compat/bswap.h: fix endianness detection
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v1.9.2/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.2]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
50 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
51 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
52
53 * link:v1.8.5.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.5]
54
55 * release notes for
56 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
57 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
58 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
59 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
60 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
61 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
62
63 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
64
65 * release notes for
66 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
67 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
68 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
69 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
70 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
71 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
72
73 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
74
75 * release notes for
76 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
77 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
78 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
79 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
80 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
81
82 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
83
84 * release notes for
85 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
86 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
87 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
88 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
89
90 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
91
92 * release notes for
93 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
94 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
95 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
96 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
97 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
98 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
99 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
100
101 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
102
103 * release notes for
104 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
105 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
106 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
107 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
108
109 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
110
111 * release notes for
112 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
113 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
114 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
115 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
116 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
117
118 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
119
120 * release notes for
121 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
122 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
123 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
124 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
125 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
126 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
127 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
129
130 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
131
132 * release notes for
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
134 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
135 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
136 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
137 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
138 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
139
140 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
141
142 * release notes for
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
146 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
147 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
148 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
149 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
150 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
151
152 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
153
154 * release notes for
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
156 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
157 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
158 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
159 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
160 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
162
163 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
164
165 * release notes for
166 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
167 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
168 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
169 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
170 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
171 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
174
175 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
176
177 * release notes for
178 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
179 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
180 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
181 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
182 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
183 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
185
186 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
187
188 * release notes for
189 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
193 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
194
195 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
196
197 * release notes for
198 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
199 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
200 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
201 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
202 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
203 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
204
205 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
206
207 * release notes for
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
209 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
210 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
211 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
212 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
213 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
214
215 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
216
217 * release notes for
218 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
219 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
220 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
221 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
222 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
223 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
224
225 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
226
227 * release notes for
228 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
229 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
230 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
231 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
232 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
233
234 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
235
236 * release notes for
237 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
238 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
239 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
240 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
241 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
242 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
243 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
244 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
245 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
246 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
247
248 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
249
250 * release notes for
251 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
252 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
253 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
254 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
255
256 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
257
258 * release notes for
259 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
260 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
261 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
262 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
263 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
264 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
265 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
266 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
267 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
268 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
269
270 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
271
272 * release notes for
273 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
274 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
275 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
276 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
277 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
278 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
279
280 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
281
282 * release notes for
283 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
284 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
285 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
286 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
287 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
288
289 * release notes for
290 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
291 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
292 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
293 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
294 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
295 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
296
297 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
298
299 * release notes for
300 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
301 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
302 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
303 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
304
305 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
306
307 * release notes for
308 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
309 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
310 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
311 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
312 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
313 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
314 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
315
316 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
317
318 * release notes for
319 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
320 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
321 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
322 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
323 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
324 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
325 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
326
327 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
328
329 * release notes for
330 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
331 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
332 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
333 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
334 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
335 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
336 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
337
338 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
339
340 * release notes for
341 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
342 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
343 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
344 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
345 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
346 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
347 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
348 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
349
350 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
351
352 * release notes for
353 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
354 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
355 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
356 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
357 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
358 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
359 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
360 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
361 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
362
363 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
364
365 * release notes for
366 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
367 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
368 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
369 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
370 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
371 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
372
373 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
374
375 * release notes for
376 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
377 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
378 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
379 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
380 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
381 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
382 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
383
384 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
385
386 * release notes for
387 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
388 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
389 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
390 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
391 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
392 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
393 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
394
395 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
396 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
397 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
398 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
399
400 ============
401
402 endif::stalenotes[]
403
404 OPTIONS
405 -------
406 --version::
407 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
408
409 --help::
410 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
411 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
412 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
413 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
414 +
415 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
416 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
417 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
418 help ...`.
419
420 -C <path>::
421 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
422 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
423 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
424 <path>`.
425 +
426 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
427 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
428 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
429 example the following invocations are equivalent:
430
431 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
432 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
433
434 -c <name>=<value>::
435 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
436 given will override values from configuration files.
437 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
438 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
439
440 --exec-path[=<path>]::
441 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
442 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
443 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
444 the current setting and then exit.
445
446 --html-path::
447 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
448 documentation is installed and exit.
449
450 --man-path::
451 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
452 this version of Git and exit.
453
454 --info-path::
455 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
456 version of Git are installed and exit.
457
458 -p::
459 --paginate::
460 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
461 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
462 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
463 below).
464
465 --no-pager::
466 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
467
468 --git-dir=<path>::
469 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
470 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
471 path or relative path to current working directory.
472
473 --work-tree=<path>::
474 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
475 or a path relative to the current working directory.
476 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
477 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
478 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
479 more detailed discussion).
480
481 --namespace=<path>::
482 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
483 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
484 variable.
485
486 --bare::
487 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
488 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
489 directory.
490
491 --no-replace-objects::
492 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
493 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
494
495 --literal-pathspecs::
496 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
497 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
498 variable to `1`.
499
500 --glob-pathspecs::
501 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
502 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
503 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
504 magic ":(literal)"
505
506 --noglob-pathspecs::
507 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
508 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
509 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
510 magic ":(glob)"
511
512 --icase-pathspecs::
513 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
514 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
515
516 GIT COMMANDS
517 ------------
518
519 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
520 ("plumbing") commands.
521
522 High-level commands (porcelain)
523 -------------------------------
524
525 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
526 ancillary user utilities.
527
528 Main porcelain commands
529 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
530
531 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
532
533 Ancillary Commands
534 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
535 Manipulators:
536
537 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
538
539 Interrogators:
540
541 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
542
543
544 Interacting with Others
545 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
546
547 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
548 people via patch over e-mail.
549
550 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
551
552
553 Low-level commands (plumbing)
554 -----------------------------
555
556 Although Git includes its
557 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
558 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
559 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
560 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
561
562 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
563 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
564 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
565 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
566 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
567 end user experience.
568
569 The following description divides
570 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
571 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
572 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
573 repositories.
574
575
576 Manipulation commands
577 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
578
579 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
580
581
582 Interrogation commands
583 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
584
585 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
586
587 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
588 the working tree.
589
590
591 Synching repositories
592 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
593
594 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
595
596 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
597 typically do not use them directly.
598
599 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
600
601
602 Internal helper commands
603 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
604
605 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
606 users typically do not use them directly.
607
608 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
609
610
611 Configuration Mechanism
612 -----------------------
613
614 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
615 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
616 like this:
617
618 ------------
619 #
620 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
621 #
622
623 ; core variables
624 [core]
625 ; Don't trust file modes
626 filemode = false
627
628 ; user identity
629 [user]
630 name = "Junio C Hamano"
631 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
632
633 ------------
634
635 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
636 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
637 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
638
639
640 Identifier Terminology
641 ----------------------
642 <object>::
643 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
644
645 <blob>::
646 Indicates a blob object name.
647
648 <tree>::
649 Indicates a tree object name.
650
651 <commit>::
652 Indicates a commit object name.
653
654 <tree-ish>::
655 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
656 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
657 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
658 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
659
660 <commit-ish>::
661 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
662 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
663 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
664 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
665
666 <type>::
667 Indicates that an object type is required.
668 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
669
670 <file>::
671 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
672 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
673
674 Symbolic Identifiers
675 --------------------
676 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
677 symbolic notation:
678
679 HEAD::
680 indicates the head of the current branch.
681
682 <tag>::
683 a valid tag 'name'
684 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
685
686 <head>::
687 a valid head 'name'
688 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
689
690 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
691 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
692
693
694 File/Directory Structure
695 ------------------------
696
697 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
698
699 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
700
701 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
702 `$GIT_DIR`.
703
704
705 Terminology
706 -----------
707 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
708
709
710 Environment Variables
711 ---------------------
712 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
713
714 The Git Repository
715 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
716 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
717 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
718 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
719
720 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
721 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
722 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
723 is used.
724
725 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
726 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
727 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
728 files. By default index file version [23] is used.
729
730 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
731 If the object storage directory is specified via this
732 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
733 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
734 directory is used.
735
736 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
737 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
738 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
739 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
740 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
741 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
742
743 'GIT_DIR'::
744 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
745 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
746 for the base of the repository.
747 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
748
749 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
750 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
751 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
752 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
753
754 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
755 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
756 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
757
758 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
759 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
760 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
761 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
762 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
763 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
764 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
765 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
766 might be present in order to compare them with the current
767 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
768 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
769 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
770 e.g.,
771 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
772
773 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
774 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
775 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
776 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
777 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
778 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
779 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
780 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
781 command line.
782
783 Git Commits
784 ~~~~~~~~~~~
785 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
786 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
787 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
788 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
789 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
790 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
791 'EMAIL'::
792 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
793
794 Git Diffs
795 ~~~~~~~~~
796 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
797 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
798 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
799 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
800 value passed on the Git diff command line.
801
802 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
803 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
804 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
805 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
806 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
807
808 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
809 +
810 where:
811
812 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
813 contents of <old|new>,
814 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
815 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
816 +
817 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
818 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
819 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
820 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
821 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
822 +
823 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
824 parameter, <path>.
825 +
826 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
827 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
828
829 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
830 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
831
832 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
833 The total number of paths.
834
835 other
836 ~~~~~
837 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
838 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
839 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
840 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
841
842 'GIT_PAGER'::
843 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
844 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
845 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
846 linkgit:git-config[1].
847
848 'GIT_EDITOR'::
849 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
850 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
851 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
852 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
853
854 'GIT_SSH'::
855 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
856 and 'git push' will use this command instead
857 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
858 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
859 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
860 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
861 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
862 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
863 than the default SSH port.
864 +
865 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
866 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
867 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
868 +
869 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
870 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
871 for further details.
872
873 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
874 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
875 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
876 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
877 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
878 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
879
880 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
881 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
882 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
883 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
884 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
885 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
886 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
887
888 'GIT_FLUSH'::
889 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
890 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
891 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
892 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
893 flushed. If this
894 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
895 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
896 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
897 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
898
899 'GIT_TRACE'::
900 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
901 is case insensitive), Git will print `trace:` messages on
902 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
903 execution and external command execution.
904 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
905 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
906 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
907 trace messages into this file descriptor.
908 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
909 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
910 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
911 into it.
912
913 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
914 If this variable is set to a path, a file will be created at
915 the given path logging all accesses to any packs. For each
916 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
917 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
918 pack-related performance problems.
919
920 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
921 If this variable is set, it shows a trace of all packets
922 coming in or out of a given program. This can help with
923 debugging object negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing
924 is turned off at a packet starting with "PACK".
925
926 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
927 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
928 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
929 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
930 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
931 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
932 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
933 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
934
935 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
936 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
937 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
938
939 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
940 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
941 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
942
943 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
944 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
945 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
946
947 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
948 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
949 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
950 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
951 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
952 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
953 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
954 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
955 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
956
957
958 Discussion[[Discussion]]
959 ------------------------
960
961 More detail on the following is available from the
962 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
963 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
964
965 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
966 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
967 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
968 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
969 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
970 as tags and branch heads.
971
972 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
973 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
974 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
975 and some number of parent commits.
976
977 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
978 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
979 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
980 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
981
982 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
983 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
984 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
985 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
986 purpose.
987
988 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
989 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
990
991 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
992 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
993 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
994 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
995 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
996 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
997
998 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
999 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1000 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1001 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1002 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1003 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1004 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1005 content stored in the index.
1006
1007 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1008 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1009 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1010
1011 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1012 ---------------------
1013
1014 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1015 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1016 for a first-time user.
1017
1018 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1019 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1020 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1021
1022 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1023
1024 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1025 examples.
1026
1027 The internals are documented in the
1028 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1029
1030 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1031 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1032
1033
1034 Authors
1035 -------
1036 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1037 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1038 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1039 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1040
1041 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1042 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1043 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1044
1045 Reporting Bugs
1046 --------------
1047
1048 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1049 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1050 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1051
1052 SEE ALSO
1053 --------
1054 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1055 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1056 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1057 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1058 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1059
1060 GIT
1061 ---
1062 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite