - If the pattern ends with a slash, it is removed for the
93 purpose of the following description, but it would only find
94 a match with a directory. In other words, `foo/` will match a
95 directory `foo` and paths underneath it, but will not match a
96 regular file or a symbolic link `foo` (this is consistent
97 with the way how pathspec works in general in Git).
98
99 - If the pattern does not contain a slash '/', Git treats it as
100 a shell glob pattern and checks for a match against the
101 pathname relative to the location of the `.gitignore` file
102 (relative to the toplevel of the work tree if not from a
103 `.gitignore` file).
104
105 - Otherwise, Git treats the pattern as a shell glob suitable
106 for consumption by fnmatch(3) with the FNM_PATHNAME flag:
107 wildcards in the pattern will not match a / in the pathname.
108 For example, "Documentation/{asterisk}.html" matches
109 "Documentation/git.html" but not "Documentation/ppc/ppc.html"
110 or "tools/perf/Documentation/perf.html".
111
112 - A leading slash matches the beginning of the pathname.
113 For example, "/{asterisk}.c" matches "cat-file.c" but not
114 "mozilla-sha1/sha1.c".
115
116 Two consecutive asterisks ("`**`") in patterns matched against
117 full pathname may have special meaning:
118
119 - A leading "`**`" followed by a slash means match in all
120 directories. For example, "`**/foo`" matches file or directory
121 "`foo`" anywhere, the same as pattern "`foo`". "`**/foo/bar`"
122 matches file or directory "`bar`" anywhere that is directly
123 under directory "`foo`".
124
125 - A trailing "`/**`" matches everything inside. For example,
126 "`abc/**`" matches all files inside directory "`abc`", relative
127 to the location of the `.gitignore` file, with infinite depth.
128
129 - A slash followed by two consecutive asterisks then a slash
130 matches zero or more directories. For example, "`a/**/b`"
131 matches "`a/b`", "`a/x/b`", "`a/x/y/b`" and so on.
132
133 - Other consecutive asterisks are considered invalid.
134
135 NOTES
136 -----
137
138 The purpose of gitignore files is to ensure that certain files
139 not tracked by Git remain untracked.
140
141 To stop tracking a file that is currently tracked, use
142 'git rm --cached'.
143
144 To re-include files or directories when their parent directory is
145 excluded, the following conditions must be met:
146
147 - The rules to exclude a directory and re-include a subset back must
148 be in the same .gitignore file.
149
150 - The directory part in the re-include rules must be literal (i.e. no
151 wildcards)
152
153 - The rules to exclude the parent directory must not end with a
154 trailing slash.
155
156 - The rules to exclude the parent directory must have at least one
157 slash.
158
159 EXAMPLES
160 --------
161
162 --------------------------------------------------------------
163 $ git status
164 [...]
165 # Untracked files:
166 [...]
167 # Documentation/foo.html
168 # Documentation/gitignore.html
169 # file.o
170 # lib.a
171 # src/internal.o
172 [...]
173 $ cat .git/info/exclude
174 # ignore objects and archives, anywhere in the tree.
175 *.[oa]
176 $ cat Documentation/.gitignore
177 # ignore generated html files,
178 *.html
179 # except foo.html which is maintained by hand
180 !foo.html
181 $ git status
182 [...]
183 # Untracked files:
184 [...]
185 # Documentation/foo.html
186 [...]
187 --------------------------------------------------------------
188
189 Another example:
190
191 --------------------------------------------------------------
192 $ cat .gitignore
193 vmlinux*
194 $ ls arch/foo/kernel/vm*
195 arch/foo/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S
196 $ echo '!/vmlinux*' >arch/foo/kernel/.gitignore
197 --------------------------------------------------------------
198
199 The second .gitignore prevents Git from ignoring
200 `arch/foo/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S`.
201
202 Example to exclude everything except a specific directory `foo/bar`
203 (note the `/*` - without the slash, the wildcard would also exclude
204 everything within `foo/bar`):
205
206 --------------------------------------------------------------
207 $ cat .gitignore
208 # exclude everything except directory foo/bar
209 /*
210 !/foo
211 /foo/*
212 !/foo/bar
213 --------------------------------------------------------------
214
215 SEE ALSO
216 --------
217 linkgit:git-rm[1],
218 linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5],
219 linkgit:git-check-ignore[1]
220
221 GIT
222 ---
223 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite