Merge branch 'jc/mkstemp-more-careful-error-reporting'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
1 git-push(1)
2 ===========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
14 [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
15
16 DESCRIPTION
17 -----------
18
19 Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20 necessary to complete the given refs.
21
22 You can make interesting things happen to a repository
23 every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
24 documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
25
26
27 OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
28 ------------------
29 <repository>::
30 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
31 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
32 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
33 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
34
35 <refspec>...::
36 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
37 `+`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
38 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
39 It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
40 in the remote repository is to be updated. If not specified,
41 the behavior of the command is controlled by the `push.default`
42 configuration variable.
43 +
44 The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
45 it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
46 `HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
47 +
48 The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
49 push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
50 be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
51 updated.
52 +
53 The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
54 on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
55 update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `+`,
56 you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
57 fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
58 EXAMPLES below for details.
59 +
60 `tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
61 +
62 Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
63 the remote repository.
64 +
65 The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
66 directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
67 the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
68 already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
69 if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
70 nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below) and
71 no `push.default` configuration variable is set.
72
73 --all::
74 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
75 refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
76
77 --prune::
78 Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
79 a remote branch `tmp` will be removed if a local branch with the same
80 name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.
81 `git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/*` would
82 make sure that remote `refs/tmp/foo` will be removed if `refs/heads/foo`
83 doesn't exist.
84
85 --mirror::
86 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
87 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
88 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
89 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
90 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
91 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
92 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
93 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
94 set.
95
96 -n::
97 --dry-run::
98 Do everything except actually send the updates.
99
100 --porcelain::
101 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
102 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
103 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
104
105 --delete::
106 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
107 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
108
109 --tags::
110 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
111 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
112 line.
113
114 --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
115 --exec=<git-receive-pack>::
116 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
117 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
118 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
119 a directory on the default $PATH.
120
121 -f::
122 --force::
123 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
124 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
125 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
126 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
127
128 --repo=<repository>::
129 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
130 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
131 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
132 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
133 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
134 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
135 the difference between these two commands
136 +
137 --------------------------
138 git push public #1
139 git push --repo=public #2
140 --------------------------
141 +
142 is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
143 only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
144 useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
145
146 -u::
147 --set-upstream::
148 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
149 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
150 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
151 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
152
153 --thin::
154 --no-thin::
155 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
156 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
157 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
158 \--thin.
159
160 -q::
161 --quiet::
162 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
163 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
164 error stream.
165
166 -v::
167 --verbose::
168 Run verbosely.
169
170 --progress::
171 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
172 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
173 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
174 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
175
176 --recurse-submodules=check|on-demand::
177 Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
178 pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch. If 'check' is
179 used git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
180 the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote
181 of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
182 aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
183 all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will
184 be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
185 revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
186
187
188 include::urls-remotes.txt[]
189
190 OUTPUT
191 ------
192
193 The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
194 section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
195 locally or via ssh).
196
197 The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
198 representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
199
200 -------------------------------
201 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
202 -------------------------------
203
204 If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
205
206 -------------------------------
207 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
208 -------------------------------
209
210 The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
211 option is used.
212
213 flag::
214 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
215 (space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
216 `+`;; for a successful forced update;
217 `-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
218 `*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
219 `!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
220 `=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
221
222 summary::
223 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
224 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
225 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
226 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
227 +
228 For a failed update, more details are given:
229 +
230 --
231 rejected::
232 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
233 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
234
235 remote rejected::
236 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
237 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
238 of the following safety options in effect:
239 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
240 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
241 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
242 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
243
244 remote failure::
245 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
246 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
247 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
248 --
249
250 from::
251 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
252 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
253 name of the local ref is omitted.
254
255 to::
256 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
257 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
258
259 reason::
260 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
261 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
262 failure is described.
263
264 Note about fast-forwards
265 ------------------------
266
267 When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
268 point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
269 fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
270
271 In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
272 commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
273 builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
274
275 In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
276 suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
277 a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
278 leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
279
280 ----------------
281
282 B
283 /
284 ---X---A
285
286 ----------------
287
288 Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
289 back to the original repository from which you two obtained the original
290 commit X.
291
292 The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
293 commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
294
295 But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
296 now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
297 so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
298 will now start building on top of B.
299
300 The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
301 to prevent such loss of history.
302
303 If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
304 the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
305 history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
306 by both parties, and push the result back.
307
308 You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
309 the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
310 and B.
311
312 ----------------
313
314 B---C
315 / /
316 ---X---A
317
318 ----------------
319
320 Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
321 push will be accepted.
322
323 Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
324 with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
325 create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
326 A.
327
328 ----------------
329
330 B D
331 / /
332 ---X---A
333
334 ----------------
335
336 Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
337 accepted.
338
339 There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
340 rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
341 pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
342 A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
343 commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
344 forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
345 you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
346 (and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
347 overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
348 a case where you do mean to lose history.
349
350
351 Examples
352 --------
353
354 `git push`::
355 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
356 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
357 configured for the current branch).
358
359 `git push origin`::
360 Without additional configuration, works like
361 `git push origin :`.
362 +
363 The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
364 configured by setting the `push` option of the remote, or the `push.default`
365 configuration variable.
366 +
367 For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
368 use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
369 the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
370 `git push origin`.
371
372 `git push origin :`::
373 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
374 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
375 description of "matching" branches.
376
377 `git push origin master`::
378 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
379 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
380 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
381 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
382 created.
383
384 `git push origin HEAD`::
385 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
386 remote.
387
388 `git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
389 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
390 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
391 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `mothership` repository;
392 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
393 +
394 This is to emulate `git fetch` run on the `mothership` using `git
395 push` that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate
396 the work done on `satellite`, and is often necessary when you can
397 only make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into
398 mothership but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite
399 because the latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).
400 +
401 After running this `git push` on the `satellite` machine, you would
402 ssh into the `mothership` and run `git merge` there to complete the
403 emulation of `git pull` that were run on `mothership` to pull changes
404 made on `satellite`.
405
406 `git push origin HEAD:master`::
407 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
408 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
409 branch without thinking about its local name.
410
411 `git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
412 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
413 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
414 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
415 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
416 the ref name on its own will work.
417
418 `git push origin :experimental`::
419 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
420 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
421
422 `git push origin +dev:master`::
423 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
424 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
425 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
426 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
427 +
428 ----
429 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
430 \
431 X---Y---Z dev
432 ----
433 +
434 The above command would change the origin repository to
435 +
436 ----
437 A---B (unnamed branch)
438 /
439 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
440 ----
441 +
442 Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
443 and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
444 a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
445
446 GIT
447 ---
448 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite