compat/bswap.h: fix endianness detection
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-send-email.txt
1 git-send-email(1)
2 =================
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-send-email - Send a collection of patches as emails
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git send-email' [options] <file|directory|rev-list options>...
13
14
15 DESCRIPTION
16 -----------
17 Takes the patches given on the command line and emails them out.
18 Patches can be specified as files, directories (which will send all
19 files in the directory), or directly as a revision list. In the
20 last case, any format accepted by linkgit:git-format-patch[1] can
21 be passed to git send-email.
22
23 The header of the email is configurable by command line options. If not
24 specified on the command line, the user will be prompted with a ReadLine
25 enabled interface to provide the necessary information.
26
27 There are two formats accepted for patch files:
28
29 1. mbox format files
30 +
31 This is what linkgit:git-format-patch[1] generates. Most headers and MIME
32 formatting are ignored.
33
34 2. The original format used by Greg Kroah-Hartman's 'send_lots_of_email.pl'
35 script
36 +
37 This format expects the first line of the file to contain the "Cc:" value
38 and the "Subject:" of the message as the second line.
39
40
41 OPTIONS
42 -------
43
44 Composing
45 ~~~~~~~~~
46
47 --annotate::
48 Review and edit each patch you're about to send. Default is the value
49 of 'sendemail.annotate'. See the CONFIGURATION section for
50 'sendemail.multiedit'.
51
52 --bcc=<address>::
53 Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
54 'sendemail.bcc'.
55 +
56 The --bcc option must be repeated for each user you want on the bcc list.
57
58 --cc=<address>::
59 Specify a starting "Cc:" value for each email.
60 Default is the value of 'sendemail.cc'.
61 +
62 The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
63
64 --compose::
65 Invoke a text editor (see GIT_EDITOR in linkgit:git-var[1])
66 to edit an introductory message for the patch series.
67 +
68 When '--compose' is used, git send-email will use the From, Subject, and
69 In-Reply-To headers specified in the message. If the body of the message
70 (what you type after the headers and a blank line) only contains blank
71 (or Git: prefixed) lines the summary won't be sent, but From, Subject,
72 and In-Reply-To headers will be used unless they are removed.
73 +
74 Missing From or In-Reply-To headers will be prompted for.
75 +
76 See the CONFIGURATION section for 'sendemail.multiedit'.
77
78 --from=<address>::
79 Specify the sender of the emails. If not specified on the command line,
80 the value of the 'sendemail.from' configuration option is used. If
81 neither the command line option nor 'sendemail.from' are set, then the
82 user will be prompted for the value. The default for the prompt will be
83 the value of GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT, or GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT if that is not
84 set, as returned by "git var -l".
85
86 --in-reply-to=<identifier>::
87 Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
88 reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
89 provide a new patch series.
90 The second and subsequent emails will be sent as replies according to
91 the `--[no]-chain-reply-to` setting.
92 +
93 So for example when `--thread` and `--no-chain-reply-to` are specified, the
94 second and subsequent patches will be replies to the first one like in the
95 illustration below where `[PATCH v2 0/3]` is in reply to `[PATCH 0/2]`:
96 +
97 [PATCH 0/2] Here is what I did...
98 [PATCH 1/2] Clean up and tests
99 [PATCH 2/2] Implementation
100 [PATCH v2 0/3] Here is a reroll
101 [PATCH v2 1/3] Clean up
102 [PATCH v2 2/3] New tests
103 [PATCH v2 3/3] Implementation
104 +
105 Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
106 is not set, this will be prompted for.
107
108 --subject=<string>::
109 Specify the initial subject of the email thread.
110 Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
111 is not set, this will be prompted for.
112
113 --to=<address>::
114 Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated. Generally, this
115 will be the upstream maintainer of the project involved. Default is the
116 value of the 'sendemail.to' configuration value; if that is unspecified,
117 and --to-cmd is not specified, this will be prompted for.
118 +
119 The --to option must be repeated for each user you want on the to list.
120
121 --8bit-encoding=<encoding>::
122 When encountering a non-ASCII message or subject that does not
123 declare its encoding, add headers/quoting to indicate it is
124 encoded in <encoding>. Default is the value of the
125 'sendemail.assume8bitEncoding'; if that is unspecified, this
126 will be prompted for if any non-ASCII files are encountered.
127 +
128 Note that no attempts whatsoever are made to validate the encoding.
129
130 --compose-encoding=<encoding>::
131 Specify encoding of compose message. Default is the value of the
132 'sendemail.composeencoding'; if that is unspecified, UTF-8 is assumed.
133
134
135 Sending
136 ~~~~~~~
137
138 --envelope-sender=<address>::
139 Specify the envelope sender used to send the emails.
140 This is useful if your default address is not the address that is
141 subscribed to a list. In order to use the 'From' address, set the
142 value to "auto". If you use the sendmail binary, you must have
143 suitable privileges for the -f parameter. Default is the value of the
144 'sendemail.envelopesender' configuration variable; if that is
145 unspecified, choosing the envelope sender is left to your MTA.
146
147 --smtp-encryption=<encryption>::
148 Specify the encryption to use, either 'ssl' or 'tls'. Any other
149 value reverts to plain SMTP. Default is the value of
150 'sendemail.smtpencryption'.
151
152 --smtp-domain=<FQDN>::
153 Specifies the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) used in the
154 HELO/EHLO command to the SMTP server. Some servers require the
155 FQDN to match your IP address. If not set, git send-email attempts
156 to determine your FQDN automatically. Default is the value of
157 'sendemail.smtpdomain'.
158
159 --smtp-pass[=<password>]::
160 Password for SMTP-AUTH. The argument is optional: If no
161 argument is specified, then the empty string is used as
162 the password. Default is the value of 'sendemail.smtppass',
163 however '--smtp-pass' always overrides this value.
164 +
165 Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration files
166 or on the command line. If a username has been specified (with
167 '--smtp-user' or a 'sendemail.smtpuser'), but no password has been
168 specified (with '--smtp-pass' or 'sendemail.smtppass'), then
169 a password is obtained using 'git-credential'.
170
171 --smtp-server=<host>::
172 If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use (e.g.
173 `smtp.example.com` or a raw IP address). Alternatively it can
174 specify a full pathname of a sendmail-like program instead;
175 the program must support the `-i` option. Default value can
176 be specified by the 'sendemail.smtpserver' configuration
177 option; the built-in default is `/usr/sbin/sendmail` or
178 `/usr/lib/sendmail` if such program is available, or
179 `localhost` otherwise.
180
181 --smtp-server-port=<port>::
182 Specifies a port different from the default port (SMTP
183 servers typically listen to smtp port 25, but may also listen to
184 submission port 587, or the common SSL smtp port 465);
185 symbolic port names (e.g. "submission" instead of 587)
186 are also accepted. The port can also be set with the
187 'sendemail.smtpserverport' configuration variable.
188
189 --smtp-server-option=<option>::
190 If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server option to use.
191 Default value can be specified by the 'sendemail.smtpserveroption'
192 configuration option.
193 +
194 The --smtp-server-option option must be repeated for each option you want
195 to pass to the server. Likewise, different lines in the configuration files
196 must be used for each option.
197
198 --smtp-ssl::
199 Legacy alias for '--smtp-encryption ssl'.
200
201 --smtp-ssl-cert-path::
202 Path to ca-certificates (either a directory or a single file).
203 Set it to an empty string to disable certificate verification.
204 Defaults to the value set to the 'sendemail.smtpsslcertpath'
205 configuration variable, if set, or `/etc/ssl/certs` otherwise.
206
207 --smtp-user=<user>::
208 Username for SMTP-AUTH. Default is the value of 'sendemail.smtpuser';
209 if a username is not specified (with '--smtp-user' or 'sendemail.smtpuser'),
210 then authentication is not attempted.
211
212 --smtp-debug=0|1::
213 Enable (1) or disable (0) debug output. If enabled, SMTP
214 commands and replies will be printed. Useful to debug TLS
215 connection and authentication problems.
216
217 Automating
218 ~~~~~~~~~~
219
220 --to-cmd=<command>::
221 Specify a command to execute once per patch file which
222 should generate patch file specific "To:" entries.
223 Output of this command must be single email address per line.
224 Default is the value of 'sendemail.tocmd' configuration value.
225
226 --cc-cmd=<command>::
227 Specify a command to execute once per patch file which
228 should generate patch file specific "Cc:" entries.
229 Output of this command must be single email address per line.
230 Default is the value of 'sendemail.cccmd' configuration value.
231
232 --[no-]chain-reply-to::
233 If this is set, each email will be sent as a reply to the previous
234 email sent. If disabled with "--no-chain-reply-to", all emails after
235 the first will be sent as replies to the first email sent. When using
236 this, it is recommended that the first file given be an overview of the
237 entire patch series. Disabled by default, but the 'sendemail.chainreplyto'
238 configuration variable can be used to enable it.
239
240 --identity=<identity>::
241 A configuration identity. When given, causes values in the
242 'sendemail.<identity>' subsection to take precedence over
243 values in the 'sendemail' section. The default identity is
244 the value of 'sendemail.identity'.
245
246 --[no-]signed-off-by-cc::
247 If this is set, add emails found in Signed-off-by: or Cc: lines to the
248 cc list. Default is the value of 'sendemail.signedoffbycc' configuration
249 value; if that is unspecified, default to --signed-off-by-cc.
250
251 --suppress-cc=<category>::
252 Specify an additional category of recipients to suppress the
253 auto-cc of:
254 +
255 --
256 - 'author' will avoid including the patch author
257 - 'self' will avoid including the sender
258 - 'cc' will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in the patch header
259 except for self (use 'self' for that).
260 - 'bodycc' will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in the
261 patch body (commit message) except for self (use 'self' for that).
262 - 'sob' will avoid including anyone mentioned in Signed-off-by lines except
263 for self (use 'self' for that).
264 - 'cccmd' will avoid running the --cc-cmd.
265 - 'body' is equivalent to 'sob' + 'bodycc'
266 - 'all' will suppress all auto cc values.
267 --
268 +
269 Default is the value of 'sendemail.suppresscc' configuration value; if
270 that is unspecified, default to 'self' if --suppress-from is
271 specified, as well as 'body' if --no-signed-off-cc is specified.
272
273 --[no-]suppress-from::
274 If this is set, do not add the From: address to the cc: list.
275 Default is the value of 'sendemail.suppressfrom' configuration
276 value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-suppress-from.
277
278 --[no-]thread::
279 If this is set, the In-Reply-To and References headers will be
280 added to each email sent. Whether each mail refers to the
281 previous email (`deep` threading per 'git format-patch'
282 wording) or to the first email (`shallow` threading) is
283 governed by "--[no-]chain-reply-to".
284 +
285 If disabled with "--no-thread", those headers will not be added
286 (unless specified with --in-reply-to). Default is the value of the
287 'sendemail.thread' configuration value; if that is unspecified,
288 default to --thread.
289 +
290 It is up to the user to ensure that no In-Reply-To header already
291 exists when 'git send-email' is asked to add it (especially note that
292 'git format-patch' can be configured to do the threading itself).
293 Failure to do so may not produce the expected result in the
294 recipient's MUA.
295
296
297 Administering
298 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
299
300 --confirm=<mode>::
301 Confirm just before sending:
302 +
303 --
304 - 'always' will always confirm before sending
305 - 'never' will never confirm before sending
306 - 'cc' will confirm before sending when send-email has automatically
307 added addresses from the patch to the Cc list
308 - 'compose' will confirm before sending the first message when using --compose.
309 - 'auto' is equivalent to 'cc' + 'compose'
310 --
311 +
312 Default is the value of 'sendemail.confirm' configuration value; if that
313 is unspecified, default to 'auto' unless any of the suppress options
314 have been specified, in which case default to 'compose'.
315
316 --dry-run::
317 Do everything except actually send the emails.
318
319 --[no-]format-patch::
320 When an argument may be understood either as a reference or as a file name,
321 choose to understand it as a format-patch argument ('--format-patch')
322 or as a file name ('--no-format-patch'). By default, when such a conflict
323 occurs, git send-email will fail.
324
325 --quiet::
326 Make git-send-email less verbose. One line per email should be
327 all that is output.
328
329 --[no-]validate::
330 Perform sanity checks on patches.
331 Currently, validation means the following:
332 +
333 --
334 * Warn of patches that contain lines longer than 998 characters; this
335 is due to SMTP limits as described by http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2821.txt.
336 --
337 +
338 Default is the value of 'sendemail.validate'; if this is not set,
339 default to '--validate'.
340
341 --force::
342 Send emails even if safety checks would prevent it.
343
344
345 CONFIGURATION
346 -------------
347
348 sendemail.aliasesfile::
349 To avoid typing long email addresses, point this to one or more
350 email aliases files. You must also supply 'sendemail.aliasfiletype'.
351
352 sendemail.aliasfiletype::
353 Format of the file(s) specified in sendemail.aliasesfile. Must be
354 one of 'mutt', 'mailrc', 'pine', 'elm', or 'gnus'.
355
356 sendemail.multiedit::
357 If true (default), a single editor instance will be spawned to edit
358 files you have to edit (patches when '--annotate' is used, and the
359 summary when '--compose' is used). If false, files will be edited one
360 after the other, spawning a new editor each time.
361
362 sendemail.confirm::
363 Sets the default for whether to confirm before sending. Must be
364 one of 'always', 'never', 'cc', 'compose', or 'auto'. See '--confirm'
365 in the previous section for the meaning of these values.
366
367 EXAMPLE
368 -------
369 Use gmail as the smtp server
370 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
371 To use 'git send-email' to send your patches through the GMail SMTP server,
372 edit ~/.gitconfig to specify your account settings:
373
374 [sendemail]
375 smtpencryption = tls
376 smtpserver = smtp.gmail.com
377 smtpuser = yourname@gmail.com
378 smtpserverport = 587
379
380 Once your commits are ready to be sent to the mailing list, run the
381 following commands:
382
383 $ git format-patch --cover-letter -M origin/master -o outgoing/
384 $ edit outgoing/0000-*
385 $ git send-email outgoing/*
386
387 Note: the following perl modules are required
388 Net::SMTP::SSL, MIME::Base64 and Authen::SASL
389
390 SEE ALSO
391 --------
392 linkgit:git-format-patch[1], linkgit:git-imap-send[1], mbox(5)
393
394 GIT
395 ---
396 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite